This may be unbalanced towards certain viewpoints. Please improve the article by adding information on neglected viewpoints, or discuss the issue on the talk page. (July 2022)
Family Federation for World Peace and Unification
(Unification Church)
Logo of the Family Federation for World Peace and Unification.jpg
Official Emblem of the Family Federation for World Peace and Unification
AbbreviationFFWPU, UM, UC
ClassificationChristian, new religious movement
ScriptureBible
Divine Principle
Acting LeaderHak Ja Han
FounderSun Myung Moon
Origin1 May 1954
Seoul, South Korea
MembersApprox. 3 million[1]
Other name(s)Unification Movement
Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity (historical)
Unificationists
Moonies
Official websiteOfficial site of FFWPU USA

The Family Federation for World Peace and Unification, widely known as the Unification Church, is a new religious movement whose members are called Unificationists, or more widely known as "Moonies".[2] It was officially founded on 1 May 1954 under the name Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity (HSA-UWC) in Seoul, South Korea, by Rev. Dr. Sun Myung Moon (1920–2012).

The beliefs of the Unification Church are based on Rev. Moon's book, the Divine Principle. Moon's teachings slightly differ from the views that other Christian denominations have in regard to Jesus Christ. The movement is well known for its "Blessing" or mass wedding ceremonies.[3] The Unification Church has been controversial, with some critics calling it a dangerous cult.[4][5] It also has been controversial for its involvement in politics, which include anti-communism and support for Korean reunification.[6][7][8] Its members have founded, owned, and supported other related organizations, including business,[9] educational,[10] political,[11] and other types of organizations.[12]

Popular terminologies

Emblem used during the period 1954–1994 (until 2015 in Japan).
Emblem used during the period 1954–1994 (until 2015 in Japan).

Main article: Moonie (nickname)

Sun Myung Moon did not originally intend to form a separate or distinct denomination or organization and until 1954 did not give his group of followers an official name, Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity (Korean: 세계 기독교 통일 성령 협회 Segye Gidoggyo Tong-il Seonglyeong Hyeobhoe).[13] The informal name "Unification Church" (Korean통일교; RRTong-il-gyo) was commonly used by members, the public, and the news media.[14]

Moonie is a colloquial term[15] first used in 1974 by some American media outlets.[16] Unification Movement members have used the word, including Moon himself,[17] the president of the Unification Theological Seminary David Kim,[18] and Bo Hi Pak, Moon's aide and president of Little Angels Children's Folk Ballet of Korea.[19] In the 1980s and 1990s the Unification Church of the United States undertook an extensive public relations campaign against the use of the word by the news media.[20][21] In other contexts it is still sometimes used and not always considered pejorative.[22][23] By 2018, the term "Unification Movement" was widely used.[24]

Moon and his wife, Hak Ja Han, are regarded by the Unificationists as "True Father" and "True Mother", respectively, and as "True Parents" collectively.

The term "HonDokHae" is used by Unification Church Members to refer to the ritual reading of the Divine Principle.

History

Unification Movement founder Sun Myung Moon giving a public speech in the Las Vegas Valley in 2010
Unification Movement founder Sun Myung Moon giving a public speech in the Las Vegas Valley in 2010

Background and origins

On 25 February 1920, Moon was born Mun Yong-myeong in modern-day Sangsa-ri (Korean상사리; Hanja上思里), Deogun-myon, Jeongju-gun, North P'yŏng'an Province, at a time when Korea was under Japanese rule. Moon's birthday was recorded as January 6 by the traditional lunar calendar (25 February 1920, according to the Gregorian Calendar).[25] Around 1930, Moon's family, who followed traditional Confucianist beliefs, converted to Christianity and joined a Presbyterian Church, where he later taught Sunday school.[26]

In 1945, Sun-Myung Moon attended the Israeli monastery with his wife, Sun-Kil Choi, to learn the teachings of Ben-mun Kim (金百文 [ko]), including his book The Fundamental Principles of Christianity (基督教根本原理 drafted March 2, 1946, published March 2, 1958).[27][28] After World War II and the Japanese rule ended in 1945, Moon began preaching.[26] In 1946, Moon traveled alone to Pyongyang in Communist-ruled North Korea.[29] Moon was arrested on allegations of spying for South Korea and given a five-year sentence to the Hŭngnam labor camp.[30]

In 1950, after serving 34 months of his sentence, Moon was released from North Korea during the Korean War when United Nations troops advanced on the camp and the guards fled.[31] In 1953, Moon and Choi divorced.[31] It is also reported that Moon and another woman had a child in 1954.[32][33][34] Moon built his first church as in Pusan when he was a refugee from the war.[31]

Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity (1954–1994)

Moon founded the Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity (HSA-UWC) in Seoul on 1 May 1954. It expanded rapidly in South Korea and by the end of 1955, had 30 centers throughout the nation.[35] The HSA-UWC expanded throughout the world with most members living in South Korea, Japan, the Philippines, and other nations in East Asia.[36][35]

In 1958, Moon sent missionaries to Japan, and in 1959, to America. Missionary work took place in Washington, DC, New York, and California. It found success in the San Francisco Bay Area, where the HSA-UWC expanded in Oakland, Berkeley, and San Francisco. By 1971, the HSA-UWC in the US had about 500 members. By 1973, it had some presence in all 50 states and a few thousand members.[31] In the 1970s, American HSA-UWC members were noted for their enthusiasm and dedication, which often included raising money for UC projects on so-called "mobile fundraising teams".[37][38]

The HSA-UWC also sent missionaries to Europe. They entered Czechoslovakia in 1968 and remained underground until the 1990s.[39] Unification movement activity in South America began in the 1970s with missionary work. Later, the HSA-UWC made large investments in civic organizations and business projects, including an international newspaper.[40] Starting in the 1990s, the HSA-UWC expanded in Russia and other former communist nations. Hak Ja Han, Moon's wife, made a radio broadcast to the nation from the State Kremlin Palace.[41] As of 1994, the HSA-UWC had about 5,000 members in Russia.[42] About 500 Russian students had been sent to US to participate in 40-day workshops.[43]

