Japan has been ruled by emperors since antiquity. The sequence, order and dates of the early emperors are almost entirely based on the 8th-century Nihon Shoki, which was meant to retroactively legitimise the Yamato dynasty by dating its foundation further back to the year 660 BCE.[1][2][3] There are several theories as to who was the first Japanese ruler supported by historical evidence: notable candidates are Emperor Yūryaku (r. 456–479) and Emperor Kinmei (r. 539–571), among others.[4][5]

The terms Tennō ('Emperor', 天皇), as well as Nihon ('Japan', 日本), were not adopted until the late 7th century CE.[6][2] In the nengō system which has been in use since the late 7th century, years are numbered using the Japanese era name and the number of years which have elapsed since the start of that nengō era.[7]

Emperors of Japan

No. Portrait Personal name Posthumous name Reign and era names[8][9][i] Life details
1 Hikohohodemi
彦火火出見
Emperor Jimmu
神武天皇
660–585 BC
(75 years)
721 or 711–585 BC
(126 or 136 years)
Son of kami Ugayafukiaezu. Claimed descent from the sun goddess, Amaterasu. Defeated Nagasunehiko in the Eastern Expedition to become emperor. Presumed legendary.[11]
2 Kamununakawamimi
神渟名川耳
Emperor Suizei
綏靖天皇
581–549 BC
(32 years)
632–549 BC
(83 years)
Son of Emperor Jimmu. Presumed legendary.[12]
3 Shikitsuhikotamatemi
磯城津彦玉手看
Emperor Annei
安寧天皇
549–511 BC
(37 years)
567–511 BC
(56 years)
Son of Emperor Suizei. Presumed legendary.[13]
4 Ōyamatohikosukitomo
大日本彦耜友
Emperor Itoku
懿徳天皇
510–477 BC
(33 years)
553–477 BC
(76 years)
Son of Emperor Annei. Presumed legendary.[14]
5 Mimatsuhikokaeshine
観松彦香殖稲
Emperor Kōshō
孝昭天皇
475–393 BC
(82 years)
506–393 BC
(113 years)
Son of Emperor Itoku. Presumed legendary.[15]
6 Yamatotarashihikokunioshihito
日本足彦国押人
Emperor Kōan
孝安天皇
392–291 BC
(101 years)
427–291 BC
(136 years)
Son of Emperor Kōshō. Presumed legendary.[16]
7 Ōyamatonekohikofutoni
大日本根子彦太瓊
Emperor Kōrei
孝霊天皇
290–215 BC
(75 years)
342–215 BC
(127 years)
Son of Emperor Kōan. Presumed legendary.[17]
8 Ōyamatonekohikokunikuru
大日本根子彦国牽
Emperor Kōgen
孝元天皇
214–158 BC
(56 years)
273–158 BC
(115 years)
Son of Emperor Kōrei. Presumed legendary.[18]
9 Wakayamato Nekohiko Ōbibi
稚日本根子彦大日日
Emperor Kaika
開化天皇
157–98 BC
(59 years)
208–98 BC
(110 years)
Son of Emperor Kōgen. Presumed legendary.[19]
10 Mimaki
御間城
Emperor Sujin
崇神天皇
97–30 BC
(67 years)
148–30 BC
(118 years)
Son of Emperor Kaika. First emperor with a direct possibility of existence.[20] Still presumed legendary.[21]
11 Ikume
活目
Emperor Suinin
垂仁天皇
29 BC–AD 70
(99 years)
69 BC–AD 70
(127 years)
Son of Emperor Sujin. Presumed legendary.[22]
12 Ōtarashihiko
大足彦
Emperor Keikō
景行天皇
71–130
(59 years)
13 BC–AD 130
(143 years)
Son of Emperor Suinin. Presumed legendary.[23]
13 Wakatarashihiko
稚足彦
Emperor Seimu
成務天皇
131–190
(59 years)
84–190
(106 years)
Son of Emperor Keikō. Presumed legendary.[24]
14 Tarashinakatsuhiko
足仲彦
Emperor Chūai
仲哀天皇
192–200
(8 years)
149–200
(51 years)
Grandson of Emperor Keikō; nephew of Emperor Seimu. First emperor to ascend the throne without being the son of the previous emperor. Died during a campaign against the Kumaso tribe. Presumed legendary.[25]
Okinagatarashi
息長帯比売
Empress Jingū
神功皇后
201–269
(68 years)
170–269
(99 years)

