Religious symbols in clock-wise order from top: Judaism, Christianity, Islam, Baháʼí Faith,  Hinduism, Taoism, Buddhism, Sikhism,  Slavic neopaganism, Celtic polytheism, Heathenism (Germanic paganism), Semitic neopaganism, Wicca, Kemetism (Egyptian paganism), Hellenism (Greek paganism), Italo-Roman neopaganism.

While the word religion is hard to define, one standard model of religion used in religious studies courses defines it as a

[…] system of symbols which acts to establish powerful, pervasive, and long-lasting moods and motivations in men by formulating conceptions of a general order of existence and clothing these conceptions with such an aura of factuality that the moods and motivations seem uniquely realistic.[1]

Many religions have narratives, symbols, traditions and sacred histories that are intended to give meaning to life or to explain the origin of life or the universe. They tend to derive morality, ethics, religious laws, or a preferred lifestyle from their ideas about the cosmos and human nature. According to some estimates, there are roughly 4,200 religions, churches, denominations, religious bodies, faith groups, tribes, cultures, movements, ultimate concerns, which at some point in the future will be countless.[2]

The word religion is sometimes used interchangeably with the words "faith" or "belief system", but religion differs from private belief in that it has a public aspect. Most religions have organized behaviours, including clerical hierarchies, a definition of what constitutes adherence or membership, congregations of laity, regular meetings or services for the purposes of veneration of a deity or for prayer, holy places (either natural or architectural) or religious texts. Certain religions also have a sacred language often used in liturgical services. The practice of a religion may also include sermons, commemoration of the activities of a God or gods, sacrifices, festivals, feasts, trance, rituals, rites, ceremonies, worship, initiations, funerals, marriages, meditation, invocation, mediumship, music, art, dance, public service or other aspects of human culture. Religious beliefs have also been used to explain parapsychological phenomena such as out-of-body experiences, near-death experiences and reincarnation, along with many other paranormal and supernatural experiences.[3][4]

Some academics studying the subject have divided religions into three broad categories: world religions, a term which refers to transcultural, international faiths; indigenous religions, which refers to smaller, culture-specific or nation-specific religious groups; and new religious movements, which refers to recently developed faiths.[5] One modern academic theory of religion, social constructionism, says that religion is a modern concept that suggests all spiritual practice and worship follows a model similar to the Abrahamic religions as an orientation system that helps to interpret reality and define human beings,[6] and thus believes that religion, as a concept, has been applied inappropriately to non-Western cultures that are not based upon such systems, or in which these systems are a substantially simpler construct.

Eastern religions

Main article: Eastern religions

East Asian religions

Main article: East Asian religions

See also: Three teachings

Religions that originated in East Asia, also known as Taoic religions; namely Taoism, Confucianism, Shenism and Shintoism, and religions and traditions related to, and descended from them.

Confucianism

Main article: Confucianism

See also: Confucian ritual religion

Shinto

Main article: Shinto

See also: Shinto sects and schools

Taoism

Main article: Taoism

Other

Chinese

Main article: Religion in China

Japanese

Main article: Religion in Japan

Korean

Main article: Religion in Korea

Vietnamese

Main article: Religion in Vietnam

Indian religions

Main article: Indian religions

The three main religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent; namely Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism and religions and traditions related to, and descended from them.

Buddhism

Main article: Buddhism

See also: Schools of Buddhism

Neo-Buddhism

Main article: Buddhist modernism

Hinduism

Main article: Hinduism

Further information: Hindu denominations

Bhakti movements

Main articles: Bhakti movement and Contemporary Sant Mat movements

Hindu philosophy schools

Main article: Hindu philosophy

Yoga

Main article: Yoga

Neo Vedanta Movements

Jainism

Main article: Jainism

Sikhism

Main articles: Sikhism and Sects of Sikhism

Middle Eastern religions

Main article: Religion in the Middle East

Religions that originated in the Middle East; namely Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, and religions and traditions related to, and descended from them.

Abrahamic religions

Main article: Abrahamic religions

Bábism

Main article: Bábism

See also: Baháʼí divisions

Christianity

Main article: Christianity

See also: List of Christian denominations

Eastern Christianity

Main article: Eastern Christianity

Western Christianity

Main article: Western Christianity

Other

See also: Gnosticism and Christian mysticism

Certain Christian groups are difficult to classify as "Eastern" or "Western." Many Gnostic groups were closely related to early Christianity, for example, Valentinism. Irenaeus wrote polemics against them from the standpoint of the then-unified Catholic Church.[16]

Druze

Main article: Druze

Islam

Main article: Islam

See also: Islamic schools and branches, Ilm al-Kalam, Ahl al-Hadith, and Islamism

