Empress of Japan
皇后
Imperial
Japan Kou(tai)gou Flag.svg
Incumbent
Empress Masako at TICAD7.jpg
Masako
since 1 May 2019
Details
StyleHer Majesty
ResidenceTokyo Imperial Palace
(official residence)
WebsiteThe Imperial Household Agency

The Empress of Japan is the title given to the wife of the Emperor of Japan or a female ruler in her own right. In Japanese, the empress consort is called Kōgō (皇后). The current empress consort is Empress Masako, who ascended the throne with her husband on 1 May 2019. Much like their male counterparts, female rulers who ascend the throne by their birthright are referred to as 天皇 (tennō), but can also be referred to as 女性天皇 (josei tennō) or 女帝 (jotei). josei tennō refers only to an empress regnant of Japan, and jotei refers to an empress regnant of any countries.

Empresses regnant

Empress regnant Jitō (645–703) by Katsukawa Shunsho, 18th century
Empress regnant Jitō (645–703) by Katsukawa Shunsho, 18th century

There were eight female imperial reigns (six female emperors including two who reigned twice) in Japan's early history between 593 and 770, and two more in the early modern period (Edo period). Although there were eight reigning empresses, with only one exception their successors were selected from amongst the males of the paternal Imperial bloodline.[1] After many centuries, female reigns came to be officially prohibited only when the Imperial Household Law was issued in 1889 alongside the new Meiji Constitution.

The eight historical empresses regnant are:

Other than the eight historical empresses regnant, two additional empress is traditionally believed to have reigned, but historical evidence for their reigns is scant and they are not counted among the officially numbered Emperors/Empresses regnant:

Under Shinto religious influence, the goddess Amaterasu, who is of the highest rank in the kami system, might suggest that Japan's first rulers were women.[2] According to the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki chronicles in Japanese mythology, the Emperors of Japan are considered to be direct descendants of Amaterasu.

Empress consort

Empress consort Kishi (c.1303–1333) and Emperor Go-Daigo (1288–1339) from Taiheiki Emaki (c.17th century). Owned by Saitama Prefectural Museum of History and Folklore.
Empress consort Kishi (c.1303–1333) and Emperor Go-Daigo (1288–1339) from Taiheiki Emaki (c.17th century). Owned by Saitama Prefectural Museum of History and Folklore.

In ancient Japan, most of the empresses consort were princesses, except for Iwa no hime (empress consort of Nintoku). After Empress Kōmyō (empress consort of Shōmu), daughters of the Fujiwara clan or other clans could become empresses consort. Originally, Chūgū (中宮) referred to the palace of the Kōgō (皇后), Kōtaigō (皇太后) (Empress Mother/Empress Dowager), or Tai-Kōtaigō (太皇太后) (Grand Empress Mother/Grand Empress Dowager). Until the mid-Heian Period, the emperor had only one empress consort, and the empress consort was also called Chūgū. From the time of Emperor Ichijō, when emperors had two empresses consort, one of them came to be called Kōgō and another one was called Chūgū. After maiden Princess Yasuko became Kōgō as the honorary or adoptive mother (准母) of Emperor Horikawa, maiden princesses could also become Kōgō.

List of empresses consort

Kōgō (皇后) is the title of a non-reigning empress consort. The title, still in use, is generally conferred on an emperor's wife who had given birth to the heir to the throne.[3] The title was first awarded posthumously in 806 to the late mother of Emperor Heizei.[4]

Chūgū (中宮) was a term that evolved during the Heian period; and it came to be understood as the title of the empress. For a time, Chūgū replaced Kōgō; and then the titles became interchangeable.[5]

The numbers of Kōgō varied, but there was only one Chūgū at a time.[6]

The title Kōtaigō (皇太后) was given to the wife of an ex-emperor; and the title Tai-kōtaigō (太皇太后) came to be used by dowager empresses.[5]