Wife of Emperor Chūai; mother and regent of Emperor Ōjin. Not counted among the officially numbered emperors. Presumed legendary.[26]
15 Homutawake
誉田別
Emperor Ōjin
応神天皇
270–310
(40 years)
201–310
(109 years)
Son of Emperor Chūai and Empress Jingū. Deified in Shinto and Buddhism in Japan as Hachiman. Presumed legendary.[27]
16 Ohosazaki
大鷦鷯
Emperor Nintoku
仁徳天皇
313–399
(86 years)
290–399
(108–109 years)
Son of Emperor Ōjin. Presumed legendary.[28]
17 Ōenoizahowake
大兄去来穂別
Emperor Richū
履中天皇
400–405
(5 years)
336–405
(69 years)
Son of Emperor Nintoku. Presumed legendary.[29]
18 Mizuhawake
瑞歯別
Emperor Hanzei
反正天皇
406–410
(5 years)
352–411
(59 years)
Son of Emperor Nintoku; younger brother of Emperor Richū. Presumed legendary.[30]
19 Oasatsuma Wakugo no Sukune
雄朝津間稚子宿禰
Emperor Ingyō
允恭天皇
411–453
(42 years)
376–453
(77 years)
Son of Emperor Nintoku; younger brother of Emperor Richū and Emperor Hanzei. Presumed legendary.[31]
20 Anaho
穴穂
Emperor Ankō
安康天皇
453–456
(3 years)
401–456
(55 years)
Son of Emperor Ingyō. Assassinated by Prince Mayowa. Presumed legendary.[32]
21 Ōhatuse no Wakatakeru
大泊瀬稚武
Emperor Yūryaku
雄略天皇
456–479
(23 years)
418–479
(61 years)
Son of Emperor Ingyō; younger brother of Emperor Ankō. Presumed legendary.[33]
22 Shiraka
白髪
Emperor Seinei
清寧天皇
480–484
(4 years)
444–484
(40 years)
Son of Emperor Yūryaku. Presumed legendary.[34]
23 Woke
弘計
Emperor Kenzō
顕宗天皇
485–487
(2 years)
450–487
(37 years)
Grandson of Emperor Richū; cousin and adopted son of Emperor Seinei. Presumed legendary.[35]
24 Oke
億計
Emperor Ninken
仁賢天皇
488–498
(10 years)
448–498
(50 years)
Grandson of Emperor Richū; cousin and adopted son of Emperor Seinei; older brother of Emperor Kenzō. Presumed legendary.[36]
25 Ohatsuse no Wakasazaki
小泊瀬稚鷦鷯
Emperor Buretsu
武烈天皇
499–506
(7 years)
489–506
(17 years)
Son of Emperor Ninken. Presumed legendary.[37]
26 Ohodo[ii]
袁本杼
Emperor Keitai
継体天皇
507–531
(24 years)
450–531
(81 years)
5th-generation grandson of Emperor Ōjin. Became emperor at the recommendation of Ōtomo no Kanamura. Possible founder of a new dynasty. Presumed legendary.[38][39]
27 Magari
Emperor Ankan
安閑天皇
534–535
(1 year)
466–535
(69 years)
Son of Emperor Keitai. Presumed legendary.[40]
28 Hinokuma-no-takata
檜隈高田
Emperor Senka
宣化天皇
536–539
(3 years)
467–539
(72 years)
Son of Emperor Keitai; younger brother of Emperor Ankan. Presumed legendary.[41]
29 Amekunioshiharakihironiwa
天国排開広庭
Emperor Kinmei
欽明天皇
540–571
(31 years)
509–571
(62 years)
Son of Emperor Keitai; younger brother of Emperor Ankan and Emperor Senka. First historically verifiable emperor.[5][42]
30 Nunakura no Futotamashiki
渟中倉太珠敷
Emperor Bidatsu
敏達天皇
572–585
(13 years)
538–585
(47 years)
Son of Emperor Kinmei.[43]
31 Tachibana no Toyohi
橘豊日
Emperor Yōmei
用明天皇
586–587
(1 year)
517–587
(70 years)
Son of Emperor Kinmei; half-brother of Emperor Bidatsu.[44]
32 Hatsusebe
泊瀬部
Emperor Sushun
崇峻天皇
588–592
(4 years)
522–592
(70 years)
Son of Emperor Kinmei; half-brother of Emperor Bidatsu and Emperor Yōmei. Made emperor by Soga no Umako following the Soga–Mononobe conflict. Assassinated by Yamatonoaya no Koma on the orders of Soga no Umako.[45]
33 Nukatabe
額田部
Empress Suiko
推古天皇
593–628
(35 years)
554–628
(74 years)
Daughter of Emperor Kinmei; half-sister and wife of Emperor Bidatsu. First non-legendary female monarch. Prince Shōtoku acted as her regent.[46]
34 Tamura
田村
Emperor Jomei
舒明天皇
629–641
(12 years)
593–641
(48 years)
Grandson of Emperor Bidatsu; great nephew of Empress Suiko.[47]
35 Takara
Empress Kōgyoku
皇極天皇
642–645
(3 years)
594–661
(67 years)
Great-granddaughter of Emperor Bidatsu; wife of Emperor Jomei. First reign. Abdicated as a result of the Isshi incident.[48]
36 Karu
Emperor Kōtoku
孝徳天皇
645–654
(9 years)
Taika, Hakuchi
597–654
(57 years)
Great-grandson of Emperor Bidatsu; younger brother of Empress Kōgyoku. First era name assigned.[49]
37 Takara
Empress Saimei
斉明天皇
655–661
(6 years)
594–661
(67 years)
Older sister of Emperor Kōtoku. Previously reigned as Empress Kōgyoku. Second reign.[50]
38 Kazuraki
葛城
Emperor Tenji
天智天皇
662–672
(10 years)
626–672
(46 years)
Son of Emperor Jomei and Empress Kōgyoku.[51]
39 Ōtomo[iii]
大友
Emperor Kōbun
弘文天皇
672
(8 months)
648–672
(24 years)
Son of Emperor Tenji. Deposed and committed suicide during the Jinshin War. Not recognized as emperor until 1870.[52]
40 Ōama
大海人
Emperor Tenmu
天武天皇
673–686
(14 years)
Shuchō
622–686
(56 years)
Son of Emperor Jomei and Empress Kōgyoku; younger brother of Emperor Tenji. Deposed his nephew, Emperor Kōbun, during the Jinshin War.[53]
41 Unonosarara[iv]
鸕野讚良
Empress Jitō
持統天皇
687–697
(10 years)[v]
646–703
(57 years)
Daughter of Emperor Tenji; niece and wife of Emperor Tenmu. Abdicated.[55]
42 Karu[vi]
珂瑠
Emperor Monmu
文武天皇
697–707
(10 years)
Taihō, Keiun
683–707
(24 years)
Grandson of Emperor Tenmu and Empress Jitō.[56]
43 Ahe[vii]
阿閇
Empress Genmei
元明天皇
707–715
(8 years)
Keiun, Wadō
660–721
(61 years)
Daughter of Emperor Tenji; half-sister of Empress Jitō; mother of Emperor Monmu. Abdicated.[57]
44 Hidaka[viii]
氷高
Empress Genshō
元正天皇
715–724
(9 years)
Reiki, Yōrō
681–748
(67 years)
Daughter of Empress Genmei; elder sister of Emperor Monmu. Only instance of an empress regnant inheriting the throne from another empress regnant. Abdicated.[58]
45 Obito
Emperor Shōmu
聖武天皇
724–749
(25 years)
Jinki, Tenpyō, Tenpyō-kanpō
699–756