Khawarij

Main article: Khawarij

Shia Islam

Main article: Shia Islam

Sufism

Main articles: Sufism and Islamic Mysticism

See also: List of Sufi orders

Sunni Islam

Main article: Sunni Islam

Other

Judaism

Main articles: Judaism and Jewish religious movements

Kabbalah

Main articles: Kabbalah and Jewish mysticism

Non-Rabbinic Judaism
Rabbinic Judaism

Main article: Rabbinic Judaism

Others
Historical Judaism

Mandaeism

Main article: Mandaeism

Iranian religions

Main articles: Iranian religions and Religion in Iran

Yazdânism

Main article: Yazdânism

Zoroastrianism

Main article: Zoroastrianism

Indigenous (ethnic, folk) religions

Main articles: Ethnic religion and Folk religion

See also: Paganism, Animism, Totemism, and Shamanism

Religions that consist of the traditional customs and beliefs of particular ethnic groups, refined and expanded upon for thousands of years, often lacking formal doctrine.

Note: Some adherents do not consider their ways to be "religion," preferring other cultural terms.

African

Main article: Religion in Africa

Traditional African

Main article: Traditional African religions

Diasporic African

Main article: Afro-American religion

Altaic

See also: List of Tengrist movements

American

Main article: Native American religion

Austroasiatic

Austronesian

Indo-European

Tai and Miao

Main articles: Tai folk religion and Miao folk religion

Tibeto-Burmese

Uralic

Other indigenous

New religious movements

Main article: New religious movement

See also: List of new religious movements

Religions that cannot be classed as either world religions or traditional folk religions, and are usually recent in their inception.

Cargo cults

Main article: Cargo cults

New ethnic religions

See also: Ethnic religion

Black

Rastafari

Main article: Rastafari

Black Hebrew Israelites

Main article: Black Hebrew Israelites

White

Native American

New Hindu derived religions

Japanese new religions

Main article: Japanese new religions

Modern Paganism

Main article: Modern Paganism

See also: List of Neopagan movements

Ethnic neopaganism

See also: Polytheistic reconstructionism and European Congress of Ethnic Religions

Syncretic neopaganism

Entheogenic religions

Main article: Entheogen

New Age Movement

Main article: New Age

New Thought

Main article: New Thought

Parody religions and fiction-based religions

Main article: Parody religion

Post-theistic and naturalistic religions

Main articles: Post-theism and Religious naturalism

UFO religions

Main article: UFO religions

Western esotericism

Main article: Western esotericism

See also: Left-hand path and right-hand path, Occult, and Magick (Thelema)

Other new

Historical religions

Main article: History of religion

Bronze Age

Classical antiquity

Other historical

Other categorisations

By demographics

Main article: Religious demographics

By area

Further information: Religion geography

See also

References

  1. ^ (Clifford Geertz, Religion as a Cultural System, 1973)
  2. ^ "World Religions Religion Statistics Geography Church Statistics". Retrieved 5 March 2015.
  3. ^ http://www.parapsych.org/base/about.aspx
  4. ^ "Key Facts about Near-Death Experiences". Retrieved 5 March 2015.
  5. ^ Harvey, Graham (2000). Indigenous Religions: A Companion. (Ed: Graham Harvey). London and New York: Cassell. Page 06.
  6. ^ Vergote, Antoine, Religion, belief and unbelief: a psychological study, Leuven University Press, 1997, p. 89
  7. ^ Melton 2003, p. 1112.
  8. ^ a b c Tattwananda, Swami (1984). Vaisnava Sects, Saiva Sects, Mother Worship (1st rev. ed.). Calcutta: Firma KLM Private Ltd.
  9. ^ Dandekar, R. N. (1987). "Vaiṣṇavism: An Overview". In Eliade, Mircea (ed.). The Encyclopedia of Religion. 14. New York: MacMillan.
  10. ^ Melton 2003, p. 997.
  11. ^ Lorenzen, David N. (1995). Bhakti Religion in North India: Community Identity and Political Action. Albany, NY: SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-2025-6.
  12. ^ Radhakrishnan, Sarvepalli. Vol. 1-2. Indian Philosophy (1923) Vol. 1, 738 p. (1927) Vol. 2, 807 p. Oxford University Press.
  13. ^ Melton 2003, p. 1001.
  14. ^ Melton 2003, p. 1004.
  15. ^ a b "Welcome to Jainworld – Jain Sects – tirthankaras, jina, sadhus, sadhvis, 24 tirthankaras, digambara sect, svetambar sect, Shraman Dharma, Nirgranth Dharma". Jainworld.com. Archived from the original on 2011-06-07. Retrieved 2012-04-24.
  16. ^ "Irenaeus of Lyons". Retrieved 5 March 2015.
  17. ^ Laycock, Joseph P. Reitman (2012). "We Are Spirits of Another Sort". Nova Religio. 15 (3): 65–90. doi:10.1525/nr.2012.15.3.65. JSTOR 10.1525/nr.2012.15.3.65.
  18. ^ "Eeshan Religion and Church of Metta Spirituality and School of Enlightenment". The Eeshan Religion. Retrieved 2021-04-14.

Sources