Portrait Name Spouse Reign Life details
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Himetataraisuzu-hime
媛蹈鞴五十鈴媛
Emperor Jimmu 660[7]–581 BC[8]
(81 years)
Daughter of Kotoshironushi. Married in 681 BC.[7] Gave birth to Emperor Suizei and two other children. Empress Dowager from 581 BC.[8]
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Isuzuyori-hime
五十鈴依媛命
Emperor Suizei 580[8]–548 BC[9]
(32 years)
Daughter of Kotoshironushi; younger sister of Himetataraisuzu-hime; aunt of Emperor Suizei. Gave birth to Emperor Annei. Empress Dowager from 548 BC.[9]
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Nunasokonakatsu-hime
渟名底仲媛命
Emperor Annei 546[10]–510 BC[11]
(36 years)
Daughter of Prince Kamo; granddaughter of Kotoshironushi. Gave birth to Emperor Itoku and two other children. Empress Dowager from 510 BC.[11]
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Amatoyotsu-hime
天豊津媛命
Emperor Itoku 509[11]–475 BC[12]
(34 years)
Daughter of Prince Okimi, granddaughter of Emperor Annei and Nunasokonakatsu-hime. Gave birth to Emperor Kōshō and one other child. Empress Dowager from 475 BC.[12]
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Yosotarashi-hime
世襲足媛
Emperor Kōshō 447[12]–392 BC[13]
(55 years)
Daughter of Ame no Oshio no Mikoto. Gave birth to Emperor Kōan and one other child. Empress Dowager from 392 BC.[13]
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Oshi-hime
押媛
Emperor Kōan 367[13]–290 BC[14]
(77 years)
Daughter of Prince Amatarashikunioshihito; granddaughter of Emperor Kōshō and Yosotarashi-hime; niece of Emperor Kōan. Gave birth to Emperor Kōrei and one other child. Empress Dowager from 290 BC.[14]
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Kuwashi-hime
細媛命
Emperor Kōrei 289[14]–214 BC[15]
(74 years)
Daughter of Shiki no Agatanushi Oome. Gave birth to Emperor Kōgen. Empress Dowager from 214 BC.[15]
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Utsushikome
欝色謎命
Emperor Kōgen 208[16]–157 BC[17]
(50 years)
Daughter of Oyakuchisukune. Gave birth to Emperor Kaika and three other children. Empress Dowager from 157 BC.[17]
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Ikagashikome
伊香色謎命
Emperor Kaika 152[17]–97 BC[18]
(75 years)
Daughter of Ōhesoki; concubine of Emperor Kōgen. Gave birth to Emperor Sujin and one other child. Had one child with Emperor Kōgen. Empress Dowager from 97 BC.[18]
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Mimaki-hime
御間城姫
Emperor Sujin 97[18]–29 BC[19]
(68 years)
Daughter of Prince Ōhiko; granddaughter of Emperor Kōgen and Utsushikome; cousin of Emperor Sujin. Gave birth to Emperor Suinin and five other children. Empress Dowager from 29 BC.[19]
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Saho-hime
狭穂姫命
Emperor Suinin 28[20]–25 BC[21]
(3 years)
died 25 BC[21]
Daughter of Prince Hikoimasu; granddaughter of Emperor Kaika. Gave birth to one child. Died during the rebellion of her older brother, Sahohiko.[21]
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Hibasu-hime
日葉酢媛命
15 BC[22]–AD 3[23]
(18 years)
died AD 3[23]
Daughter of Prince Tanba-no-Michinoushi; great granddaughter of Emperor Kaika; niece of Saho-hime. Gave birth to Emperor Keikō and four other children.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Harima no Inabi no Ōiratsume
播磨稲日大郎姫
Emperor Keikō 72[24]–122[25]
(40 years)
died 122[25]
Daughter of Prince Wakatakehiko; granddaughter of Emperor Kōrei. Gave birth to three children including Yamato Takeru, father of Emperor Chūai.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Yasakairi-hime
八坂入媛命
122[25]–132[26]
(10 years)
Daughter of Prince Yasakairihiko; granddaughter of Emperor Sujin. Gave birth to Emperor Seimu and 11 other children. Empress Dowager from 132.[26]
Kaiserin Jingū.jpg
Okinagatarashi-hime
気長足姫尊
Emperor Chūai 193[27]–201[28]
(8 years)
169–269
(100 years)
Daughter of Okinaganosukune; great-great-great granddaughter of Emperor Kaika. Gave birth to Emperor Ōjin, serving as his regent from 201 until 269. Empress Dowager from 201.[28]
Nakatsuhime Yakushiji.jpg
Nakatsu-hime
仲姫命
Emperor Ōjin 271[29]–313[30]
(41 years)
Daughter of Homudamawaka. Gave birth to Emperor Nintoku and two other children. Empress Dowager from 313.[30]
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Iwa
磐之媛命
Emperor Nintoku 314[31]–347[32]
(33 years)
died 347[32]
Daughter of Katsuragi no Sotsuhiko; great-great-great granddaughter of Emperor Kōgen. Poet. Gave birth to Emperor Richū, Emperor Hanzei, Emperor Ingyō and one other child.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Yata
八田皇女
appointed 350[32] Daughter of Emperor Ōjin; half-sister of Emperor Nintoku.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Kusakanohatabino-hime
草香幡梭皇女
Emperor Richū appointed 405[33] Daughter of Emperor Ōjin; aunt of Emperor Richū. Gave birth to Nakashi.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Oshisaka no Ōnakatsuhime
忍坂大中姫
Emperor Ingyō 413[34]–453[35]
(40 years)
Daughter of Prince Wakanuke no Futamata; granddaughter of Emperor Ōjin. Gave birth to Emperor Ankō, Emperor Yūryaku and seven other children. Empress Dowager from 453.[35]
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Nakashi
中磯皇女
Emperor Ankō appointed 455[36] Daughter of Emperor Richū and Kusakanohatabino-hime. Previously married to Prince Ōkusaka, son of Emperor Nintoku. Became a concubine of Emperor Ankō in 454.[36]
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Kusaka no Hatabi no hime
草香幡梭姫皇女
Emperor Yūryaku appointed 457[37] Daughter of Emperor Nintoku.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Naniwa no Ono
難波小野王
Emperor Kenzō 485[38]–489[39]
(4 years)
died 489[39]
Daughter of Prince Oka-no-Wakugo; great granddaughter of Emperor Yuryaku. Committed suicide due to fears over disrespecting Emperor Ninken when he was a Crown Prince.[39]
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Kasuga no Ōiratsume
春日大娘皇女
Emperor Ninken appointed 488[40] Daughter of Emperor Yuryaku. Gave birth to Emperor Buretsu, Princess Tashiraka and Princess Tachibana no Nakatsu and six other children.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Kasuga no Iratsume
春日娘子
Emperor Buretsu appointed 499[41] Only Empress Consort with unknown parents.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Tashiraka
手白香皇女
Emperor Keitai appointed 507[42] born 489
Daughter of Emperor Ninken and Princess Kasuga no Ōiratsume. Gave birth to one child.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Kasuga no Yamada
春日山田皇女
Emperor Ankan appointed 534[43] Daughter of Emperor Ninken. Married in 513.[44]
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Tachibana no Nakatsu
橘仲皇女
Emperor Senka 536[45]–539[46]
(3 years)
Daughter of Emperor Ninken and Princess Kasuga no Ōiratsume. Gave birth to five children. Empress Dowager from 539.[46]
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Ishi-hime
石姫皇女
Emperor Kinmei 540[47]–572[48]
(32 years)
Daughter of Emperor Senka and Princess Tachibana no Nakatsu. Gave birth to Emperor Bidatsu and two other children. Empress Dowager from 572.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Hirohime
広姫
Emperor Bidatsu 575[49][50]
(10 months)
died 575
Daughter of Prince Okinaga-no-Mate; great-great granddaughter of Emperor Ōjin. Gave birth to three children.
Empress Suiko 2.jpg
Princess Nukatabe
額田部皇女
576[50]–585
(9 years)
554–628
(74 years)
Daughter of Emperor Kinmei. Gave birth to eight children. Empress Regnant from 592.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Hashihito no Anahobe
穴穂部間人皇女
Emperor Yōmei 586[51]–587
(1 year)
560–621
(61 years)
Daughter of Emperor Kinmei. Married in 564. Gave birth to Prince Shōtoku and three other children.
Empress Kogyoku-Saimei.jpg
Princess Takara
宝皇女
Emperor Jomei 630[52]–641
(11 years)
594–661
(67 years)
Daughter of Prince Chinu; great-granddaughter of Emperor Bidatsu. Gave birth to Emperor Tenji, Emperor Kōtoku and one other child. Empress Regnant from 642 until 645 and from 655 until 661.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Hashihito
間人皇女
Emperor Kōtoku appointed 645 died 665
Daughter of Emperor Jomei and Princess Takara; half-sister of Emperor Tenji and Emperor Tenmu.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Yamato Hime no Ōkimi
倭姫王
Emperor Tenji appointed 668[53] Daughter of Prince Furuhito no Ōe; granddaughter of Emperor Jomei; niece of Emperor Tenji, Poet. Gave birth to Emperor Tenmu.
Empress Jitō.jpg
Princess Unonosarara
鸕野讃良皇女
Emperor Tenmu 673[54]–686
(13 years)
645–703
(57–58 years)
Daughter of Emperor Tenji. Gave birth to one child. Empress Regnant from 686 until 697.
Empress Kōmyō by simomura kanzan.jpg
Fujiwara Asukabehime
藤原安宿媛
Emperor Shōmu 729–749
(9 years)
701–760
(58–59 years)
Daughter of Fujiwara no Fuhito. Gave birth to Empress Kōken and one other child. Empress Dowager from 749.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Inoe
井上内親王
Emperor Kōnin 770–772
(2 years)
717–775
(57–58 years)
Daughter of Emperor Shōmu; half-sister of Empress Kōken. Gave birth to Sakahito, as well as to Osabe who was named Crown Prince. Deposed in 772 after being accused of using curses and black magic to promote Osabe to the throne.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Otomuro
藤原乙牟漏
Emperor Kanmu 783–790
(6 years)
760–790
(29–30 years)
Daughter of Fujiwara no Yoshitsugu. Gave birth to Emperor Heizei, Emperor Saga and Princess Koshi. Posthumously appointed Empress Dowager in 806.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Tarashiko
藤原帯子
Emperor Heizei posthumously appointed in 806 died 794
Daughter of Fujiwara no Momokawa.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Tachibana no Kachiko
橘嘉智子
Emperor Saga 815–823
(7 years)
786–850
(63–64 years)
Daughter of Tachibana no Kiyotomo. Married in 809. Gave birth to Emperor Ninmyō, Seishi and five other children. Empress Dowager from 823 until 833. Grand Empress Dowager from 833.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Koshi
高志内親王
Emperor Junna posthumously appointed in 823 789–809
(19–20 years)