Moon moved to the United States in 1971, although he remained a citizen of the Republic of Korea. In the 1970s, he gave a series of public speeches in the United States, including one in Madison Square Garden in New York City in 1974; two in 1976 in Yankee Stadium in New York City; and one on the grounds of the Washington Monument in Washington, DC, where he spoke on "God's Hope for America" to 300,000 people. In 1975, the HSA-UWC held one of the largest peaceful gatherings in history, with 1.2 million people in Yeouido, South Korea.[44]

In the 1970s, the Unification Church, along with some other new religious movements, became a target of the anti-cult movement. Activists have accused the movement of having "brainwashed" its members.[45][46]

In 1982, Moon was convicted in the United States of filing false federal income tax returns and conspiracy: see United States v. Sun Myung Moon. He served 13 months of the sentence at the Federal Correctional Institution, Danbury in Danbury, Connecticut.[47][48] The case was protested as a case of selective prosecution and a threat to religious freedom by, among others, Jerry Falwell, head of Moral Majority, Joseph Lowery, head of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, Harvey Cox a Professor of Divinity at Harvard, and Eugene McCarthy, United States Senator and former Democratic Party presidential candidate.[49][50]

Starting in the 1980s, Moon instructed HSA-UWC members to take part in a program called "Home Church" in which they reached out to neighbors and community members through public service.[51] In 1991, Moon announced that Unification members should return to their hometowns and undertake apostolic work there. Massimo Introvigne, a scholar of new religious movements, said that this confirmed that full-time membership is no longer considered crucial to movement members.[31]

Family Federation for World Peace and Unification (1994–)

On 1 May 1994 (the 40th anniversary of the founding of the HSA-UWC), Moon declared that the era of the HSA-UWC had ended and inaugurated a new organization: the Family Federation for World Peace and Unification (FFWPU) would include HSA-UWC members and members of other religious organizations working toward common goals, especially on issues of sexual morality and reconciliation between people of different religions, nations, and races. The FFWPU co-sponsored Blessing ceremonies in which thousands of couples from other churches and religions were given the marriage blessing previously given only to HSA-UWC members.[52][13]

In 2000, the FFWPU co-sponsored the Million Family March, a rally in Washington, D.C., to celebrate family unity and racial and religious harmony, along with the Nation of Islam.[53] Louis Farrakhan was the main speaker at the event which was held on 16 October 2000; the fifth anniversary of the Million Man March, which was also organized by Farrakhan.[54] FFWPU leader Dan Fefferman wrote to his colleagues acknowledging that Farrakhan's and Moon's views differed on multiple issues but shared a view of a "God-centered family".[55]

In 2003, Korean FFWPU members started a political party in South Korea, "The Party for God, Peace, Unification, and Home". An inauguration declaration stated the new party would focus on preparing for Korean reunification by educating the public about God and peace. A FFWPU official said that similar political parties would be started in Japan and the United States.[56] Since 2003, the FFWPU-related Universal Peace Federation's Middle East Peace Initiative has been organizing group tours of Israel and Palestine to promote understanding, respect, and reconciliation among Jews, Muslims, and Christians.[57][58]

In 2004, at a ceremony on March 23 in the Dirksen Senate Office Building, in Washington, D.C., Moon crowned himself with what was called the "Crown of Peace".[59][60] Lawmakers who attended included Senator Mark Dayton (D-Minn.), Representatives Roscoe Bartlett (R-Md.) and Elijah Cummings (D-Md.), as well as former Representative Walter Fauntroy (D-D.C.). Key organizers of the event included George Augustus Stallings Jr., a former Roman Catholic priest who had been married by Moon, and Michael Jenkins, the president of the Unification Church of the United States at that time.[59] Rep. Danny K. Davis played an active role in the ceremony.[60]

In 2009 Moon's son Hyun Jin Moon and former UC leader Chung Hwan Kwak founded the Global Peace Foundation as an alternative organization to the UC.[61]

On 15 August 2012, Moon was reported to be gravely ill and was put on a respirator at the intensive care unit of St. Mary's Hospital at The Catholic University of Korea in Seoul. He was admitted on 14 August 2012, after suffering from pneumonia earlier in the month.[62] He died there on September 2.[63]

Moon was a member of the Honorary Committee of the Unification Ministry of the Republic of Korea.[64] The church member Jae-jung Lee had been once a unification minister of the Republic of Korea.[65] Another, Ek Nath Dhakal, is a member of the Nepalese Constituent Assembly,[66] and a first Minister for Co-operatives and Poverty Alleviation Ministry of the Government of Nepal.[67] In 2016, a study sponsored by the Unification Theological Seminary found that American members were divided in their choices in the 2016 United States presidential election, with the largest bloc supporting Senator Bernie Sanders.[68]

In 2020 former Secretary General of the United Nations Ban Ki-moon received the Sunhak Peace Prize, which is sponsored by the Unification Church, and an award of US$1,000,000.[69][70]

In 2021, Donald Trump and Shinzo Abe gave speeches at the Rally of Hope event hosted by an affiliate of the Unification Church.[71][72][73][74] The Unification Church has ties with Kishi Nobusuke, Abe's grandfather and former prime minister, and Abe Shintaro, Abe's father and former foreign minister.[75] The Unification Church has been influencial in Japanese politics. Five ministers of the Cabinet of Japan are linked to the Unification Church, including the Minister of Health, Labour, and Welfare and the head of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. [76]

The future of the Unification Movement and its theological and institutional legacy is uncertain.[61][77][78][needs update?] Hak Ja Han has been acting as a leader and public spokesperson for the movement. In 2019, she spoke at a rally in Japan and called for greater understanding and cooperation between the Pacific Rim nations.[79] In 2020, she spoke at a UPF sponsored in-person and virtual rally for Korean unification, which drew about one million attendees.[80]

Beliefs

Unification Church members believe that Jesus appeared to Moon on Easter Sunday, 1936, and asked him to accomplish the work he left unfinished after his crucifixion.[81] After a period of prayer and consideration, Moon accepted the mission, later changing his name from Mun Yong-myeong to Mun Son-myong (Moon Sun-myung or Sun Myung Moon).[82]