(57 years)
Son of Emperor Monmu; nephew of Empress Genshō. Abdicated.[59]
46 Abe
阿倍
Empress Kōken
孝謙天皇
749–758
(9 years)
Tenpyō-kanpō, Tenpyō-shōhō, Tenpyō-hōji
718–770
(52 years)
Daughter of Emperor Shōmu. First reign. Abdicated.[60]
47 Ōi
大炊
Emperor Junnin
淳仁天皇
758–764
(6 years)
Tenpyō-hōji
733–765
(32 years)
Grandson of Emperor Tenmu; cousin of Empress Kōken. Deposed. Posthumously named emperor in 1870.[61]
48 Abe
阿倍
Empress Shōtoku
称徳天皇
764–770
(6 years)
Tenpyō-hōji, Tenpyō-jingo, Jingo-keiun
718–770
(52 years)
Deposed her cousin, Emperor Junnin. Previously reigned as Empress Kōken. Second reign.[62]
49 Shirakabe
白壁
Emperor Kōnin
光仁天皇
770–781
(11 years)
Hōki, Ten'ō
708–782
(73 years)
Grandson of Emperor Tenji; brother-in-law of Empress Shōtoku. Abdicated.[63]
50 Yamabe
山部
Emperor Kanmu
桓武天皇
781–806
(25 years)
Ten'ō, Enryaku
736–806
(70 years)
Son of Emperor Kōnin.[64]
51 Ate
安殿
Emperor Heizei
平城天皇
806–809
(3 years)
Daidō
773–824
(51 years)
Son of Emperor Kanmu. Abdicated.[65]
52 Kamino
神野
Emperor Saga
嵯峨天皇
809–823
(14 years)
Daidō, Kōnin
785–842
(57 years)
Son of Emperor Kanmu; younger brother of Emperor Heizei. Abdicated.[66]
53 Ōtomo
大伴
Emperor Junna
淳和天皇
823–833
(10 years)
Kōnin, Tenchō
786–840
(54 years)
Son of Emperor Kanmu; younger brother of Emperor Heizei and Emperor Saga. Abdicated.[67]
54 Masara
正良
Emperor Ninmyō
仁明天皇
833–850
(17 years)
Tenchō, Jōwa, Kashō
808–850
(41 years)
Son of Emperor Saga; nephew and adopted son of Emperor Junna.[68]
55 Michiyasu
道康
Emperor Montoku
文徳天皇
850–858
(8 years)
Kashō, Ninju, Saikō, Ten'an
827–858
(31 years)
Son of Emperor Ninmyō.[69]
56 Korehito
惟仁
Emperor Seiwa
清和天皇
858–876
(18 years)
Ten'an, Jōgan
850–881
(30 years)
Son of Empereor Montoku. Abdicated.[70]
57 Sadaakira
貞明
Emperor Yōzei
陽成天皇
876–884
(8 years)
Jōgan, Gangyō
869–949
(80 years)
Son of Emperor Seiwa. Deposed by Fujiwara no Mototsune.[71]
58 Tokiyasu
時康
Emperor Kōkō
光孝天皇
884–887
(3 years)
Gangyō, Ninna
830–887
(57 years)
Son of Emperor Ninmyō; great uncle of Emperor Yōzei. Became emperor at the recommendation of Fujiwara no Mototsune.[72]
59 Sadami
定省
Emperor Uda
宇多天皇
887–897
(10 years)
Ninna, Kanpyō
866–931
(65 years)
Son of Emperor Kōkō. Abdicated.[73]
60 Atsuhito[ix]
敦仁
Emperor Daigo
醍醐天皇
897–930
(33 years)
Kanpyō, Shōtai, Engi, Enchō
884–930
(46 years)
Son of Emperor Uda. Abdicated.[74]
61 Yutaakira[x]
寛明
Emperor Suzaku
朱雀天皇
930–946
(16 years)
Enchō, Jōhei, Tengyō
921–952
(30 years)
Son of Emperor Daigo. Abdicated.[75]
62 Nariakira
成明
Emperor Murakami
村上天皇
946–967
(21 years)
Tengyō, Tenryaku, Tentoku, Ōwa, Kōhō
924–967
(42 years)
Son of Emperor Daigo; younger brother of Emperor Suzaku.[76]
63 Norihara
憲平
Emperor Reizei
冷泉天皇
967–969
(2 years)
Kōhō, Anna
949–1011
(62 years)
Son of Emperor Murakami. Abdicated.[77]
64 Morihira
守平
Emperor En'yū
円融天皇
969–984
(15 years)
Anna, Tenroku, Ten'en, Jōgen, Tengen, Eikan
958–991
(32 years)
Son of Emperor Murakami; younger brother of Emperor Reizei. Abdicated.[78]
65 Morosada
師貞
Emperor Kazan
花山天皇
984–986
(2 years)
Eikan, Kanna
968–1008
(39 years)
Son of Emperor Reizei; nephew of Emperor En'yū. Abdicated.[79]
66 Kanehito
懐仁
Emperor Ichijō
一条天皇
986–1011
(25 years)
Kanna, Eien, Eiso, Shōryaku, Chōtoku, Chōhō, Kankō
980–1011
(31 years)
Son of Emperor Emperor En'yū. Abdicated.[80]
67 Okisada[xi]
居貞
Emperor Sanjō
三条天皇
1011–1016
(5 years)
Kankō, Chōwa
975–1017
(42 years)
Son of Emperor Reizei; half-brother of Emperor Kazan; cousin of Emperor Ichijō. Abdicated.[81]
68 Atsuhira[xii]
敦成
Emperor Go-Ichijō
後一条天皇
1016–1036
(20 years)
Chōwa, Kannin, Jian, Manju, Chōgen
1008–1036
(27 years)
Son of Emperor Ichijō; cousin of Emperor Sanjō.[82]
69 Atsunaga
敦良
Emperor Go-Suzaku
後朱雀天皇
1036–1045
(9 years)
Chōgen, Chōryaku, Chōkyū, Kantoku
1009–1045
(37 years)
Son of Emperor Ichijō; younger brother of Emperor Go-Ichijō. Abdicated.[83]
70 Chikahito
親仁
Emperor Go-Reizei
後冷泉天皇
1045–1068
(23 years)
Kantoku, Eishō, Tengi, Kōhei, Jiryaku
1025–1068
(42 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Suzaku.[84]
71 Takahito
尊仁
Emperor Go-Sanjō
後三条天皇
1068–1073
(5 years)
Jiryaku, Enkyū
1032–1073
(40 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Suzaku; half-brother of Emperor Go-Reizei. Abdicated.[85]
72 Sadahito
貞仁
Emperor Shirakawa
白河天皇
1073–1087
(14 years)
Enkyū, Jōhō, Jōryaku, Eihō, Ōtoku
1053–1129
(76 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Sanjō. Abdicated.[86]
73 Taruhito[xiii]
善仁
Emperor Horikawa
堀河天皇
1087–1107
(20 years)
Kanji, Kahō, Eichō, Jōtoku, Kōwa, Chōji, Kajō
1079–1107
(28 years)
Son of Emperor Shirakawa.[87]
74 Munehito
宗仁
Emperor Toba
鳥羽天皇
1107–1123
(16 years)
Kajō, Tennin, Ten'ei, Eikyū, Gen'ei, Hōan
1103–1156
(53 years)
Son of Emperor Horikawa. Forced to abdicate by Emperor Shirakawa.[88]
75 Akihito
顕仁
Emperor Sutoku
崇徳天皇
1123–1142
(19 years)
Hōan, Tenji, Daiji, Tenshō, Chōshō, Hōen, Eiji
1119–1164
(45 years)
Son of Emperor Toba. Abdicated. Attempted to depose Emperor Go-Shirakawa during the Hōgen rebellion.[89]
76 Narihito
体仁
Emperor Konoe
近衛天皇
1142–1155
(13 years)
Eiji, Kōji, Ten'yō, Kyūan, Ninpei, Kyūju
1139–1155
(16 years)
Son of Emperor Toba; half-brother of Emperor Sutoku.[90]
77 Masahito
雅仁
Emperor Go-Shirakawa
後白河天皇
1155–1158
(3 years)
Kyūju, Hōgen
1127–1192
(64 years)
Son of Emperor Toba; younger brother of Emperor Sutoku; half-brother of Emperor Konoe. Abdicated.[91]