Daughter of Emperor Kanmu and Fujiwara no Otomuro. Gave birth to four children.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Seishi
正子内親王
Emperor Junna 827–833
(6 years)
810–879
(68–69 years)
Daughter of Emperor Saga and Tachibana no Kachiko. Gave birth to three children. Empress Dowager from 833 until 854. Grand Empress Dowager from 854.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Onshi
藤原穏子
Emperor Daigo 923–931
(7 years)
885–954
(68–69 years)
Daughter of Fujiwara no Mototsune. Gave birth to Emperor Suzaku, Emperor Murakami and two other children. Empress Dowager from 931 until 946. Grand Empress Dowager from 946.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Anshi
藤原安子
Emperor Murakami 958–964
(5 years)
927–964
(68–69 years)
Daughter of Fujiwara no Morosuke. Gave birth to Emperor Reizei, Emperor En'yu and seven other children.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Masako
昌子内親王
Emperor Reizei 967–973
(5 years)
950–1000
(49–50 years)
Daughter of Emperor Suzaku. Adopted one child. Empress Dowager from 973 until 986. Grand Empress Dowager from 986.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Koshi
藤原媓子
Emperor En'yū 973–979
(5 years)
947–979
(31–32 years)
Daughter of Fujiwara no Kanemichi.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Junshi
藤原遵子
982–997
(15 years)
957–1017
(59–60 years)
Daughter of Fujiwara no Yoritada. Empress Dowager from 1000 until 1012. Grand Empress Dowager from 1012.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Teishi
藤原定子
Emperor Ichijō 990–1001
(10 years)
977–1001
(23–24 years)
Daughter of Fujiwara no Michitaka. Gave birth to three children.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Shōshi
藤原彰子
1000–1012
(12 years)
988–1074
(86 years)
Daughter of Fujiwara no Michinaga. Gave birth to Emperor Go-Ichijō and Emperor Go-Suzaku. Empress Dowager from 1012 to 1018. Grand Empress Dowager from 1018.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Seishi
藤原娍子
Emperor Sanjō 1012–1016
(4 years)
972–1025
(52–53 years)
Daughter of Fujiwara no Naritoki. Gave birth to six children.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Kenshi
藤原妍子
1012–1018
(6 years)
994–1027
(32–33 years)
Daughter of Fujiwara no Michinaga; younger sister of Fujiwara no Shōshi. Gave birth to Princess Teishi. Empress Dowager from 1018.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Ishi
藤原威子
Emperor Go-Ichijō 1018–1036
(18 years)
1027–1105
(77–78 years)
Daughter of Fujiwara no Michinaga; younger sister of Fujiwara no Shōshi and Fujiwara no Kenshi (994–1027); aunt of Emperor Go-Ichijō. Gave birth to Princess Shōshi (1027–1105) and Princess Kaoruko.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Teishi
禎子内親王
Emperor Go-Suzaku 1037–1051
(14 years)
1013–1094
(80 years)
Daughter of Emperor Sanjō and Fujiwara no Kenshi (994–1027); second cousin of Emperor Go-Suzaku. Gave birth to Emperor Go-Sanjō and two other children. Empress Dowager from 1051 until 1068. Grand Empress Dowager from 1068.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Genshi
藤原嫄子
1037–1039
(2 years)
1016–1039
(23 years)
Daughter of Prince Atsuyasu; niece of Emperor Go-Suzaku; adopted daughter of Fujiwara no Yorimichi. Gave birth to two children.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Shōshi
章子内親王
Emperor Go-Reizei 1046–1068
(22 years)
1027–1105
(77–78 years)
Daughter of Emperor Go-Ichijō and Fujiwara no Ishi; cousin of Emperor Go-Reizei. Empress Dowager from 1068 until 1069. Grand Empress Dowager from 1069.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Hiroko
藤原寛子
1051–1069
(18 years)
1036–1127
(90–91 years)
Daughter of Fujiwara no Yorimichi; adoptive sister of Fujiwara no Genshi. Empress Dowager from 1069 until 1074. Grand Empress Dowager from 1074.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Kanshi
藤原歓子
1068–1074
(6 years)
1021–1102
(80–81 years)
Daughter of Fujiwara no Norimichi; cousin of Fujiwara no Hiroko. Gave birth to one child. Empress Dowager from 1074.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Kaoruko
馨子内親王
Emperor Go-Sanjō 1069–1093[55]
(24 years)
1029–1093
(63–64 years)
Daughter of Emperor Go-Ichijō; cousin of Emperor Go-Sanjō. Married in 1051.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Kenshi
藤原賢子
Emperor Shirakawa 1074–1084
(10 years)
1057–1084
(26–27 years)
Daughter of Minamoto Akifusa; adopted daughter of Fujiwara no Morozane. Gave birth to Emperor Horikawa and four other children.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Teishii
媞子内親王
Honorary Mother of Emperor Horikawa 1091–1093
(2 years)
1076–1096
(19–20 years)
Daughter of Emperor Shirakawa and Fujiwara no Kenshi (1057–1084); sister of Emperor Horikawa.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Tokushi
篤子内親王
Emperor Horikawa 1093–1107
(14 years)
1060–1114
(53–54 years)
Daughter of Emperor Go-Sanjō and Princess Kaoruko; sister of Emperor Shirakawa; aunt of Emperor Horikawa.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Reishi
令子内親王
Honorary Mother of Emperor Toba 1108–1134
(26 years)
1078–1144
(65–66 years)
Daughter of Emperor Shirakawa and Fujiwara no Kenshi (1057–1084); sister of Emperor Horikawa; aunt of Emperor Toba.
Taikenmonin.jpg
Fujiwara no Tamako
藤原璋子
Emperor Toba 1118–1124
(6 years)
1101–1145
(43–44 years)
Daughter of Fujiwara no Kinzane. Raised by Emperor Shirakawa after losing her father when she was seven years old. Gave birth to Emperor Sutoku, Emperor Go-Shirakawa, Princess Muneko and four other children.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Kiyoko
藤原聖子
Emperor Sutoku 1130–1142
(12 years)
1122–1182
(59–60 years)
Daughter of Fujiwara no Tadamichi. Empress Dowager from 1142.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Yasuko
藤原泰子
Emperor Toba 1134–1139
(5 years)
1095–1156
(60–61 years)
Daughter of Fujiwara no Tadazane.
Bifukumonin.jpg
Fujiwara no Nariko
藤原得子
1142–1149
(7 years)
1117–1160
(42–43 years)
Daughter of Fujiwara no Nagazane. Gave birth to Emperor Konoe, Princess Yoshiko (1141–1176) and two other children.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Tashi
藤原多子
Emperor Konoe 1150–1156
(6 years)
1140–1202
(61–62 years)
Daughter of Tokudaiji Kinyoshi; adopted daughter of Fujiwara no Yorinaga. Empress Dowager from 1156. Grand Empress Dowager from 1158. Consort of Emperor Nijō from 1160 until 1165. Only Empress to become the consort of two Emperors.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Teishi
藤原泰子
Emperor Konoe 1150–1158
(7 years)
1131–1176
(44–45 years)
Daughter of Fujiwara no Koremichi; adopted daughter of Fujiwara no Tadamichi.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Kinshi
藤原忻子
Emperor Go-Shirakawa 1156–1172
(7 years)
1134–1209
(74–75 years)
Daughter of Tokudaiji Kinyoshi. Empress Dowager from 1172.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Muneko
統子内親王
Honorary Mother of Emperor Go-Shirakawa 1158–1159
(11 months)
1126–1189
(62 years)
Daughter of Emperor Toba and Fujiwara no Tamako; sister of Emperor Sutoku and Emperor Go-Shirakawa.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Yoshiko
姝子内親王
Emperor Nijō 1159–1162
(2 years)
1141–1176
(34 years)
Daughter of Emperor Toba and Fujiwara no Nariko; aunt of Emperor Nijō.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Ikushi
藤原育子
1162–1173
(11 years)
1146–1173
(26–27 years)
Daughter of Tokudaiji Saneyoshi; foster mother of Emperor Rokujō.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Taira no Tokuko
平徳子
Emperor Takakura 1172–1182
(9 years)
1155–1214
(58–59 years)
Daughter of Emperor Go-Shirakawa. Gave birth to Emperor Antoku.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Sukeko
亮子内親王
Honorary Mother of Emperor Antoku
(until 1183)