Moon's teachings, called the Divine Principle, were first published as Wonli Wonbon (원리 원본, "Original Text of the Divine Principle") in 1945. The earliest manuscript was lost in North Korea during the Korean War. A second, expanded version, Wonli Hesol (원리 해설), or Explanation of the Divine Principle, was published in 1957. The Divine Principle or Exposition of the Divine Principle (Korean원리강론; RRWolli Gangnon) is the main theological textbook of the movement. It was co-written by Sun Myung Moon and early disciple Hyo Won'eu and first published in 1966. A translation entitled Divine Principle was published in English in 1973.[83]

Followers take as a starting point the truth of the Christian Old and New Testaments, with the Divine Principle an additional text that intends to interpret and "fulfil" the purpose of those older texts.[84] Moon was intent on replacing worldwide forms of Christianity with his new unified vision of it,[30] Moon being a self-declared messiah. Moon's followers regard him as a separate person from Jesus but with a mission to basically continue and complete Jesus's work in a new way, according to the Principle.[85]

The Divine Principle lays out the core of UC theology, and is held by its believers to have the status of holy scripture. Following the format of systematic theology, it includes (1) God's purpose in creating human beings, (2) the fall of man, and (3) restoration – the process through history by which God is working to remove the ill effects of the fall and restore humanity back to the relationship and position that God originally intended.[84]

Blessing ceremony

Main article: Blessing ceremony of the Unification Church

First Blessing ceremony mass wedding outside of Korea, Madison Square Garden, New York City, 1 July 1982.
First Blessing ceremony mass wedding outside of Korea, Madison Square Garden, New York City, 1 July 1982.

The Unification Church is well known for its mass wedding or wedding vow renewal ceremony. It is given to engaged or married couples. Through it, members believe, the couple is removed from the lineage of sinful humanity and grafted into God's sinless lineage, according to their belief in a serpent seed interpretation of original sin and the Fall of Man: that Eve was sexually seduced by Satan, which has since contaminated the human bloodline.[86][87] The first Blessing ceremony was held in 1961 for 36 couples in Seoul, South Korea by the Moons shortly after their own marriage in 1960. All the couples were members of the church. Moon matched all of the couples except 12 who were already married to each other before joining the church.[88]

Later Blessing ceremonies were larger in scale but followed the same pattern. All participants were HSA-UWC members and Moon matched most of the couples. In 1982 the first large scale Blessing (of 2,000 couples) outside of Korea took place in Madison Square Garden, New York City.[89] In 1988, Moon matched 2,500 Korean members with Japanese members for a Blessing ceremony held in Korea, partly in order to promote unity between the two nations.[90]

In the 1990s Moon allowed the Blessing to be given to other people besides Unification Church members. This liberalization led to a great increase in the number of Blessed couples, with most of them having been already married and not Unification Church members. It is possible for any Blessed couple to give the Blessing to other couples and this is being done in many cases by ministers of other churches who have received the Blessing though their association with the Unification Church. Ministers of other faiths, including Judaism and Islam have served as "co-officiators" at Blessing ceremonies presided over by Moon and his wife.[91] Since 2001 couples Blessed by Moon have been able to arrange marriages for their own children, without his direct guidance.[92]

Moon's practice of matching couples was very unusual in both Christian tradition and in modern Western culture and attracted much attention and controversy.[93] The Blessing ceremonies have attracted a lot of attention in the press and in the public imagination, often being labeled "mass weddings".[94] However, in most cases the Blessing ceremony is not a legal wedding ceremony. Some couples are already married and those that are engaged are later legally married according to the laws of their own countries.[95] The New York Times referred to a 1997 ceremony for 28,000 couples as a "marriage affirmation ceremony", adding: "The real weddings were held later in separate legal ceremonies."[96]

Mary Farrell Bednarowski says that marriage is "really the only sacrament" in the Unification movement. Unificationists therefore view singleness as "not a state to be sought or cultivated" but as preparation for marriage. Pre-marital celibacy and marital faithfulness are emphasized.[3] Adherents may be taught to "abstain from intimate relations for a specified time after marriage".[97] The church does not give its marriage blessing to same-sex couples.[98] Moon has emphasized the similarity between Unification views of sexuality and evangelical Christianity, "reaching out to conservative Christians in this country in the last few years by emphasizing shared goals like support for sexual abstinence outside of marriage, and opposition to homosexuality."[99]

Scholarly studies

In the early 1960s John Lofland lived with HSA-UWC missionary Young Oon Kim and a small group of American members and studied their activities in trying to promote their beliefs and win new members. Lofland noted that most of their efforts were ineffective and that most of the people who joined did so because of personal relationships with other members, often family relationships. Lofland published his findings in 1964 as a doctoral thesis entitled "The World Savers: A Field Study of Cult Processes", and in 1966 in book form by Prentice-Hall as Doomsday Cult: A Study of Conversion, Proselytization, and Maintenance of Faith.[100][101][102][103]

In 1977 Frederick Sontag, a professor of philosophy at Pomona College and a minister in the United Church of Christ.,[104] spent 10 months visiting HSA-UWC members in North America, Europe, and Asia as well as interviewing Moon at his home in New York State. He reported his findings and observations in Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church, published by Abingdon Press. The book also provides an overview of the Divine Principle.[105] In an interview with UPI Sontag compared the HSA-UWC with The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints and said that he expected its practices to conform more to mainstream American society as its members become more mature. He added that he did not want to be considered an apologist but a close look at HSA-UWC's theology is important: "They raise some incredibly interesting issues."[106]

In 1984 Eileen Barker published The Making of a Moonie based on her seven-year study of HSA-UWC members in the United Kingdom and the United States.[107] In 2006 Laurence Iannaccone of George Mason University, a specialist in the economics of religion, wrote that The Making of a Moonie was "one of the most comprehensive and influential studies" of the process of conversion to new religious movements.[108] Australian psychologist Len Oakes and British psychiatry professor Anthony Storr, who have written rather critically about cults, gurus, new religious movements, and their leaders have praised The Making of a Moonie.[109][110] It was given the Distinguished Book Award for 1985 by the Society for the Scientific Study of Religion.[111]

