Coordinates: 37°37′N 138°52′E / 37.617°N 138.867°E / 37.617; 138.867

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Niigata Prefecture

新潟県
Japanese transcription(s)
 • Japanese新潟県
 • RōmajiNiigata-ken
Flag
Symbol
Country Japan
RegionChūbu (Kōshinetsu) (Hokuriku)
IslandHonshu
CapitalNiigata
SubdivisionsDistricts: 9, Municipalities: 30
Government
 • GovernorHideyo Hanazumi
Area
 • Total12,584.18 km2 (4,858.78 sq mi)
Area rank5th
Population
 (July 1, 2019)
 • Total2,227,496
 • Rank14th
 • Density180/km2 (460/sq mi)
ISO 3166 codeJP-15
Websitewww.pref.niigata.lg.jp
Symbols
BirdCrested ibis (Nipponia nippon)
FlowerTulip (Tulipa gesneriana)
TreeCamellia (Camellia japonica)

Niigata Prefecture (新潟県, Niigata-ken) is a prefecture in the Chūbu region of Honshu of Japan.[1] Niigata Prefecture has a population of 2,227,496 (1 July 2019) and is the fifth-largest prefecture of Japan by geographic area at 12,584.18 km2 (4,858.78 sq mi). Niigata Prefecture borders Toyama Prefecture and Nagano Prefecture to the southwest, Gunma Prefecture to the south, Fukushima Prefecture to the east, and Yamagata Prefecture to the northeast.

Niigata is the capital and largest city of Niigata Prefecture, with other major cities including Nagaoka, Jōetsu, and Sanjō.[2] Niigata Prefecture contains the Niigata Major Metropolitan Area centered on Niigata with a population of 1,395,612, the largest metropolitan area on the Sea of Japan coast and the twelfth-largest in Japan. Niigata Prefecture is part of the historic Hokuriku region and features Sado Island, the sixth largest island of Japan in area following the four main islands and Okinawa Island.

History

See also: Historic Sites of Niigata Prefecture

Reconstruction of a 19th-century peasant farmer's house and rice paddy at the Northern Culture Museum, Niigata
Reconstruction of a 19th-century peasant farmer's house and rice paddy at the Northern Culture Museum, Niigata

Until after the Meiji Restoration, the area that is now Niigata Prefecture was divided into Echigo Province (on the mainland) and Sado Province.[3] During the Sengoku period, the Nagao clan, who were at times vassals to the Uesugi, ruled a fief in the western part of modern Niigata from Kasugayama Castle. The most notable member of the Nagao clan was Nagao Kagetora, later and better known as Uesugi Kenshin. He unified the leaders of Echigo Province and became its sole ruler. By taking the surname Uesugi, he also became the head of the Uesugi clan and effectively brought their realm under his control.

The city of Niigata is now the third largest Japanese city facing the Sea of Japan, after Fukuoka and Kitakyushu. It was the first Japanese port on the Sea of Japan to be opened to foreign trade following the opening of Japan by Matthew Perry. It has since played an important role in trade with Russia and Korea. A freighter from North Korea visits Niigata once a month, in one of the few forms of direct contact between Japan and that country.

The Etsuzankai organization, led by the politician Kakuei Tanaka, was highly influential in bringing infrastructure improvements to Niigata Prefecture in the 1960s and 1970s. These included the Jōetsu Shinkansen high-speed rail line and the Kanetsu Expressway to Tokyo.

On October 23, 2004, the Chūetsu earthquake struck Niigata Prefecture and was measured at Shindo 6+ at Ojiya.

On January 9, 2006, a heavy winter storm struck the prefecture and its neighbors. At least 71 people died and more than 1,000 were injured. Also in 2006, a massive tsunami and earthquake damaged homes and caused casualties in the maritime areas of Niigata Prefecture, especially near Sado Island.

On July 16, 2007, another earthquake hit the area.

Niigata Prefecture hosts the Fuji Rock Festival, an annual event held at the Naeba ski resort. The three-day event, organized by Smash Japan, features more than 200 Japanese and international musicians. It is one of the largest outdoor music events in Japan, with more than 100,000 people attending in 2005.