Honorary Mother of Emperor Go-Toba
(from 1183)
1182–1187
(4 years)
1147–1216
(68–69 years)
Daughter of Emperor Go-Shirakawa; sister of Emperor Takakura; aunt of Emperor Antoku and Emperor Go-Toba.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Ninshi
藤原任子
Emperor Go-Toba 1190–1200
(10 years)
1147–1216
(68–69 years)
Daughter of Fujiwara no Kanezane. Gave birth to Princess Shōshi (1195–1211).
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Noriko
範子内親王
Honorary Mother of Emperor Tsuchimikado 1198–1206
(8 years)
1177–1210
(32 years)
Daughter of Emperor Takakura; aunt of Emperor Tsuchimikado.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Reishi
藤原麗子
Emperor Tsuchimikado 1205–1210
(4 years)
1185–1243
(57–58 years)
Daughter of Fujiwara no Yorizane.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Shōshi
昇子内親王
Honorary Mother of Prince Morinari 1208–1209
(8 months)
1195–1211
(16 years)
Daughter of Emperor Go-Toba and Fujiwara no Ninshi; sister of Emperor Juntoku.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Ritsushi
九条立子
Emperor Juntoku 1211–1222
(11 years)
1192–1248
(55–56 years)
Daughter of Kujō Yoshitsune. Gave birth to Emperor Chūkyō and one other child.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Kuniko
邦子内親王
Honorary Mother of Emperor Go-Horikawa 1222–1224
(2 years)
1209–1283
(73–74 years)
Daughter of Prince Morisada; granddaughter of Emperor Takakura; sister of Emperor Go-Horikawa. Surrogate mother to Emperor Kameyama.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Ariko
藤原有子
Emperor Go-Horikawa 1223–1227
(3 years)
1207–1286
(78–79 years)
Daughter of Sanjō Kinfusa.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Chōshi
藤原長子
1226–1229
(2 years)
1218–1275
(56–57 years)
Daughter of Konoe Iezane.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Shunshi
藤原竴子
1230–1233
(3 years)
1218–1275
(56–57 years)
Daughter of Kujō Michiie. Gave birth to Emperor Shijō and one other child.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Rishi
利子内親王
Honorary Mother of Emperor Shijō 1233–1239
(6 years)
1197–1251
(53–54 years)
Daughter of Prince Morisada; granddaughter of Emperor Takakura; sister of Emperor Go-Horikawa and Princess Kuniko; aunt of Emperor Shijō.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Kisshi
藤原姞子
Emperor Go-Saga 1242–1248
(6 years)
1225–1292
(66–67 years)
Daughter of Saionji Saneuji. Gave birth to Emperor Go-Fukakusa, Emperor Kameyama and three other children.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Teruko
曦子内親王
Honorary Mother of Emperor Go-Saga 1248–1251
(2 years)
1224–1262
(37–38 years)
Daughter of Emperor Tsuchimikado; aunt of Emperor Go-Saga.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Kimiko
藤原公子
Emperor Go-Fukakusa 1257–1260
(2 years)
1232–1304
(71–72 years)
Daughter of Saionji Saneuji; cousin of Emperor Go-Fukakusa. Gave birth to Princess Reishi (1270–1307) and one other child.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Saneko
藤原佶子
Emperor Kameyama 1261–1272
(11 years)
1245–1272
(26–27 years)
Daughter of Tōin Saneo. Gave birth to Emperor Go-Uda and two other children.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Kishi
藤原嬉子
1261–1269
(7 years)
1252–1318
(65–66 years)
Daughter of Saionji Kinsuke.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Reishi
姈子内親王
Emperor Go-Uda 1285–1291
(5 years)
1270–1307
(36 years)
Daughter of Emperor Go-Fukakusa and Fujiwara no Kimiko; cousin of Emperor Go-Uda.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Saionji Shōshi
西園寺鏱子
Emperor Fushimi 1288–1298
(9 years)
1271–1342
(70–71 years)
Daughter of Saionji Sanekane. Poet. Adopted Emperor Go-Fushimi.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Kinshi
藤原忻子
Emperor Go-Nijō 1303–1308
(4 years)
1283–1352
(68–69 years)
Daughter of Tokudaiji Kintaka.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Shōshi
奨子内親王
Honorary Empress of Emperor Go-Daigo 1319
(6 months)
1286–1348
(62 years)
Daughter of Emperor Go-Uda; half-sister of Emperor Go-Daigo.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Saionji Kishi
西園寺禧子
Emperor Go-Daigo 1319–1333
(14 years)
after 1295 and before 1305–1333
(27–38 years)
Daughter of Saionji Sanekane. Poet. Married in 1314. Gave birth to Princess Kanshi and one other child. Empress Dowager from 1333.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Junshi
珣子内親王
1334–1337
(3 years)
1311–1337
(25–26 years)
Daughter of Emperor Go-Fushimi. Gave birth to one child.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Daughter of Saionji Kinshige Emperor Chōkei appointed as early as 1371 Name unknown. Gave birth to one child.
Tokugawa Masako.jpg
Tokugawa Masako
徳川和子
Emperor Go-Mizunoo 1624–1629
(5 years)
1607–1678
(70 years)
Daughter of Tokugawa Hidetada. Gave birth to Empress Meishō and six other children. Adopted Emperor Go-Kōmyō and Emperor Go-Sai.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Takatsukasa Fusako
鷹司房子
Emperor Reigen 1683–1687
(3 years)
1653–1712
(58 years)
Daughter of Takatsukasa Norihira. Gave birth to one child.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Yukiko
幸子女王
Emperor Higashiyama 1708–1710
(2 years)
1680–1720
(39 years)
Daughter of Prince Arisugawa Yukihito. Gave birth to one child.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Yoshiko
欣子内親王
Emperor Kōkaku 1794–1820
(26 years)
1779–1846
(67 years)
Daughter of Emperor Go-Momozono; adoptive sister of Emperor Kōkaku. Last daughter of an Emperor to become Empress. Gave birth to two children. Adopted Emperor Ninkō. Empress Dowager from 1820.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Takatsukasa Tsunako
鷹司繋子
Emperor Ninkō posthumously appointed in 1824 1798–1823
(24–25 years)

