This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in Japanese. (March 2018) Click [show] for important translation instructions. View a machine-translated version of the Japanese article. Machine translation like DeepL or Google Translate is a useful starting point for translations, but translators must revise errors as necessary and confirm that the translation is accurate, rather than simply copy-pasting machine-translated text into the English Wikipedia. Consider adding a topic to this template: there are already 3,184 articles in the main category, and specifying|topic= will aid in categorization. Do not translate text that appears unreliable or low-quality. If possible, verify the text with references provided in the foreign-language article. You must provide copyright attribution in the edit summary accompanying your translation by providing an interlanguage link to the source of your translation. A model attribution edit summary is Content in this edit is translated from the existing Japanese Wikipedia article at [[:ja:男の娘]]; see its history for attribution. You should also add the template ((Translated|ja|男の娘)) to the talk page. For more guidance, see Wikipedia:Translation.
Male comedian Yakkun Sakurazuka cross-dressing as a schoolgirl
Male comedian Yakkun Sakurazuka cross-dressing as a schoolgirl

Otokonoko (男の娘, "male daughter" or "male girl", also pronounced as otoko no musume) is a Japanese term for men who have a culturally feminine gender expression.[1][2] This includes amongst others males with feminine appearances, or those cross-dressing. "Otokonoko" is a play on the word 男の子 ("boy", from the characters for 'male' and 'child'), which is also pronounced otokonoko; in the slang term, the kanji for "child" () is substituted with "daughter"/"girl" ().

The term originated in Japanese manga[2] and Internet culture in the 2000s, but the concept reflects a broad range of earlier traditions and examples of male cross dressing in Japan, such as onnagata in kabuki theater.[citation needed] Its popularity increased around 2009, with the rise of dedicated maid cafés, fashion stores, cosmetic products, and a range of popular media in the otaku culture.[3] It is often combined with the cosplay of female fictional characters by men (crossplay).[1]

By extension, otokonoko is also a genre of media and fiction about feminine-looking or feminine-dressing men, and often contains erotic or romantic elements. It is mainly aimed at male audience but also appears in a lot of shōjo manga.[citation needed] Otokonoko characters have also begun to appear in mainstream Japanese popular entertainment such as manga, anime, and video games.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c Ashcraft, Brian (26 May 2011). "What Is Japan's Fetish This Week? Male Daughters". Kotaku. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
  2. ^ a b "OTOKONOKO : DES GARÇONS TROP MIGNONNES". Vice. 8 August 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
  3. ^ 森友, ひい子 (2 June 2014). "「男の娘」「女装子」と呼ばれる人々 "中性化受け入れ"円満な夫婦の鍵 〈週刊朝日〉". AERA dot. (アエラドット) (in Japanese). Retrieved 14 March 2018.