In 1998 Irving Louis Horowitz, sociologist, questioned the relationship between the HSA-UWC and scholars whom it paid to conduct research on its behalf.[112]

Relations and differences with other religions

Judaism

In 1976, the American Jewish Committee released a report by Rabbi A. James Rudin which stated that the Divine Principle contained "pejorative language, stereotyped imagery, and accusations of collective sin and guilt."[113] In a news conference which was presented by the AJC and representatives of Catholic and Protestant churches, panelists stated that the text "contained over 125 anti-Jewish references." They also cited Moon's recent and public condemnation of "antisemitic and anti-Christian attitudes", and called upon him to make a "comprehensive and systematic removal" of antisemitic and anti-Christian references in the Divine Principle as a demonstration of good faith.[114]

In 1977, the HSA-UWC issued a rebuttal to the report, stating that it was neither comprehensive nor reconciliatory, instead, it had a "hateful tone" and it was filled with "sweeping denunciations". It denied that the Divine Principle teaches antisemitism and gave detailed responses to 17 specific allegations which were contained in the AJC's report, stating that the allegations were distortions of teachings and obscurations of the real content of passages or the passages were accurate summaries of Jewish scriptures or New Testament passages.[115]

In 1984, Mose Durst, then the president of the Unification Church of the United States as well as a convert from Judaism,[116] said that the Jewish community had been "hateful" in its response to the growth of the Unification movement, and he also placed blame on the community's "insecurity" and Unification Church members' "youthful zeal and ignorance". Rudin, then the national interreligious affairs director of the American Jewish Committee, said that Durst's remarks were inaccurate and unfair and he also said that "hateful is a harsh word to use".[117] In the same year Durst wrote in his autobiography: "Our relations with the Jewish community have been the most painful to me personally. I say this with a heavy heart, since I was raised in the Jewish faith and am proud of my heritage."[118]

In 1989, Movement leaders Peter Ross and Andrew Wilson issued "Guidelines for Members of The Unification Church in Relations with the Jewish People" which stated: "In the past there have been serious misunderstandings between Judaism and the Unification Church. In order to clarify these difficulties and guide Unification Church members in their relations with Jews, the Unification Church suggests the following guidelines."[119]

Mainstream Christianity

The Unification Church in South Korea was labeled as heretical by Protestant churches in South Korea, including Moon's own Presbyterian Church. In the United States the church was rejected by ecumenical organizations as being non-Christian. The main objections against it were theological, especially because of the Unification Church's addition of material to the Bible and for its rejection of a literal Second Coming of Jesus.[120] Protestant commentators have also criticized Unification Church teachings as being contrary to the Protestant doctrine of salvation by faith alone.[121] In their influential book The Kingdom of the Cults (first published in 1965), Walter Ralston Martin and Ravi K. Zacharias disagreed with the Divine Principle on the issues of Christology, the virgin birth of Jesus, the movement's belief that Jesus should have married, the necessity of the crucifixion of Jesus, and a literal resurrection of Jesus as well as a literal Second Coming.[122]

In 1974 Moon founded the Unification Theological Seminary, in Barrytown, New York, partly in order to improve relations of the movement with other churches. Professors from other denominations, including a Methodist minister, a Presbyterian, and a Roman Catholic priest, as well as a rabbi, were hired to teach religious studies to the students, who were being trained as leaders in the movement.[123][124][125][126][127]

In 1977, Unification member Jonathan Wells, who later became well known as the author of the popular Intelligent Design book Icons of Evolution, defended Unification theology against what he said were unfair criticisms by the National Council of Churches.[128] That same year Frederick Sontag, a professor of philosophy at Pomona College and a minister in the United Church of Christ,[104] published Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church which gave an overview of the movement and urged Christians to take it more seriously.[105][106][129]

In 1982, Moon was imprisoned in the United States after being found guilty by a jury of willfully filing false Federal income tax returns and conspiracy. (See: United States v. Sun Myung Moon) HSA-UWC members launched a public-relations campaign. Booklets, letters and videotapes were mailed to approximately 300,000 Christian leaders in the United States. Many of them signed petitions protesting the government's case.[130] Among the American Christian leaders who spoke out in defense of Moon were conservative Jerry Falwell, head of Moral Majority, and liberal Joseph Lowery, head of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference.[131] The American Baptist Churches in the U.S.A, the National Council of Churches, the National Black Catholic Clergy Caucus, and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference filed briefs in support of Moon.[132]

In the 1980s the Unification Church sent thousands of American ministers from other churches on trips to Japan and South Korea to inform them about Unification teachings. At least one minister was dismissed by his congregation for taking part.[133] In 1994 the church had about 5,000 members in Russia and came under criticism from the Russian Orthodox Church.[42] In 1997, the Russian government passed a law requiring the movement and other non-Russian religions to register their congregations and submit to tight controls.[134]

In 1995 the Unification Movement related organization the Women's Federation for World Peace indirectly contributed $3.5 million to help Baptist Liberty University which at that time was in financial difficulty. This was reported in the United States news media as an example of closer relationships between the movement and conservative Christian congregations.[135]

In 2001, the Unification Movement came into conflict with the Roman Catholic Church when Catholic archbishop Emmanuel Milingo and Maria Sung, a 43-year-old Korean acupuncturist, married in a Blessing ceremony, presided over by Moon and Mrs. Moon. Following his marriage the Archbishop was called to the Vatican by Pope John Paul II, where he was asked not to see his wife anymore, and to move to a Capuchin monastery.[136] Sung went on a hunger strike to protest their separation. This attracted much media attention.[137] Milingo is now an advocate of the removal of the requirement for celibacy by priests in the Catholic Church. He is the founder of Married Priests Now!.[138] Archbishop George Augustus Stallings, Jr., also a former Catholic priest, who had founded his own Imani Temple African-American Catholic Congregation, is also a supporter of the organization.[139]