Geography

Map of Niigata Prefecture     Government Ordinance Designated City      City      Town      Village
Map of Niigata Prefecture
     Government Ordinance Designated City      City      Town      Village
Niigata Prefecture in winter from the sky
Niigata Prefecture in winter from the sky
Ten-Ken cliff of Oya-Shirazu, Niigata
Ten-Ken cliff of Oya-Shirazu, Niigata

Niigata Prefecture stretches about 240 km (149 mi) along the Sea of Japan, from the southwest to the northeast, with a coastal plain between the mountains and the sea. It also includes Sado Island. Niigata Prefecture could be placed in either the Hokuriku or the Kōshinetsu, both of which are considered parts of the Chūbu region. The prefecture is generally divided into four geographical areas: Jōetsu region (上越) in the south, Chūetsu (中越) in the center, Kaetsu (下越) in the north, and Sado Island. The mouth of the Shinano River, the longest river in Japan, is located in Niigata Prefecture.

As of 1 April 2014, 25% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Natural Parks, namely Bandai-Asahi, Chūbu-Sangaku, Nikkō, and Oze National Parks; Echigo Sanzan-Tadami and Sado-Yahiko-Yoneyama Quasi-National Parks; and thirteen Prefectural Natural Parks.[4]

Cities

See also: List of cities in Niigata Prefecture by population

Twenty cities are located in Niigata Prefecture:

Name Area (km2) Population Map
Rōmaji Kanji
Agano
阿賀野市 192.74 41,204
Gosen
五泉市 351.91 48,458
Itoigawa
糸魚川市 746.24 41,333
Jōetsu
上越市 973.81 189,430
Kamo
加茂市 133.72 25,971
Kashiwazaki
柏崎市 442.03 81,836
Minamiuonuma
南魚沼市 584.55 55,354
Mitsuke
見附市 77.91 39,908
Murakami
村上市 1,174.26 58,300
Myōkō
妙高市 445.63 31,374
Nagaoka
長岡市 891.06 266,539
Niigata (capital)
新潟市 726.45 797,591
Ojiya
小千谷市 155.19 34,704
Sado
佐渡市 855.26 55,474
Sanjō
三条市 431.97 95,706
Shibata
新発田市 533.1 96,236
Tainai
胎内市 264.89 28,495
Tōkamachi
十日町市 590.39 53,333
Tsubame
燕市 110.96 77,382
Uonuma
魚沼市 946.76 35,027

Towns and villages

These are the towns and villages in each district:

Name Area (km2) Population District Type Map
Rōmaji Kanji
Aga
阿賀町 952.89 10,386 Higashikanbara District Town
Awashimaura
粟島浦村 9.78 353 Iwafune District Village
Izumozaki
出雲崎町 44.38 4,190 Santō District Town
Kariwa
刈羽村 26.27 4,578 Kariwa District Village
Seirō
聖籠町 37.58 14,025 Kitakanbara District Town
Sekikawa
関川村 299.61 5,291 Iwafune District Village
Tagami
田上町 31.71 11,481 Minamikanbara District Town
Tsunan
津南町 170.21 9,349 Nakauonuma District Town
Yahiko
弥彦村 25.17 7,824 Nishikanbara District Village
Yuzawa
湯沢町 357.29 7,926 Nishikanbara District Town

Mergers

Main article: List of mergers in Niigata Prefecture

List of Governor of Niigata Prefecture (from 1947)

Economy

Agriculture, forestry and fishing

Paddy fields in Minamiuonuma
Paddy fields in Minamiuonuma

The major industry in Niigata Prefecture is agriculture. Rice is the principal product, and among the prefectures of Japan Niigata is second only to Hokkaidō in rice output. The area around Uonuma is known for producing the Koshihikari variety, widely considered to be the highest-quality rice produced in Japan.

Rice-related industries are also very important to the prefectural economy. Niigata Prefecture is known throughout Japan for its high-quality sake, senbei, mochi, and arare. In sake production, the prefecture comes third after Gunma and Kyoto prefectures.