78 Morihito
守仁
Emperor Nijō
二条天皇
1158–1165
(7 years)
Hōgen, Heiji, Eiryaku, Ōhō, Chōkan
1143–1165
(22 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Shirakawa. Abdicated.[92]
79 Nobuhito[xiv]
順仁
Emperor Rokujō
六条天皇
1165–1168
(3 years)
Chōkan, Eiman, Nin'an
1164–1176
(11 years)
Son of Emperor Nijō. Deposed by Emperor Go-Shirakawa.[93]
80 Norihito[xv]
憲仁
Emperor Takakura
高倉天皇
1168–1180
(12 years)
Nin'an, Kaō, Jōan, Angen, Jishō
1161–1181
(19 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Shirakawa; half-brother of Emperor Nijō; uncle of Emperor Rokujō. Forced to abdicate by Taira no Kiyomori.[94]
81 Tokihito[xvi]
言仁
Emperor Antoku
安徳天皇
1180–1185
(5 years)
Jishō, Yōwa, Juei, Genryaku
1178–1185
(6 years)
Son of Emperor Takakura. Died at the Battle of Dan-no-ura during the Genpei War.[95]
82 Takahira[xvii]
尊成
Emperor Go-Toba
後鳥羽天皇
1183–1198
(15 years)
Juei, Genryaku, Bunji, Kenkyū
1180–1239
(58 years)
Son of Emperor Takakura; half-brother of Emperor Antoku. Made emperor by Emperor Go-Shirakawa during the Genpei War. Kamakura shogunate turned the emperor into a figurehead. Abdicated. Attempted to overthrow the Kamakura shogunate during the Jōkyū War.[96]
83 Tamehito
為仁
Emperor Tsuchimikado
土御門天皇
1198–1210
(12 years)
Kenkyū, Shōji, Kennin, Genkyū, Ken'ei, Jōgen
1196–1231
(35 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Toba. Persuaded by Emperor Go-Toba to abdicate. Exiled following the Jōkyū War.[97]
84 Morinari
守成
Emperor Juntoku
順徳天皇
1210–1221
(11 years)
Jōgen, Kenryaku, Kempo, Jōkyū
1197–1242
(44 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Toba; half-brother of Emperor Tsuchimikado. Forced to abdicate following the Jōkyū War.[98]
85 Kanenari
懐成
Emperor Chūkyō
仲恭天皇
1221
(2 months)
Jōkyū
1218–1234
(15 years)
Son of Emperor Juntoku. Deposed and exiled following the Jōkyū War. Posthumously named emperor in 1870.[99]
86 Yutahito[xviii]
茂仁
Emperor Go-Horikawa
後堀河天皇
1221–1232
(11 years)
Jōkyū, Jōō, Gennin, Karoku, Antei, Kangi, Jōei
1212–1234
(22 years)
Grandson of Emperor Takakura; first cousin of Emperor Chūkyō. Abdicated.[100]
87 Mitsuhito[xix]
秀仁
Emperor Shijō
四条天皇
1232–1242
(10 years)
Jōei, Tenpuku, Bunryaku, Katei, Ryakunin, En'ō, Ninji
1231–1242
(10 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Horikawa.[101]
88 Kunihito
邦仁
Emperor Go-Saga
後嵯峨天皇
1242–1246
(4 years)
Ninji, Kangen
1220–1272
(51 years)
Son of Emperor Tsuchimikado; second cousin of Emperor Shijō. Abdicated.[102]
89 Hisahito
久仁
Emperor Go-Fukakusa
後深草天皇
1246–1260
(14 years)
Kangen, Hōji, Kenchō, Kōgen, Shōka, Shōgen
1243–1304
(61 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Saga. From the Jimyōin line. Abdicated at the insistence of Emperor Go-Saga.[103]
90 Tsunehito
恒仁
Emperor Kameyama
亀山天皇
1260–1274
(14 years)
Shōgen, Bun'ō, Kōchō, Bun'ei
1249–1305
(56 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Saga; younger brother of Emperor Go-Fukakusa. From the Daikakuji line. Abdicated.[104]
91 Yohito
世仁
Emperor Go-Uda
後宇多天皇
1274–1287
(13 years)
Bun'ei, Kenji, Kōan
1267–1324
(56 years)
Son of Emperor Kameyama. From the Daikakuji line. Forced to abdicate by Emperor Go-Fukakusa.[105]
92 Hirohito
熈仁
Emperor Fushimi
伏見天皇
1287–1298
(11 years)
Kōan, Shōō, Einin
1265–1317
(52 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Fukakusa. From the Jimyōin line. Abdicated.[106]
93 Tanehito
胤仁
Emperor Go-Fushimi
後伏見天皇
1298–1301
(3 years)
Einin, Shōan
1288–1336
(48 years)
Son of Emperor Fushimi. From the Jimyōin line. Forced to abdicate by the Daikakuji line. Traditional dates used.[107]
94 Kuniharu
邦治
Emperor Go-Nijō
後二条天皇
1301–1308
(7 years)
Shōan, Kengen, Kagen, Tokuji
1285–1308
(23 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Uda. From the Daikakuji line.[108]
95 Tomihito
富仁
Emperor Hanazono
花園天皇
1308–1318
(10 years)
Enkyō, Ōchō, Shōwa, Bunpō
1297–1348
(51 years)
Son of Emperor Fushimi. From the Jimyōin line. Agreed to alternate control of the throne between the Daikakuji and Jimyōin lines.[109]
96 Takaharu
尊治
Emperor Go-Daigo
後醍醐天皇
1318–1339
(21 years)
Bunpō, Gen'ō, Genkō (1321–24), Shōchū, Karyaku, Gentoku, Genkō (1331–34), Kenmu, Engen
1288–1339
(50 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Uda; younger brother of Emperor Go-Nijō. From the Daikakuji line. Kamakura shogunate ended in the Genkō War. Brief imperial rule during the Kenmu Restoration. Opposed the Ashikaga shogunate. Became the first emperor of the Southern Court.[110]
97 Noriyoshi[xx]
義良
Emperor Go-Murakami
後村上天皇
1339–1368
(29 years)
Engen, Kōkoku, Shōhei
1328–1368
(40 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Daigo. Second emperor of the Southern Court. Southern Court briefly took the Northern Court's capital, Kyoto, during the Kannō disturbance.[111]
98 Yutanari
寛成
Emperor Chōkei
長慶天皇
1368–1383
(15 years)
Shōhei, Kentoku, Bunchū, Tenju, Kōwa
1343–1394
(51 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Murakami. Third emperor of the Southern Court. Abdicated.[112]
99 Hironari
熙成
Emperor Go-Kameyama
後亀山天皇
1383–1392
(9 years)
Kōwa, Genchū
c. 1347–1424
(c. 77 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Murakami; younger brother of Emperor Chōkei. Fourth and last emperor of the Southern Court. Agreed to peace with the Northern Court. Abdicated in favor of the Northern Court line.[113]
(1) Kazuhito
量仁
Emperor Kōgon
光厳天皇
1331–1333
(2 years)