In 2003 Moon began his "tear down",[140] or "take down the cross"[141] campaign. The campaign was begun in the belief that the cross is a reminder of Jesus' pain and has been a source of division between people of different faiths. The campaign included a burial ceremony for the cross and a crown to be put in its place. The American Clergy Leadership Conference (ACLC), an interfaith group founded by Moon, spearheaded the effort, calling the cross a symbol of oppression and superiority.[142]

Islam

The Divine Principle lists the Muslim world as one of the world's four major divisions (the others being East Asia, Hindu, and Christendom).[143] Unification movement support for Islamist anti-communists came to public attention in 1987 when church member Lee Shapiro was killed in Afghanistan during the Soviet–Afghan War while filming a documentary.[144][145] The resistance group they were traveling with reported that they had been ambushed by military forces of the Soviet Union or the Afghan government. However, the details have been questioned, partly because of the poor reputation of the group's leader, Gulbuddin Hekmatyar.[146][147]

In 1997, the Washington Report on Middle East Affairs (which is critical of United States and Israeli policies), praised the Unification Movement owned newspaper, The Washington Times and the Times' sister publication The Middle East Times (along with The Christian Science Monitor owned by the Church of Christ, Scientist) for their objective and informative coverage of Islam and the Middle East, while criticizing the Times generally pro-Israel editorial policy. The Report suggested that these newspapers, being owned by religious organizations, were less influenced by pro-Israel pressure groups in the United States.[148]

In 1997, Louis Farrakhan, the leader of The Nation of Islam, served as a "co-officiator" at a blessing ceremony presided over by Sun Myung Moon and Hak Ja Han.[149] In 2000 the FFWPU co-sponsored the Million Family March, a rally in Washington D.C. to celebrate family unity and racial and religious harmony, along with the Nation of Islam.[53] Farrakhan was the main speaker at the event which was held on 16 October 2000; the fifth anniversary of the Million Man March, which was also organized by Farrakhan.[54] Unification Church leader Dan Fefferman wrote to his colleagues acknowledging that Farrakhan's and Moon's views differed on multiple issues but shared a view of a "God-centered family".[55] In 2007 Rev and Mrs Moon sent greetings to Farrakhan while he was recovering from cancer, saying: "We send love and greetings to Minister Farrakhan and Mother Khadijah."[150]

In the 1990s and 2000s the Unification Movement made public statements claiming communications with the spirits of religious leaders including Muhammad and also Confucius, the Buddha, Jesus, and Augustine, as well as political leaders such as Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Lenin, Joseph Stalin, Leon Trotsky, Mao Zedong and many more. This was reported to have distanced the movement from Islam as well as from mainstream Christianity.[120][151] From 2001 to 2009 the Unification movement owned the American Life TV Network (now known as Youtoo TV),[152] which in 2007 broadcast George Clooney's documentary, A Journey to Darfur, which was harshly critical of Islamists in Darfur, the Republic of Sudan.[153][154][155] It released the film on DVD in 2008 and announced that proceeds from its sale would be donated to the International Rescue Committee.[156] In his 2009 autobiography Moon praised Islam and expressed the hope that there would be more understanding between different religious communities.[157] In 2011, representatives of the Unification Church took part in an international seminar which was held in Taiwan by the Muslim World League. The said purpose of the seminar was to encourage inter-faith dialogue and discourage people from resorting to terrorism.[158]

Interfaith activities

In 2009 the FFWPU held an interfaith event in the Congress of the Republic of Peru.[159] Former President of the Congress Marcial Ayaipoma[160] and other notable politicians were called "Ambassadors for Peace" of the Unification Church.[161][162][163][164] In 2010, the church built a large interfaith temple in Seoul.[165] Author Deepak Chopra was the keynote at an interfaith event of the Unification Church cohosted with the United Nations at the Headquarters of the United Nations.[166] In 2011, an interfaith event was held in the National Assembly of Thailand, the President of the National Assembly of Thailand attended the event.[167] In 2012, the Unification Church-affiliated Universal Peace Federation held an interfaith dialogue in Italy that was cosponsored by United Nations.[168] That year, Unification movement affiliated Universal Peace Federation held an interfaith program for representatives of 12 various religions and confessions in the hall of the United Nations General Assembly. The President of the United Nations General Assembly,[169] the Deputy Secretary-General of the United Nations,[170][171] the Permanent Observer of the Holy See to the United Nations[172] and other UN officials spoke.[173]

Science

The Divine Principle calls for the unification of science and religion: "Religion and science, each in their own spheres, have been the methods of searching for truth in order to conquer ignorance and attain knowledge. Eventually, the way of religion and the way of science should be integrated and their problems resolved in one united undertaking; the two aspects of truth, internal and external, should develop in full consonance."

In the 1970s and 1980s the Unification Movement sponsored the International Conference on the Unity of the Sciences (ICUS),[174][175] in order to promote the concept of the unity of science and religion.[176][177] American news media have suggested that the conferences were also an attempt to improve the often controversial public image of the church.[178][179] The first conference, held in 1972, had 20 participants; while the largest conference, in Seoul, South Korea in 1982, had 808 participants from over 100 countries.[180] Participants in one or more of the conferences included Nobel laureates John Eccles (Physiology or Medicine 1963, who chaired the 1976 conference)[175] and Eugene Wigner (Physics 1963).[181]

The relationship of the Unification Movement and science again came to public attention in 2002 with the publication of Icons of Evolution, a popular book critical of the teaching of evolution written by member Jonathan Wells. Wells is a graduate of the Unification Theological Seminary and has been active with the Discovery Institute as an advocate for intelligent design.[182][183][184]

Political activism

Anti-communism

In the 1940s, Moon cooperated with Communist Party members in support of the Korean independence movement against Imperial Japan. After the Korean War (1950–1953), he became an outspoken anti-communist.[157] During the Cold War, the Unification movement was criticized for its anti-communist activism by the mainstream media and the alternative press, and many members of them said that it could lead to World War Three and a nuclear holocaust. The movement's anti-communist activities received financial support from controversial Japanese millionaire and activist Ryōichi Sasakawa.[185][186][6]