The prefecture was also the place of origin of the ornamental carp known as koi.

Niigata Prefecture produces the highest volume of azaleas and cut lilies in Japan, and is increasing production of cut flowers and flower bulbs. Along with Toyama Prefecture, it produces the highest volume of tulips in the country.

Mining and manufacturing

Ruins of Kitazawa Flotation Plant, Sado gold mine
Ruins of Kitazawa Flotation Plant, Sado gold mine

Crude oil is produced in Niigata Prefecture, although Japan relies heavily on petroleum imported from other countries. Kerosene heaters are also produced for use in the cold Niigata winters.

Kinzan, on Sado Island, was an active gold mine until it was closed in 1989.

Sanjō and Tsubame produce 90 percent of all the silverware made in Japan. The two cities are second after Osaka in the production of scissors, kitchen knives, and wrenches.

Niigata Prefecture may have been the first area in Japan to produce knitted textiles, although the earliest products may have been imported from China. A nuclear power plant, which formerly had the highest energy output in the world,[citation needed] is located in the tiny village of Kariwa. It has been closed since the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster.[5]

Demographics

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
18801,546,338—    
18901,693,727+0.91%
19031,780,123+0.38%
19131,911,308+0.71%
19201,776,474−1.04%
19251,849,807+0.81%
19301,933,326+0.89%
19351,995,777+0.64%
19402,064,402+0.68%
19452,389,653+2.97%
19502,460,997+0.59%
19552,473,492+0.10%
19602,442,037−0.26%
19652,398,931−0.36%
19702,360,982−0.32%
19752,391,938+0.26%
19802,451,357+0.49%
19852,478,470+0.22%
19902,474,583−0.03%
19952,488,364+0.11%
20002,475,733−0.10%
20052,431,459−0.36%
20102,374,450−0.47%
20152,305,098−0.59%
20202,227,496−0.68%
source:[6]

In the Census of 2003, Niigata ranked as the 14th most populous.

Culture

Niigata Geishas
Niigata Geishas

Food

Hegisoba
Hegisoba

Niigata is known for the following regional specialities:

Niigata in popular culture

Tourism and sports

Much of the tourism in Niigata centers around skiing, especially in the alpine areas of Myōkō and Yuzawa, and going to onsen. Sado Island off the west coast of Niigata is accessible via ferry (taking one to two and a half hours) from Naoetsu or Niigata City.

Professional sports clubs include Albirex Niigata, a J-League Division 1 Football Club, and Niigata Albirex BB, a BJ (Basketball Japan) League team.

Festivals

Nagaoka Festival (with fireworks)
Nagaoka Festival (with fireworks)
Night cherry blossoms and Takada castle
Night cherry blossoms and Takada castle

Education

Universities

Transport Map of Niigata Prefecture                                                  Red = Expressway, Green=Shinkansen,                                      Black= Railway
Transport Map of Niigata Prefecture Red = Expressway, Green=Shinkansen, Black= Railway

Transport

Niigata Station

Rail

Roads

Expressways

National highways

Ports

Airports

Notable individuals

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Politics and military

Arts and culture

Actors, Actresses, Singers

Pop culture, manga, voice actors

Sports

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Niigata-ken" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 711, p. 711, at Google Books
  2. ^ Nussbaum, "Niigata" at p. 711, p. 711, at Google Books
  3. ^ Nussbaum, "Provinces and prefectures" at p. 780, p. 780, at Google Books
  4. ^ "General overview of area figures for Natural Parks by prefecture" (PDF). Ministry of the Environment. 1 April 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
  5. ^ "Japanese Anti-nuclear Candidate Wins Election at Site of World's Biggest Atomic Power Station". The Guardian. Reuters. 17 October 2016. Retrieved 17 October 2016.
  6. ^ Statistics Bureau of Japan
  7. ^ "Triennale 2015 - Echigo-Tsumari Art Field". www.echigo-tsumari.jp.
  8. ^ "Access Map | 佐渡汽船公式サイト" (in Japanese). Retrieved 2021-09-03.

References