The Marsi were an Italic people of ancient Italy, whose chief centre was Marruvium, on the eastern shore of Lake Fucinus (which was drained in the time of Claudius). The area in which they lived is now called Marsica. They originally spoke a language now termed Marsian and attested by several inscriptions.


The Marsi were first mentioned as members of a confederacy with the Vestini, Paeligni and Marrucini.[1] They joined the Samnites in 308 BC,[2] and, on their submission, became allies of Rome in 304 BC.[3] After a short-lived revolt two years later, for which they were punished by the loss of territory,[4] they were readmitted to the Roman alliance and remained faithful down to the Social War, their contingent[5] being always regarded as the flower of the Italian forces.[6]

The Latin colony of Alba Fucens near the northwest corner of the lake was founded in the adjoining Aequian territory in 303 BC so that, from the beginning of the 3rd century, the Marsians were in touch with a Latin-speaking community, to say nothing of the Latin colony of Carsioli farther west. The earliest pure Latin inscriptions of the district seem to be C.I.L. IX 3827 and 3848 from the neighbourhood of Supinum; its character generally is of the Gracchan period, though it might be somewhat earlier.

In the Social War (91–87 BC) which, owing to the prominence of the Marsian rebels, is often known as the Marsic War, they fought bravely against odds under their leader Q. Pompaedius Silo and, though they were frequently defeated, the result of the war was the enfranchisement of the allies. All the coins of Pompaedius Silo have the Latin legend "Italia", while the other leaders in all but one case used Oscan.[7]


"Marsian" redirects here. Not to be confused with Martian.

Native toMarruvium
RegionMarsica in Abruzzo
Extinctca. 150 BC
Inscriptions in votive offerings
Language codes
ISO 639-3ims
The location of the Marsians. The Marsi were to the south of Lake Fucinus shown in the lower right
Silver denarius, coinage of the Marsian Confederation, during the Social War (89 BC). The retrograde legend right (UILETIV [víteliú = Italia][a]) is in Oscan

The Linguist List classifies it as one of the Umbrian Group of languages.


The Marsian inscriptions are dated by the style of the alphabet from about 300 to 150 BC (the middle Roman Republic). Conway lists nine inscriptions, one from Ortona and two each from Marruvium, Lecce, Trasacco and Luco. In addition, there are a few glosses, a few place names and a few dozen personal names in Latin form.[8]


Their language differs very slightly from Roman Latin of that date; for apparently contracted forms, such as Fougno instead of Fucino, may really only be a matter of spelling. In final syllables, the diphthongs ai, ei, and oi all appear as e. On the other hand, the older form of the name of the tribe (dat. plur. Martses = Lat. Martiis) shows its derivation and exhibits the assibilation of -tio- into -tso-, proper to the Oscan language but strange to classical Latin.

Bronze of Lake Fucinus

Reproduction of the inscription

The Bronze of Lake Fucinus was an inscribed bronze plaque found in 1877 near Luco during the draining of the lake, from an ancient settlement that had been covered by the lake. The bronze was placed in the Museum of Prince Alessandro Torlonia, where it was photographed for publication. It was lost in 1894 nor has it been seen since. The text of the plaque is as follows:[8]

caso cantouio | s aprufclano cei | p apur finem e..| salicom
en ur | bid casontonio | socieque dono | m[n]ctia | pro
le[gio]nibus mar | tses.

It seems to be or describe a votive offering (donom) perhaps of boars (apruf) to the local goddess(es) Anctia (a[n]ctia) on behalf of the Marsian Legions (pro le[gio]nibus martses).[9]


The sanctuary of Lucus Angitiae, the chief temple and grove of the goddess Angitia stood at the southwest corner of Lake Fucinus, near the inlet to the tunnel of Claudius and the village of Luco dei Marsi. Angitia was widely worshipped in the central highlands[10] as a goddess of healing, especially skilled to cure serpent bites by charms and the herbs of the Marsian woods, which was carried out by local inhabitants until modern times.[11] Their country was considered by Rome to be the home of witchcraft.[12]

See also


  1. ^ For the phonetic transcription from Oscan to Latin alphabet see, for example, this page Archived 2015-10-25 at the Wayback Machine or this one. All of the Oscan monetary legends are retrograde, just like the one running clockwise on the copy reproduced in the margin
  1. ^ Conway 1911 cites: Livy viii. 29, cf. viii. 6, and Polybius ii. 24, 12.
  2. ^ Conway 1911 cites: Liv. ix. 41.
  3. ^ Conway 1911 cites: Liv. ix. 45.
  4. ^ Conway 1911 cites: Liv. x. 3.
  5. ^ Conway 1911 states: e.g. Liv. xliv. 46.
  6. ^ Conway 1911 states: e.g. Horace Odes ii. 20, 18.
  7. ^ Conway 1911 cites: Unteritalische Dialekten, p. 345.
  8. ^ a b Conway 1897, pp. 289–299.
  9. ^ Conway 1911
  10. ^ Conway 1911 cites: Sulmo, C.I.L. ix. 3074, Furfo Vestinorum, ibid. 3515
  11. ^ Conway 1911 states: see A de Nino's charming collection of Usi e costumi abrusszest.
  12. ^ see Hor. Sat. i, 9, 29, Epod. 17, 28, &c.