In 1972, Moon predicted the decline of communism, based on the teachings of the Divine Principle: "After 7,000 biblical years—6,000 years of restoration history plus the millennium, the time of completion—communism will fall in its 70th year. Here is the meaning of the year 1978. Communism, begun in 1917, could maintain itself approximately 60 years and reach its peak. So 1978 is the border line and afterward communism will decline; in the 70th year it will be altogether ruined. This is true. Therefore, now is the time for people who are studying communism to abandon it."[187] In 1973, he called for an "automatic theocracy" to replace communism and solve "every political and economic situation in every field".[188]

In 1974, Moon asked members who lived in the United States to support President Richard Nixon during the Watergate scandal when Nixon was being pressured to resign from his office. They prayed and fasted in support of Nixon for three days in front of the United States Capitol, under the motto "Forgive, Love and Unite". On February 1, 1974, Nixon publicly thanked them for their support and officially received Moon. This brought the movement into widespread public and media attention.[189] In 1976, church president Neil Albert Salonen met with Senator Bob Dole to defend the HSA–UWC against charges which were made by its critics, including the parents of some members.[190]

In 1976, Moon established News World Communications, an international news media conglomerate which publishes The Washington Times newspaper in Washington, D.C., and newspapers in South Korea, Japan, and South America, partly in order to promote political conservatism. According to The Washington Post, "the Times was established by Moon to combat communism and be a conservative alternative to what he perceived as the liberal bias of The Washington Post."[191] Bo Hi Pak, called Moon's "right-hand man", was the founding president and the founding chairman of the board.[192] Moon asked Richard L. Rubenstein, a controversial rabbi and college professor, to join its board of directors.[193] The Washington Times has often been noted for its generally pro-Israel editorial policies.[148] In 2002, during the 20th anniversary party for the Times, Moon said: "The Washington Times will become the instrument in spreading the truth about God to the world."[191]

In 1977, the Subcommittee on International Organizations of the Committee on International Relations, of the United States House of Representatives, reported that the Unification Church was established by the director of the Korean Central Intelligence Agency (KCIA), Kim Chong Pil.[194] The committee also reported that the KCIA had used the movement to gain political influence with the United States and some of its members had worked as volunteers in Congressional offices. Together they founded the Korean Cultural Freedom Foundation, a nonprofit organization which acted as a public diplomacy campaign for the Republic of Korea.[7] The committee also investigated possible KCIA influence on the Unification Church's campaign in support of Nixon.[195]

In 1980, members founded CAUSA International, an anti-communist educational organization based in New York City.[196] In the 1980s, it was active in 21 countries. In the United States, it sponsored educational conferences for evangelical and fundamentalist Christian leaders[197] as well as seminars and conferences for Senate staffers, Hispanic Americans and conservative activists.[198] In 1986, CAUSA International sponsored the documentary film Nicaragua Was Our Home, about the Miskito Indians of Nicaragua and their persecution at the hands of the Nicaraguan government. It was filmed and produced by USA-UWC member Lee Shapiro, who later died while filming with anti-Soviet forces during the Soviet–Afghan War.[199][200][201][202]

In 1980, members in Washington, D.C., disrupted a protest rally against the United States military draft.[203] In 1981, the Appellate Division of New York State Supreme Court ruled that the HSA–UWC was not entitled to property tax exemptions on its New York City properties since its primary purpose was political, not religious.[204] In 1982, this ruling was overturned by the New York State Supreme Court itself, which ruled that it should be considered a religious organization for tax purposes.[205]

In 1983, some American members joined a public protest against the Soviet Union in response to its shooting down of Korean Airlines Flight 007.[206] In 1984, the HSA–UWC founded the Washington Institute for Values in Public Policy, a Washington, D.C. think tank that underwrites conservative-oriented research and seminars at Stanford University, the University of Chicago, and other institutions.[207] In the same year, member Dan Fefferman founded the International Coalition for Religious Freedom in Virginia, which is active in protesting what it considers to be threats to religious freedom by governmental agencies.[208] In August 1985, the Professors World Peace Academy, an organization founded by Moon, sponsored a conference in Geneva to debate the theme "The situation in the world after the fall of the communist empire."[209]

Post-Cold War

In April 1990, Moon visited the Soviet Union and met with President Mikhail Gorbachev. Moon expressed support for the political and economic transformations underway in the Soviet Union. At the same time, the movement was expanding into formerly communist nations.[210]

In 1994, The New York Times recognized the movement's political influence, saying it was "a theocratic powerhouse that is pouring foreign fortunes into conservative causes in the United States."[211] In 1998, the Egyptian newspaper Al-Ahram criticized Moon's "ultra-right leanings" and suggested a personal relationship with conservative Israeli prime minister Benjamin Netanyahu.[212]

In 1995, the former U.S. President George H. W. Bush and his wife, Barbara Bush, spoke at a FFWPU event in the Tokyo Dome.[213] Bush told the gathering: "If as president I could have done one thing to have helped the country more, it would have been to do a better job in finding a way, either through speaking out or through raising a moral standard, to strengthen the American family."[214] Hak Ja Han, the main speaker, credited her husband with bringing about the Fall of Communism and declared that he must save America from "the destruction of the family and moral decay".[215]

In 2000, Moon founded the World Association of Non-Governmental Organizations (WANGO), which describes itself as "a global organization whose mission is to serve its member organizations, strengthen and encourage the non-governmental sector as a whole, increase public understanding of the non-governmental community, and provide the mechanism and support needed for NGOs to connect, partner, and multiply their contributions to solve humanity's basic problems." It has been criticized for promoting conservatism in contrast to some of the ideals of the United Nations.[216][217][218]

In 2003, Korean FFWPU members started a political party in South Korea. It was named The Party for God, Peace, Unification, and Home. In an inauguration declaration, the new party said it would focus on preparing for the reunification of South and North Korea by educating the public about God and peace. A church official said that similar political parties would be started in Japan and the United States.[56]