Gentoku, Shōkyō
1313–1364
(51 years)

Son of Emperor Go-Fushimi; nephew and adopted son of Emperor Hanazono. From the Jimyōin line. Made the first emperor of the Northern Court by the Kamakura shogunate during the Genkō War. Deposed by Emperor Go-Daigo of the Daikakuji line. Captured by the Southern Court during the Kannō disturbance.[114]
(2) Yutahito
豊仁
Emperor Kōmyō
光明天皇
1336–1348
(12 years)

Kenmu, Ryakuō, Kōei, Jōwa
1322–1380
(58 years)

Son of Emperor Go-Fushimi; younger brother of Emperor Kōgon. Made second emperor of the Northern Court by the Ashikaga shogunate. Abdicated. Captured by the Southern Court during the Kannō disturbance.[115]
(3) Okihito[xxi]
興仁
Emperor Sukō
崇光天皇
1348–1351
(3 years)

Jōwa, Kannō
1334–1398
(64 years)

Son of Emperor Kōgon; nephew of Emperor Kōmyō. Third emperor of the Northern Court. Abdicated. Captured by the Southern Court during the Kannō disturbance.[116]
(4) Iyahito
彌仁
Emperor Go-Kōgon
後光厳天皇
1352–1371
(19 years)

Bunna, Kōan, Jōji, Ōan
1338–1374
(36 years)

Son of Emperor Kōgon; younger brother of Emperor Sukō. Became the fourth Emperor of the Northern Court after the Kannō disturbance. Abdicated.[117]
(5) Ohito
緒仁
Emperor Go-En'yū
後円融天皇
1371–1382
(11 years)

Ōan, Eiwa, Kōryaku, Eitoku
1359–1393
(34 years)

Son of Emperor Go-Kōgon. Fifth emperor of the Northern Court. Abdicated in favor of Emperor Go-Komatsu.[118]
(6) Motohito
幹仁
Emperor Go-Komatsu[xxii]
後小松天皇
1382–1392
(10 years)