Daughter of Takatsukasa Masahiro. Married in 1817. Gave birth to two children.
Empress Shoken2 (cropped).jpg
Masako Ichijō
一条勝子
Emperor Meiji 11 January 1869

30 July 1912
(43 years, 201 days)
9 May 1849

9 April 1914
(64 years, 335 days)
Daughter of Tadayoshi Ichijō. Married on 11 January 1869. Adopted Emperor Taishō. Empress Dowager from 1912.
Empress Sadako-big-1912.jpg
Sadako Kujō
九条節子
Emperor Taishō 30 July 1912

25 December 1926
(14 years, 148 days)
25 June 1884

17 May 1951
(66 years, 327 days)
Daughter of Kujō Michitaka. Married on 10 May 1900. Gave birth to Emperor Shōwa and three other children. Empress Dowager from 1926.
Crown Princess Nagako 1924.jpg
Princess Nagako
良子女王
Emperor Shōwa 25 December 1926

7 January 1989
(62 years, 13 days)
6 March 1903

16 June 2000
(97 years, 92 days)
Daughter of Prince Kuni Kuniyoshi. Married on 26 January 1924. Gave birth to Akihito and six other children. Empress Dowager from 1989.
EmpressMichikoOfJapan.jpg
Michiko Shōda
正田美智子
Akihito 7 January 1989

30 April 2019
(30 years, 113 days)
born 20 October 1934
(88 years, 44 days)
Daughter of Hidesaburō Shōda. Married on 10 April 1959. Gave birth to Naruhito and two other children. Referred to as Jōkōgō (上皇后; "Empress Emerita") following Akihito's abdication.
Empress Masako at TICAD7.jpg
Masako Owada
小和田雅子
Naruhito 1 May 2019

present
(3 years, 216 days)
born 9 December 1963
(58 years, 359 days)
Daughter of Hisashi Owada. Married on 9 June 1993. Gave birth to one child.

List of empress dowagers

Portrait Name Reign Life details
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Himetataraisuzu-hime
媛蹈鞴五十鈴媛
appointed in 581 BC[8] Empress Consort of Emperor Jimmu from 660 BC until 581 BC.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Isuzuyori-hime
五十鈴依媛命
appointed in 548 BC[9] Empress Consort of Emperor Suizei from 580 BC until 548 BC.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Nunasokonakatsu-hime
渟名底仲媛命
appointed in 510 BC[11] Empress Consort of Emperor Annei from 546 BC until 510 BC.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Amatoyotsu-hime
天豊津媛命
appointed in 475 BC[12] Empress Consort of Emperor Itoku from 509 BC until 475 BC.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Yosotarashi-hime
世襲足媛
appointed in 392 BC[13] Empress Consort of Emperor Kōshō from 447 BC until 392 BC.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Oshi-hime
押媛
appointed in 290 BC[14] Empress Consort of Emperor Kōan from 367 BC until 290 BC.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Kuwashi-hime
細媛命
appointed in 214 BC[15] Empress Consort of Emperor Kōrei from 289 BC until 214 BC.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Utsushikome
欝色謎命
appointed in 157 BC[17] Empress Consort of Emperor Kōgen from 208 BC until 157 BC.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Ikagashikome
伊香色謎命
appointed in 97 BC[18] Empress Consort of Emperor Kaika from 152 BC until 97 BC.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Mimaki-hime
御間城姫
appointed in 29 BC[19] Empress Consort of Emperor Sujin from 97 BC until 29 BC.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Yasakairi-hime
八坂入媛命
appointed in 132[26] Empress Consort of Emperor Keikō from 122 until 132.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Futajiiri-hime
両道入姫命
appointed in 192 Daughter of Emperor Suinin. Spouse of Yamato Takeru. Gave birth to Emperor Chūai and three other children.
Kaiserin Jingū.jpg
Okinagatarashi-hime
気長足姫尊
201[28]–269
(68 years)
169–269
(100 years)
Empress Consort of Emperor Chūai from 193 until 201. Regent of Emperor Ōjin from 201 until 269.
Nakatsuhime Yakushiji.jpg
Nakatsu-hime
仲姫命
appointed in 313[30] Empress Consort of Emperor Ōjin from 271 until 313.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Oshisaka no Ōnakatsuhime
忍坂大中姫
appointed in 453[35] Empress Consort of Emperor Ingyō from 413 until 453.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Tachibana no Nakatsu
橘仲皇女
appointed in 539[46] Empress Consort of Emperor Senka from 536 until 539.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Ishi-hime
石姫皇女
appointed in 572[48] Empress Consort of Emperor Kinmei from 540 until 572.
Empress Kōmyō by simomura kanzan.jpg
Fujiwara Asukabehime
藤原安宿媛
749–760
(10 years)
701–760
(58–59 years)
Empress Consort of Emperor Shōmu from 729 until 749.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Ki no Tochihime
紀橡姫
posthumously appointed in 771 died 709
Daughter of Ki no Morohito. Spouse of Prince Shiki. Gave birth to Emperor Kōnin and one other child.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Takano no Niigasa
石姫皇女
790–806
(16 years, posthumous)
ca. 720–790
(70 years)