Korean unification

Moon viewed the Cold War between liberal democracy and communism as the final conflict between God and Satan, with divided Korea as its primary front line.[219] Soon after its founding, the Unification movement began supporting anti-communist organizations, including the World League for Freedom and Democracy founded in 1966 in Taipei, Republic of China (Taiwan), by Chiang Kai-shek,[220] and the Korean Culture and Freedom Foundation, an international public diplomacy organization which also sponsored Radio Free Asia.[221] In 1975, Moon spoke at a government sponsored rally against potential North Korean military aggression on Yeouido Island in Seoul to an audience of around 1 million.[222]

In 1991, Moon met with Kim Il-sung, the North Korean President, to discuss ways to achieve peace on the Korean Peninsula, as well as on international relations, tourism, and other topics.[223] In 1992, Kim gave his first and only interview with the Western news media to Washington Times reporter Josette Sheeran, who later became executive director of the United Nations World Food Programme.[224] In 1994, Moon was officially invited to Kim's funeral, in spite of the absence of diplomatic relations between North Korea and South Korea.[225]

In 1998, Unification movement-related businesses launched operations in North Korea with the approval of the government of South Korea, which had prohibited business relationships between North and South before.[226] In 2000, the church-associated business group Tongil Group founded Pyeonghwa Motors in the North Korean port of Nampo, in cooperation with the North Korean government. It was the first automobile factory in North Korea.[227]

During the presidency of George W. Bush, Dong Moon Joo, a Unification movement member and then president of The Washington Times, undertook unofficial diplomatic missions to North Korea in an effort to improve its relationship with the United States.[228] Joo was born in North Korea and is a citizen of the United States.[229]

In 2003, Korean Unification Movement members started a political party in South Korea. It was named The Party for God, Peace, Unification and Home. In its inauguration declaration, the new party said it would focus on preparing for Korean reunification by educating the public about God and peace.[56] Moon was a member of the Honorary Committee of the Unification Ministry of the Republic of Korea.[64] Church member Jae-jung Lee was a Unification Minister of the Republic of Korea.[65]

In 2010, in Pyongyang, to mark the 20th anniversary of Moon's visit to Kim Il-sung, de facto head of state Kim Yong-nam hosted Moon's son Hyung Jin Moon, then the president of the Unification Church, in his official residence.[230][231] At that time, Hyung Jin Moon donated 600 tons of flour to the children of Jeongju, the birthplace of Sun Myung Moon.[232][233]

In 2012, Moon was posthumously awarded North Korea's National Reunification Prize.[234] On the first anniversary of Moon's death, North Korean chairman Kim Jong-un expressed condolences to Han and the family, saying: "Kim Jong-un prayed for the repose of Moon, who worked hard for national concord, prosperity and reunification and world peace."[235] In 2017, the Unification Church sponsored the International Association of Parliamentarians for Peace (IAPP)—headed by former Prime Minister of Nepal Madhav Kumar Nepal and former Minister of Peace and Reconstruction Ek Nath Dhakal—visited Pyongyang and had constructive talks with the Korean Workers' Party.[236] In 2020 the movement held an in-person and virtual rally for Korean unification which drew about one million attendees.[80]

Controversy

Theological disputes

View of Jesus

Central to Unification teachings is the concept that fallen humanity can be restored to God only through a messiah, who comes as a new Adam to become the new head of the human race, replacing the sinful parents, through whom mankind can be reborn into God's family. According to the religion, Jesus is this messiah.[237]

In 1980, Unification theologian Young Oon Kim wrote:

Unification theology teaches that Jesus came to establish the kingdom of Heaven on Earth. As St. Paul wrote, Jesus was to be the new Adam restoring the lost garden of Eden. For this purpose he chose twelve apostles, symbolizing the original twelve tribes of Israel, and sent out seventy disciples, symbolizing all the nations of the world. Like John the Baptist, Jesus proclaimed that the long-awaited kingdom of heaven was at hand (Matt. 4:17). Jesus was appointed God's earthly representative in order to subjugate Satan, cleanse men of original sin and free them from the power of evil. Christ's mission involved liberation from sin and raising mankind to the perfection stage. His purpose was to bring about the kingdom of heaven in our world with the help of men filled with divine truth and love. Jesus' goal was to restore the garden of Eden, a place of joy and beauty in which true families of perfected parents would dwell with God in a full relationship of reciprocal love.[238]

The Unification view of Jesus has been criticized by mainstream Christian authors and theologians. In their influential book The Kingdom of the Cults (first published in 1965), Walter Ralston Martin and Ravi K. Zacharias disagreed with the Divine Principle on the issues of the divinity of Christ, the virgin birth of Jesus, the Unification Church's belief that Jesus should have married and a literal resurrection of Jesus as well as a literal Second Coming. They add: "Moon makes all men equal in "divinity" to Jesus, thereby striking a blow at the uniqueness of Christ."[239]

The Divine Principle states on this point:

There is no greater value than that of a person who has realized the ideal of creation. This is the value of Jesus, who surely attained the highest imaginable value. The conventional Christian belief in Jesus' divinity is well founded because, as a perfect human being, Jesus is totally one with God. To assert that Jesus is none other than a man who has completed the purpose of creation does not degrade the value of Jesus in the least.[240]

Unificationist theologian Young Oon Kim wrote, and some members of the Unification movement believe, that Zechariah was the father of Jesus, based on the work of Leslie Weatherhead, an English Christian theologian in the liberal Protestant tradition.[241][237][242][243]

Indemnity

See also: Justification (theology)

Indemnity, in the context of Unification theology, is a part of the process by which human beings and the world are restored to God's ideal.[244][245][246][247] The concept of indemnity is explained at the start of the second half of the Divine Principle, "Introduction to Restoration":

What, then, is the meaning of restoration through indemnity? When someone has lost his original position or state, he must make some condition to be restored to it. The making of such conditions of restitution is called indemnity.[248] .... God's work to restore people to their true, unfallen state by having them fulfill indemnity conditions is called the providence of restoration through indemnity.[249]

Korean original

그 러면 '탕감복귀'란 무엇을 말하는 것인가? 무엇이든지 그 본연의 위치와 상태 등을 잃어버리게 되었을 때, 그것들을 본래의 위치와 상태에로 복귀하려면 반드시 거기에 필요한 어떠한 조건을 세워야 한다. 이러한 조건을 세우는 것을 '탕감(tang-gam)'이라고 하는 것이다....그리고 이처럼 탕감조건을 세워서 창조본연의 인간으로 복귀해 나아가는 섭리를 탕감복귀섭리라고 말한다[250]