Eitoku, Shitoku, Kakei, Kōō, Meitoku
1377–1433
(56 years)
Son of Emperor Go-En'yū. Sixth and last emperor of the Northern Court from 1382 until 1392. Became the legitimate emperor following Emperor Go-Kameyama's abdication. Agreed to alternate control of the throne by the Northern Court and the Southern Court. All emperors after him are from the Northern line.[119][120]
100 1392–1412
(20 years)
Meitoku, Ōei
101 Mihito[xxiii]
実仁
Emperor Shōkō
称光天皇
1412–1428
(16 years)
Ōei, Shōchō
1401–1428
(27 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Komatsu.[121]
102 Hikohito
彦仁
Emperor Go-Hanazono
後花園天皇
1428–1464
(36 years)
Shōchō, Eikyō, Kakitsu, Bun'an, Hōtoku, Kyōtoku, Kōshō, Chōroku, Kanshō
1419–1471
(51 years)
Great-grandson of Northern Emperor Sukō; third cousin of Emperor Shōkō. Abdicated. Traditional dates used.[122]
103 Fusahito
成仁
Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado
後土御門天皇
1464–1500
(36 years)
Kanshō, Bunshō, Ōnin, Bunmei, Chōkyō, Entoku, Meiō
1442–1500
(58 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Hanazono. Ōnin War led to the start of the Sengoku period.[123]
104 Katsuhito
勝仁
Emperor Go-Kashiwabara[xxiv]
後柏原天皇
1500–1526
(26 years)
Meiō, Bunki, Daiei
1462–1526
(64 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado. Imperial rule in the Ashikaga shogunate reached its lowest point in his reign.[124]
105 Tomohito
知仁
Emperor Go-Nara[xxv]
後奈良天皇
1526–1557
(31 years)
Daiei, Kyōroku, Tenbun, Kōji
1495–1557
(62 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Kashiwabara.[125]
106 Michihito
方仁
Emperor Ōgimachi
正親町天皇
1557–1586
(29 years)
Kōji, Eiroku, Genki, Tenshō
1517–1593
(76 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Nara. Ashikaga shogunate overthrown by Oda Nobunaga. Abdicated.[126]
107 Katahito[xxvi]
周仁
Emperor Go-Yōzei
後陽成天皇
1586–1611
(25 years)
Tenshō, Bunroku, Keichō
1571–1617
(46 years)
Grandson of Emperor Ōgimachi. Tokugawa shogunate established. Sengoku period ended.[127]
108 Kotohito[xxvii]
政仁
Emperor Go-Mizunoo[xxviii]
後水尾天皇
1611–1629
(18 years)
Keichō, Genna, Kan'ei
1596–1680
(84 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Yōzei. Japan implements isolationist policy. Purple Robe Incident led to his abdication.[128]
109 Okiko
興子
Empress Meishō
明正天皇
1629–1643
(14 years)
Kan'ei
1624–1696
(72 years)
Daughter of Emperor Go-Mizunoo. Abdicated.[129]
110 Tsuguhito
紹仁
Emperor Go-Kōmyō
後光明天皇
1643–1654
(11 years)
Kan'ei, Shōhō, Keian, Jōō
1633–1654
(21 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Mizunoo; younger brother of Empress Meishō.[130]
111 Nagahito[xxix]
良仁
Emperor Go-Sai[xxx]
後西天皇
1655–1663
(8 years)
Jōō, Meireki, Manji, Kanbun
1638–1685
(47 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Mizunoo; younger half-brother of Empress Meishō and Emperor Go-Kōmyō. Abdicated.[131]
112 Satohito
識仁
Emperor Reigen
霊元天皇
1663–1687
(24 years)
Kanbun, Enpō, Tenna, Jōkyō
1654–1732
(78 years)
Son of Emperor Go-Sai. Abdicated.[132]
113 Asahito[xxxi]
朝仁
Emperor Higashiyama
東山天皇
1687–1709
(22 years)
Jōkyō, Genroku, Hōei
1675–1710
(34 years)
Son of Emperor Reigen. Abdicated.[133]
114 Yasuhito[xxxii]
慶仁
Emperor Nakamikado
中御門天皇
1709–1735
(26 years)
Hōei, Shōtoku, Kyōhō
1702–1737
(35 years)
Son of Emperor Higashiyama. Abdicated.[134]
115 Teruhito
昭仁
Emperor Sakuramachi
桜町天皇
1735–1747
(12 years)
Kyōhō, Genbun, Kanpō, Enkyō
1720–1750
(30 years)
Son of Emperor Nakamikado. Abdicated.[135]
116 Tōhito
遐仁
Emperor Momozono
桃園天皇
1747–1762
(15 years)
Enkyō, Kan'en, Hōreki
1741–1762
(20 years)
Son of Emperor Sakuramachi. Abdicated.[136]
117 Toshiko
智子
Empress Go-Sakuramachi
後桜町天皇
1762–1771
(9 years)
Hōreki, Meiwa
1740–1813
(73 years)
Daughter of Emperor Sakuramachi; younger sister of Emperor Momozono.[137]
118 Hidehito
英仁
Emperor Go-Momozono
後桃園天皇
1771–1779
(8 years)
Meiwa, An'ei
1758–1779
(21 years)
Son of Emperor Momozono; nephew of Empress Go-Sakuramachi.[138]
119 Morohito
師仁
Emperor Kōkaku
光格天皇
1780–1817
(37 years)
An'ei, Tenmei, Kansei, Kyōwa, Bunka
1771–1840
(69 years)
Great-grandson of Emperor Higashiyama; cousin and adopted son of Emperor Go-Momozono. Abdicated.[139]
120 Ayahito
恵仁
Emperor Ninkō
仁孝天皇
1817–1846
(29 years)
Bunka, Bunsei, Tenpō, Kōka
1800–1846
(46 years)
Son of Emperor Kōkaku.[140]
121 Osahito
統仁
Emperor Kōmei
孝明天皇
1846–1867
(21 years)
Kōka, Kaei, Ansei, Man'en, Bunkyū, Genji, Keiō
1831–1867
(35 years)
Son of Emperor Ninkō. Reigned during the Bakumatsu period during which Japan ended its isolationist policy and changed from Tokugawa rule to Imperial rule. Last instance of an emperor with multiple era names.[141]
122 Mutsuhito
睦仁
Emperor Meiji
明治天皇
3 February 1867

30 July 1912
(45 years, 178 days)
Keiō, Meiji
3 November 1852

30 July 1912
(Aged 59)
Son of Emperor Kōmei. Ended the Tokugawa Shogunate with the Meiji Restoration (3 January 1868). First emperor of the Empire of Japan.[142][143]
123 Yoshihito
嘉仁
Emperor Taishō
大正天皇
30 July 1912

25 December 1926
(14 years, 148 days)
Taishō
31 August 1879

25 December 1926
(Aged 47)
Son of Emperor Meiji. Taishō Democracy shifted political power from the genrō to the Imperial Diet and political parties. His eldest son, Crown Prince Hirohito, served as Sesshō (摂政; "Regent") from 1921 to 1926 because of Taishō's illness.[143][144]
124 Hirohito
裕仁
Emperor Shōwa
昭和天皇
25 December 1926