Daughter of Yamato no Ototsugu. Concubine of Emperor Kōnin. Gave birth to Emperor Kanmu and two other children. Posthumously appointed Grand Empress Dowager in 806.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Otomuro
藤原乙牟漏
posthumously appointed in 806 760–790
(29–30 years)

Empress Consort of Emperor Kanmu from 783 until 790.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Ryoshi
藤原乙牟漏
posthumously appointed in 823 759–788
(28–29 years)

Daughter of Fujiwara no Momokawa. Consort of Emperor Kanmu from 785 until 788. Gave birth to Emperor Junna.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Tachibana no Kachiko
橘嘉智子
823–833
(9 years)
786–850
(63–64 years)
Empress Consort of Emperor Saga from 815 until 823. Grand Empress Dowager from 833.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Seishi
正子内親王
833–854
(21 years)
810–879
(68–69 years)
Empress Consort of Emperor Junna from 827 until 833. Grand Empress Dowager from 854.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Junshi
藤原順子
854–864
(9 years)
809–871
(61–62 years)
Daughter of Fujiwara no Fuyutsugu. Consort of Emperor Ninmyō from 833 until 850. Grand Empress Dowager from 864.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Akirakeiko
藤原明子
864–882
(17 years)
829–900
(70–71 years)
Daughter of Fujiwara no Yoshifusa. Consort of Emperor Montoku from 850 to 858. Grand Empress Dowager from 882.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Takaiko
藤原高子
882–896
(12 years)
posthumously restored in 943
842–910
(67–68 years)
Daughter of Fujiwara no Nagara. Consort of Emperor Seiwa from 866 to 877. Title of Empress Dowager removed in 896 due to a suspected affair with Zenyu, head priest of the Toko-ji Temple. Title posthumously restored in 943.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Sawako
藤原沢子
posthumously appointed in 884 died 839
Daughter of Fujiwara no Fusatsugu. Consort of Emperor Ninmyō from 833 until 839. Gave birth to Emperor Kōkō and three other children.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Inshi
藤原胤子
posthumously appointed in 897 died 896
Daughter of Fujiwara no Takafuji. Consort of Emperor Uda from 892 until 896. Gave birth to Emperor Daigo and four other children.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Hanshi
班子女王
897–900
(2 years)
833–900
(66–67 years)
Daughter of Prince Nakano; granddaughter of Emperor Kanmu. Consort of Emperor Kōkō from 884 until 887. Gave birth to Emperor Uda and seven other children.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Onshi
藤原穏子
931–946
(14 years)
885–954
(68–69 years)
Empress Consort of Emperor Daigo from 923 until 931. Grand Empress Dowager from 946.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Anshi
藤原安子
968–969
(1 year, posthumous)
927–964
(68–69 years)

Empress Consort of Emperor Murakami from 958 until 964. Posthumously appointed Grand Empress Dowager in 969.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Masako
昌子内親王
973–986
(13 years)
950–1000
(49–50 years)
Empress Consort of Emperor Reizei from 967 until 973. Grand Empress Dowager from 986.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Chikako
藤原懐子
posthumously appointed in 985 945–975
(29–30 years)

Daughter of Fujiwara no Koretada. Consort of Emperor Reizei from 967 until 975. Gave birth to Emperor Kazan and two more children.
東三条院詮子.jpg
Fujiwara no Senshi
藤原詮子
986–991
(5 years)
962–1002
(39–40 years)
Daughter of Fujiwara no Kaneie. Consort of Emperor En'yū from 978 until 986. Priestess from 991.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Junshi
藤原遵子
1000–1012
(11 years)
957–1017
(59–60 years)
Empress Consort of Emperor En'yū from 982 until 997. Grand Empress Dowager from 1012.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Tōko
藤原超子
posthumously appointed in 1011 954–982
(27–28 years)

Daughter of Fujiwara no Kaneie. Consort of Emperor Reizei from 968 until 982. Gave birth to Emperor Sanjō and three other children.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Shōshi
藤原彰子
1012–1018
(5 years)
988–1074
(86 years)
Empress Consort of Emperor Ichijō from 1000 until 1012. Grand Empress Dowager from 1018.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Kenshi
藤原妍子
1018–1027
(8 years)
994–1027
(32–33 years)
Empress Consort of Emperor Sanjō from 1012 until 1018.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Yoshiko
藤原嬉子
posthumously appointed in 1045 1007–1025
(18 years)

Daughter of Fujiwara no Michinaga. Spouse of then Prince Atsunaga (later Emperor Go-Suzaku). Gave birth to Emperor Go-Reizei. Died prior to the accession of Emperor Go-Suzaku.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Teishi
禎子内親王
1051–1068
(17 years)
1013–1094
(80 years)
Empress Consort of Emperor Go-Suzaku from 1037 until 1051. Grand Empress Dowager from 1068.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Shōshi
章子内親王
1068–1069
(1 year)
1027–1105
(77–78 years)
Empress Consort of Emperor Go-Reizei from 1046 until 1068. Grand Empress Dowager from 1069.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Hiroko
藤原寛子
1069–1074
(4 years)
1036–1127
(90–91 years)
Empress Consort of Emperor Go-Reizei from 1051 until 1069. Grand Empress Dowager from 1074.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Shigeko
藤原茂子
posthumously appointed in 1073 died 1062
Daughter of Fujiwara Kinnari. Adopted daughter of Fujiwara Yoshinobu. Spouse of the then Prince Takahito (later Emperor Go-Sanjō) from 1046 until 1062. Gave birth to Emperor Shirakawa, Princess Tokushi and three other children. Died prior to the accession of Emperor Go-Sanjō.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Kanshi
藤原歓子
1074–1102
(28 years)
1021–1102
(80–81 years)
Empress Consort of Emperor Go-Reizei from 1068 until 1074.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Kenshi
藤原妍子
posthumously appointed in 1088 1057–1084
(26–27 years)

Empress Consort of Emperor Shirakawa from 1074 until 1084.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Ishi
藤原苡子
posthumously appointed in 1107 1076–1103
(26–27 years)

Daughter of Fujiwara no Sanesue. Consort of Emperor Horikawa from 1098 until 1103. Gave birth to Emperor Toba.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Kiyoko
藤原聖子
1142–1150
(8 years)
1122–1182
(59–60 years)
Empress Consort of Emperor Sutoku from 1130 until 1142. Received an imperial title in 1150.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Tashi
藤原多子
1156–1158
(1 year)
1140–1202
(61–62 years)
Empress Consort of Emperor Konoe from 1150 until 1156. Grand Empress Dowager from 1158.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Minamoto no Yoshiko
源懿子
posthumously appointed in 1159 1116–1143
(27–28 years)

Daughter of Fujiwara no Tsunizage. Adopted daughter of Minamoto no Arihito. Spouse of then Prince Masahito (later Emperor Go-Shirakawa). Gave birth to Emperor Nijō. Died prior to the accession of Emperor Go-Shirakawa.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Teishi
藤原泰子
1158–1168
(10 years)
1131–1176
(44–45 years)
Empress Consort of Emperor Konoe from 1150 until 1158. Received an imperial title in 1168.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Taira no Shigeko
平滋子
1168–1169
(1 year)
1142–1176
(44–45 years)
Daughter of Taira no Tokinobu. Consort of Emperor Go-Shirakawa following his abdication until 1168. Gave birth to Emperor Takakura. Received an imperial title in 1169.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Kinshi
藤原忻子
1172–1209
(37 years)
1134–1209
(74–75 years)
Empress Consort of Emperor Go-Shirakawa from 1156 until 1172.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Minamoto no Michiko
源通子
posthumously appointed in 1243 died 1221
Daughter of Minamoto no Michimune. Lady-in-waiting of Emperor Tsuchimikado. Gave birth to Emperor Go-Saga and four other children.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Saionji Kishi
西園寺禧子
1333
(1 month)
after 1295 and before 1305–1333
(27–38 years)
Empress Consort of Emperor Go-Daigo from 1319 until 1333.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Ano no Renshi
阿野廉子
1339–1352
(12 years)
1301–1359
(57–58 years)
Daughter of Ano Kinkado; adopted daughter of Tōin Kinkata. Consort of Emperor Go-Daigo from 1335 until 1339. Received an imperial title in 1352.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Niwata Asako
庭田朝子
posthumously appointed in 1504 1437–1492
(54–55 years)

Daughter of Niwata Shigekata. Lady-in-waiting of Emperor Go-Tsuchimikado. Gave birth to Emperor Go-Kashiwabara and two other children.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Madenokōji Eiko
万里小路栄子
posthumously appointed in 1558 1499–1522
(20–21 years)

Daughter of Madenokōji Katafusa. Spouse of then Prince Tomohito (later Emperor Go-Nara). Gave birth to Emperor Ōgimachi and one other child. Died prior to the accession of Emperor Go-Nara.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Konoe Hisako
近衛尚子
posthumously appointed in 1728 1702–1720
(17 years)

Daughter of Konoe Iehiro. Consort of Emperor Nakamikado from 1716 until 1720. Gave birth to Emperor Sakuramachi.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Nijō Ieko
近衛尚子
1747–1750
(3 years)
1716–1790
(73 years)
Daughter of Nijō Yoshitada. Consort of Emperor Sakuramachi from 1736 until 1747. Gave birth to Empress Go-Sakuramachi and one other child. Received an imperial title in 1750.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Ichijō Tomiko
一条富子
1771
(2 months)
1743–1796
(52 years)
Daughter of Ichijō Kaneka. Consort of Emperor Momozono from 1759 until 1771. Gave birth to Emperor Go-Momozono and one other child. Received an imperial title in 1771.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Konoe Koreko
近衛維子
1781–1783
(2 years)
1760–1783
(23 years)
Daughter of Konoe Uchisaki. Consort of Emperor Go-Momozono from 1772 until 1781. Gave birth to Princess Yoshiko. Adopted Emperor Kōkaku.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Yoshiko
欣子内親王
1820–1841
(21 years)
1779–1846
(67 years)
Empress Consort of Emperor Kōkaku from 1794 until 1820. Received an imperial title in 1841.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Takatsukasa Yasuko
鷹司祺子
1847
(8 months)
1811–1847
(36 years)
Daughter of Takatsukasa Masahiro. Consort of Emperor Ninkō from 1825 until 1847. Gave birth to one child.
Empress Eisho Portrait by Araki Kanpo.png
Asako Kujō
九条夙子
1868–1897
(28 years)
1835–1897
(62 years)
Daughter of Kujō Hisatada. Consort of Emperor Kōmei from 1848 until 1868. Gave birth to two children. Adopted Emperor Meiji.
Empress Shoken2 (cropped).jpg
Masako Ichijō
一条勝子
30 July 1912

9 April 1914
(1 year, 253 days)
9 May 1849

9 April 1914
(64 years, 335 days)
Empress Consort of Emperor Meiji from 1869 until 1912.
Empress Sadako-big-1912.jpg
Sadako Kujō
九条節子
25 December 1926

17 May 1951
(24 years, 143 days)
25 June 1884

17 May 1951
(66 years, 327 days)
Empress Consort of Emperor Taishō from 1912 until 1926.
Crown Princess Nagako 1924.jpg
Princess Nagako
良子女王
7 January 1989

16 June 2000
(11 years, 161 days)
6 March 1903

16 June 2000
(97 years, 92 days)
Empress Consort of Emperor Shōwa from 1926 until 1989.

List of grand empress dowagers

Portrait Name Reign Life details
Fujiwara miyako.jpg
Fujiwara no Miyako
藤原宮子
749–754
(28 years)
died 754
Daughter of Fujiwara no Fuhito. Spouse of Emperor Monmu from 697 until 707. Gave birth to Emperor Shōmu.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Takano no Niigasa
石姫皇女
posthumously appointed in 806 ca. 720–790
(70 years)