7 January 1989
(62 years, 13 days)
Shōwa
29 April 1901

7 January 1989
(Aged 87)
Son of Emperor Taishō. Served as Sesshō from 1921 to 1926. Last emperor of the Empire of Japan. Reign saw World War II and post-war economic miracle. Longest reigning verifiable emperor in Japanese history.[143][145]
125 Akihito
明仁
Emperor Heisei
平成天皇
7 January 1989

30 April 2019
(30 years, 113 days)
Heisei
born 23 December 1933
(Age 90)
Son of Emperor Shōwa. Abdicated and later referred to as Jōkō (上皇; "Emperor Emeritus"). Longest living verifiable emperor.[146]
126 Naruhito
徳仁
Emperor Reiwa
令和天皇
1 May 2019

present
(5 years, 52 days)
Reiwa
born 23 February 1960
(Age 64)
Son of Emperor Heisei. Referred to as Kinjō Tennō (今上天皇; "the Reigning Emperor") or Tennō Heika (天皇陛下; "His Majesty the Emperor").[147][148]

Posthumously recognized individuals

This is a list of individuals who did not reign as emperor during their lifetime but were later recognized as Japanese emperors posthumously.

Portrait Personal name Posthumous name Year recognized Life details
Prince Kusakabe
草壁皇子
Emperor Oka
岡宮天皇
759 662–689
(27 years)
Son of Emperor Tenmu; husband of Empress Genmei; father of Emperor Monmu and Empress Genshō. Made crown prince in 681; heir to Emperor Tenmu. Died prior to acceding the throne following Emperor Tenmu's death.[149][150]
Prince Toneri
舎人親王
Emperor Sudōjinkei
崇道尽敬皇帝
759 676–735
(59 years)
Son of Emperor Tenmu; half-brother of Prince Kusakabe; father of Emperor Junnin.[151][152]
Prince Shiki
志貴皇子
Emperor Kasuga
春日宮天皇
770 died 716
Son of Emperor Tenji; half-brother of Emperor Tenmu, Empress Jitō, Empress Genmei and Emperor Kōbun; father of Emperor Kōnin; half-uncle of Prince Kusakabe and Prince Toneri.[153][154]
Prince Sawara
早良親王
Emperor Sudō
崇道天皇
800 750–785
(35 years)
Son of Emperor Kōnin; younger brother of Emperor Kanmu. Made crown prince in 781. Implicated in the assassination of Fujiwara no Tanetsugu. Died on the way to exile.[153][155]
Prince Masahito
誠仁親王
Cloistered Emperor Yōkō
陽光院
Unknown 1552–1586
(34 years)
Son of Emperor Emperor Ōgimachi; father of Emperor Go-Yōzei. Posthumously recognized as emperor by Emperor Go-Yōzei.[153][156]
Sukehito, Prince Kan'in
閑院宮典仁親王
Emperor Kyōkō
慶光天皇
1884 1733–1794
(61 years)
Grandson of Emperor Higashiyama; father of Emperor Kōkaku.[157][158]

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ Early dates vary depending on the author. These are calculated from the reign-lengths given by the Nihon Shoki (Kojiki when lacking information). Jimmu is said to have died in the 76th year of his reign, i.e. he ruled 75 years. He was 127 years old according to East Asian age reckoning, i.e. 126 in Western reckoning.[10] Regnal years are counted using inclusive reckoning until Empress Jitō, the last reign covered by the Nihon Shoki.
  2. ^ Also called as Hikofuto (彦太).
  3. ^ Also known as Iga (伊賀).
  4. ^ Also known as Unonosasara or Uno.
  5. ^ Her dates are usually given as 686–697. However, the Nihon Shoki states that she died on her 11th year, i.e. she ruled 10 years.[54]
  6. ^ Name also written as 軽.
  7. ^ Name also written as 阿部.
  8. ^ Name also written as 日高.
  9. ^ Previously named Minamoto no Korezane (源維城).
  10. ^ Also known as Hiroakira.
  11. ^ Also known as Iyasada or Sukesada.
  12. ^ Also known as Atsunari.
  13. ^ Also known as Yoshihito.
  14. ^ Also known as Yoshihito or Toshihito.
  15. ^ Also known as Nobuhito.
  16. ^ Also known as Kotohito.
  17. ^ Also known as Takanari.
  18. ^ Also known as Motsihito.
  19. ^ Also known as Tosihito.
  20. ^ Also known as Norinaga.
  21. ^ Previously named Masuhito (益仁).
  22. ^ Also known as Emperor Go-Kōkō.
  23. ^ Initially written as 躬仁.
  24. ^ Also known as Emperor Go-Kanmu.
  25. ^ Also known as Emperor Go-Heizei.
  26. ^ Also known as Kazuhito (和仁).
  27. ^ Also known as Masahito.
  28. ^ Also known as Emperor Go-Minoo or Emperor Go-Seiwa.
  29. ^ Also known as Yoshihito.
  30. ^ Also known as Emperor Go-Saiin or Emperor Go-Junna.
  31. ^ Also known as Tomohito.
  32. ^ Also known as Yoshihito.

Citations

  1. ^ Smits, Gregory J. (1991). Political Thought in Japanese Historical Writing: From Kojiki (712) to Tokushi Yoron (1712). Wilfrid Laurier University Press. pp. 30–32. ISBN 9780889209978.
  2. ^ a b Vogel, Ezra F. (2019). China and Japan: Facing History. Harvard University Press. pp. 15–17. ISBN 9780674240766.
  3. ^ Mason, Richard (2011). "Chapter Two". History of Japan: Revised Edition. Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 9781462900978.
  4. ^ Ibaraki, Yoshiyuki (2013). "A Review of the Inscription of the Iron Sword Discovered at Inariyama Old Tomb of the Sakitama Old Tombs' Group". 皇学館論叢. 46 (5). KOGAKKAN RONSO: 1–35.
  5. ^ a b Hoye, Timothy (1999). Japanese Politics: Fixed and Floating Worlds. Prentice Hall. p. 78. ISBN 9780132712897.
  6. ^ Holcombe, Charles (January 2001). The Genesis of East Asia: 221 B.C. – A.D. 907. University of Hawaii Press. p. 198. ISBN 978-0-8248-2465-5.
  7. ^ Nussbaum, "Nengō", p. 704.
  8. ^ Imperial Household Agency.
  9. ^ Nussbaum, "Traditional Order of Tennō", p. 962.
  10. ^ Titsingh, pp. 1–3; Aston, 1, pp.109–137; Brown, p. 249; Varley, pp. 84–88; Nussbaum, p. 420.
  11. ^ Titsingh, pp. 1–3; Aston, 1, pp.109–137; Brown, p. 249; Varley, pp. 84–88; Nussbaum, p. 420.
  12. ^ Titsingh, pp. 3–4; Aston, 1, pp.138–141; Brown, pp. 250–251; Varley, pp. 88–89.
  13. ^ Titsingh, p. 4; Aston, 1, pp.141–142; Brown, p. 251; Varley, p. 89; Nussbaum, p. 32.
  14. ^ Titsingh, p. 4; Aston, 1, pp.142–143; Brown, p. 251; Varley, p. 89; Nussbaum, p. 405.
  15. ^ Titsingh, pp. 4–5; Aston, 1, pp.144–145; Brown, p. 251; Varley, p. 90; Nussbaum, p. 564.
  16. ^ Titsingh, p. 5; Aston, 1, pp.145–146; Brown, p. 251; Varley, p. 90; Nussbaum, p. 536.
  17. ^ Titsingh, pp. 5–6; Aston, 1, pp.146–147; Brown, p. 252; Varley, pp. 90–92; Nussbaum, p. 561.
  18. ^ Titsingh, p. 6; Aston, 1, pp.147–148; Brown, p. 252; Varley, pp. 92–93; Nussbaum, p. 542.
  19. ^ Titsingh, pp. 6–7; Aston, 1, pp.148–149; Brown, p. 252; Varley, p. 93; Nussbaum, p. 451.
  20. ^ Henshall, Kenneth (2013). Historical Dictionary of Japan to 1945. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-7872-3.
  21. ^ Titsingh, pp. 7–9; Aston, 1, pp.150–164; Brown, p. 252; Varley, pp. 93–95; Nussbaum, p. 910.
  22. ^ Titsingh, pp. 9–10; Aston, 1, pp.165–187; Brown, pp. 252–254; Varley, pp. 95–96; Nussbaum, p. 910.
  23. ^ Titsingh, pp. 11–14; Aston, 1, pp.188–214; Brown, p. 254; Varley, pp. 96–99; Nussbaum, p. 505.
  24. ^ Titsingh, pp. 14–15; Aston, 1, pp.214–216; Brown, p. 254; Varley, pp. 99–100; Nussbaum, p. 836.
  25. ^ Titsingh, p. 15; Aston, 1, pp.217–223; Brown, pp. 254–255; Varley, pp. 100–101; Nussbaum, p. 125.
  26. ^ Titsingh, pp. 16–19; Aston, 1, pp.224–253; Brown, p. 255; Varley, pp. 101–103.
  27. ^ Titsingh, pp. 19–22; Aston, 1, pp.254–271; Brown, p. 255–256; Varley, pp. 103–110].
  28. ^ Titsingh, pp. 22–24; Aston, 1, pp.272–300; Brown, p. 256–257; Varley, pp. 110–111; Nussbaum, p. 716.
  29. ^ Titsingh, pp. 24–25; Aston, 1, pp.301–310; Brown, p. 257; Varley, p. 111.
  30. ^ Titsingh, p. 25; Aston, 1, pp.310–311; Brown, p. 257; Varley, p. 112; Nussbaum, p. 288.
  31. ^ Titsingh, p. 26; Aston, 1, pp.312–328; Brown, p. 257–258; Varley, p. 112.
  32. ^ Titsingh, p. 26; Aston, 1, pp.328–332; Brown, p. 258; Varley, p. 113; Nussbaum, p. 32.
  33. ^ Titsingh, pp. 27–28; Aston, 1, pp.333–372; Brown, p. 258; Varley, pp. 113–115; Nussbaum, p. 1068.
  34. ^ Titsingh, pp. 28–29; Aston, 1, pp.373–377; Brown, pp. 258–259; Varley, pp. 115–116; Nussbaum, p. 836.
  35. ^ Titsingh, pp. 29–30; Aston, 1, pp.377–393; Brown, p. 259; Varley, p. 116; Nussbaum, p. 510.
  36. ^ Titsingh, p. 30; Aston, 1, pp.393–398; Brown, pp. 259–260; Varley, p. 117; Nussbaum, p. 716.
  37. ^ Titsingh, p. 31; Aston, 1, pp.399–407; Brown, p. 260; Varley, pp. 117–118; Nussbaum, p. 94.
  38. ^ Shillony, Ben-Ami (2008). The Emperors of Modern Japan. BRILL. p. 15. ISBN 978-90-474-4225-7.
  39. ^ Titsingh, pp. 31–32; Aston, 2, pp. 1–25; Brown, pp. 260–261; Varley, pp. 17–18, 119–120; Nussbaum, p. 506.
  40. ^ Titsingh, p. 33; Aston, 2, pp. 26–32; Brown, p. 261; Varley, pp. 120–121; Nussbaum, p. 31.
  41. ^ Titsingh, pp. 33–34; Aston, 2, pp. 33–35; Brown, p. 261; Varley, p. 121; Nussbaum, p. 842.
  42. ^ Titsingh, pp. 34–36; Aston, 2, pp. 36–89; Brown, pp. 261–262; Varley, pp. 123–124; Nussbaum, p. 519.
  43. ^ Titsingh, pp. 36–37; Aston, 2, pp. 90–105; Brown, pp. 262–263; Varley, pp. 124–125; Nussbaum, p. 77.
  44. ^ Titsingh, pp. 37–38; Aston, 2, pp. 106–111; Brown, p. 263; Varley, pp. 125–126; Nussbaum, p. 1057.
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