Concubine of Emperor Kōnin. Posthumous Empress Dowager from 790 until 806.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Tachibana no Kachiko
橘嘉智子
833–850
(17 years)
786–850
(63–64 years)
Empress Consort of Emperor Saga from 815 until 823. Empress Dowager from 823 until 833.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Seishi
正子内親王
854–860
(6 years)
810–879
(68–69 years)
Empress Consort of Emperor Junna from 827 until 833. Empress Dowager from 833 until 854. Became a priestess in 860.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Junshi
藤原順子
864–871
(7 years)
809–871
(61–62 years)
Consort of Emperor Ninmyō from 833 until 850. Empress Dowager from 854 until 864.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Akirakeiko
藤原明子
882–900
(18 years)
829–900
(70–71 years)
Consort of Emperor Montoku from 850 to 858. Empress Dowager from 864 until 882.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Onshi
藤原穏子
946–954
(7 years)
885–954
(68–69 years)
Empress Consort of Emperor Daigo from 923 until 931. Empress Dowager from 931 until 946.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Anshi
藤原安子
posthumously appointed in 969 927–964
(68–69 years)

Empress Consort of Emperor Murakami from 958 until 964. Posthumous Empress Dowager from 968 until 969.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Masako
昌子内親王
986–1000
(3 years)
950–1000
(49–50 years)
Empress Consort of Emperor Reizei from 967 until 973. Empress Dowager from 973 until 986.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Junshi
藤原遵子
1012–1017
(5 years)
957–1017
(59–60 years)
Empress Consort of Emperor En'yū from 982 until 997. Empress Dowager from 1000 until 1012.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Shōshi
藤原彰子
1018–1074
(56 years)
988–1074
(86 years)
Empress Consort of Emperor Ichijō from 1000 until 1012. Empress Dowager from 1012 until 1018.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Teishi
禎子内親王
1068–1094
(17 years)
1013–1094
(80 years)
Empress Consort of Emperor Go-Suzaku from 1037 until 1051. Empress Dowager from 1051 until 1068.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Shōshi
章子内親王
1069–1105
(36 years)
1027–1105
(77–78 years)
Empress Consort of Emperor Go-Reizei from 1046 until 1068. Empress Dowager from 1068 until 1069.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Princess Reishi
令子内親王
1134–1144
(10 years)
1078–1144
(65–66 years)
Honorary Empress from 1108 until 1134.
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg
Fujiwara no Tashi
藤原多子
1158–1202
(44 years)
1140–1202
(61–62 years)
Empress Consort of Emperor Konoe from 1150 until 1156. Empress Dowager from 1156 until 1158. Consort of Emperor Nijō from 1160 until 1165.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Life in the Cloudy Imperial Fishbowl", Japan Times. March 27, 2007.
  2. ^ Roberts, Jeremy, 1956- (2010). Japanese mythology A to Z (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Chelsea House Publishers. ISBN 9781438128023. OCLC 540954273.((cite book)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Kōgō" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 543, p. 543, at Google Books.
  4. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1959). The Imperial Family, p. 318.
  5. ^ a b Nussbaum, "Chūgū" at p. 127, p. 127, at Google Books.
  6. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, pp. 300–302.
  7. ^ a b Anston, W.G. (1896). Transactions and Proceedings of The Japan Society, London. Supplement I. Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A.D. 697. Vol. 1. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trüber, & Co., Limited. p. 132.
  8. ^ a b c d Anston, p. 140 (Vol. 1)
  9. ^ a b c Anston, p. 141 (Vol. 1)
  10. ^ Anston, p. 142 (Vol. 1)
  11. ^ a b c d Anston, p. 143 (Vol. 1)
  12. ^ a b c d Anston, p. 144 (Vol. 1)
  13. ^ a b c d Anston, p. 145 (Vol. 1)
  14. ^ a b c d Anston, p. 146 (Vol. 1)
  15. ^ a b c Anston, p. 147 (Vol. 1)
  16. ^ Anston, p. 148 (Vol. 1)
  17. ^ a b c d Anston, p. 149 (Vol. 1)
  18. ^ a b c d Anston, p. 150 (Vol. 1)
  19. ^ a b c Anston, p. 165 (Vol. 1)
  20. ^ Anston, p. 166 (Vol. 1)
  21. ^ a b c Anston, pp. 170–173 (Vol. 1)
  22. ^ Anston, p. 174 (Vol. 1)
  23. ^ a b Anston, p. 180 (Vol. 1)
  24. ^ Anston, p. 188 (Vol. 1)
  25. ^ a b c Anston, p. 212 (Vol. 1)
  26. ^ a b c Anston, p. 214 (Vol. 1)
  27. ^ Anston, p. 218 (Vol. 1)
  28. ^ a b c Anston, p. 241 (Vol. 1)
  29. ^ Anston, p. 255 (Vol. 1)
  30. ^ a b c Anston, p. 277 (Vol. 1)
  31. ^ Anston, p. 278 (Vol. 1)
  32. ^ a b c Anston, p. 289 (Vol. 1)
  33. ^ Anston, p. 308 (Vol. 1)
  34. ^ Anston, p. 314 (Vol. 1)
  35. ^ a b c Anston, pp. 325–329 (Vol. 1)
  36. ^ a b Anston, p. 331 (Vol. 1)
  37. ^ Anston, p. 337 (Vol. 1)
  38. ^ Anston, pp. 385–386
  39. ^ a b c Anston, p. 395 (Vol. 1)
  40. ^ Anston, p. 394 (Vol. 1)
  41. ^ Anston, p. 404 (Vol. 1)
  42. ^ Anston, W.G. (1896). Transactions and Proceedings of The Japan Society, London. Supplement I. Nihongi: Chronicles of Japan from the Earliest Times to A.D. 697. Vol. 2. London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trüber, & Co., Limited. p. 4.
  43. ^ Anston, p. 26 (Vol. 2)
  44. ^ Anston, p. 9 (Vol. 2)
  45. ^ Anston, p. 33 (Vol. 2)
  46. ^ a b c Anston, pp. 35–38
  47. ^ Anston, p. 38 (Vol. 2)
  48. ^ a b Anston, p. 91 (Vol. 2)
  49. ^ Anston, p. 94 (Vol. 2)
  50. ^ a b Anston, p. 95 (Vol. 2)
  51. ^ Anston, p. 107 (Vol. 2)
  52. ^ Anston, p. 164 (Vol. 2)
  53. ^ Anston, p. 287 (Vol. 2)
  54. ^ Anston, p. 321 (Vol. 2)
  55. ^ Ponsonby-Fane, Richard. (1915). The Imperial Family of Japan, p. x.