※It is intentionally mistranslated as "indemnity", which is the antonym of "forgiveness", which is the original meaning of tang-gam(탕감蕩減).[251][252] [253][254][255][256]

The Divine Principle goes on to explain three types of indemnity conditions. Equal conditions of indemnity pay back the full value of what was lost. The biblical verse "life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth" (Exod.21:23-24) is quoted as an example of an equal indemnity condition. Lesser conditions of indemnity provide a benefit greater than the price that is paid. Faith, baptism, and the eucharist are mentioned as examples of lesser indemnity conditions. Greater conditions of indemnity come about when a person fails in a lesser condition. In that case a greater price must be paid to make up for the earlier failure. Abraham's attempted sacrifice of his son Isaac (Gen. 22:1-18) and the Israelites' 40 years of wandering in the wilderness under Moses (Num.14:34) are mentioned as examples of greater indemnity conditions.[249] The Divine Principle then explains that an indemnity condition must reverse the course by which the mistake or loss came about. Indemnity, at its core, is required of humans because God is pure, and purity cannot relate directly with impurity. Indemnification is the vehicle that allows a "just and righteous" God to work through mankind. Jesus' statement that God had forsaken him (Matt.27:46) and Christianity's history of martyrdom are mentioned as examples of this.[249] The Divine Principle then states that human beings, not God or the angels, are the ones responsible for making indemnity conditions.[257][249][258]

In 2005 scholars Daske and Ashcraft explained the concept of indemnity:

To restart the process toward perfection, God has sent messiahs to Earth who could restore the true state of humanity's relationship with God. Before that can happen, however, humans must perform good deeds that cancel the bad effects of sin. Unificationists call this 'indemnity'. Showing love and devotion to one's fellow humans, especially within families, helps pay this indemnity.[259]

Other Protestant Christian commentators have criticized the concept of indemnity as being contrary to the doctrine of sola fide. Christian historian Ruth Tucker said: "In simple language indemnity is salvation by works."[260][258] Donald Tingle and Richard Fordyce, ministers with the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) who debated two Unification Church theologians in 1977, wrote: "In short, indemnity is anything you want to make it, since you establish the conditions. The zeal and enthusiasm of the Unification Church members is not so much based on love for God as it is compulsion to indemnify one's own sins."[261]
Through this "Indemnity theology","Japanese believers are led to believe that they should donate to the Unification Church to 'atone (indemnify) for the colonial sins committed by their ancestors (against Korea).'"[262]And this often causes big problems.("Assassination of Shinzo Abe")

Criticisms of Moon

Moon's claim to be the Messiah and the Second Coming of Christ has been rejected by both Jewish and Christian scholars.[263][264] The Divine Principle was labeled as heretical by Protestant churches in South Korea, including Moon's own Presbyterian Church. In the United States it was rejected by ecumenical organizations as being non-Christian.[265] Protestant commentators have also criticized Moon's teachings as being contrary to the Protestant doctrine of salvation by faith alone.[266][267] In their influential book The Kingdom of the Cults (first published in 1965), Walter Ralston Martin and Ravi K. Zacharias disagreed with the Divine Principle on the issues of the divinity of Christ, the virgin birth of Jesus, Moon's belief that Jesus should have married, the necessity of the crucifixion of Jesus, a literal resurrection of Jesus, as well as a literal second coming of Jesus.[268] Commentators have criticized the Divine Principle for saying that the First World War, the Second World War, the Holocaust, and the Cold War served as indemnity conditions to prepare the world for the establishment of the Kingdom of God.[269] In 2003, George D. Chryssides of the University of Wolverhampton criticized Moon for introducing doctrines which tended to divide the Christian church rather than uniting it, which was his stated purpose in founding the Unification movement (originally named the Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity).[265]

In the 1990s, when Moon began to offer the Unification marriage blessing ceremony to members of other churches and religions, he was criticized for creating possible confusion.[270] In 1998, journalist Peter Maass, writing for The New Yorker, reported that some Unification members were dismayed and also grumbled when Moon extended the Blessing to non-members, who had not gone through the same course that members had.[271]

In 2000, Moon was criticized, including by some members of his church, for his support of controversial Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan's Million Family March.[55] Moon was also criticized for his relationship with controversial Jewish scholar Richard L. Rubenstein, an advocate of the "death of God theology" of the 1960s.[272] Rubenstein was a defender of the Unification Church and served on its advisory council,[273] as well as on the board of directors of the church-owned Washington Times newspaper.[274] In the 1990s, he served as president of the University of Bridgeport, which was then affiliated with the church.[275] In 1998, the Egyptian newspaper Al-Ahram criticized Moon's possible relationship with Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and wrote that the Washington Times editorial policy was "rabidly anti-Arab, anti-Muslim and pro-Israel."[276][277] Moon has also been criticized for his advocacy of a world-wide "automatic theocracy",[278] as well as for advising his followers that they should become "crazy for God".[279][280]

Defamation lawsuit against the Daily Mail

In 1978, the Daily Mail, a British tabloid newspaper, published an article with the headline: "The Church That Breaks Up Families".[281][282] The article accused the Unification Church of brainwashing and separating families. The British Unification Church's director Dennis Orme filed a libel suit against the Daily Mail and Associated Newspapers, its parent company, resulting in one of the longest civil actions in British legal history – lasting six months.[281][283][284] Orme and the Unification Church lost the libel case, the appeal case, and were refused permission to take their case to the House of Lords.[284] The original case heard 117 witnesses, including American anti-cult psychiatrist Margaret Thaler Singer.[281] In the original case, the Unification Church was ordered to pay Associated Newspapers GB£750,000 in costs which was maintained after appeal.[285] The jury of the original case not only awarded Associated Newspapers costs, but it and the judge requested that the Attorney General re-examine the Unification Church's charitable status, which after a lengthy investigation from 1986 to 1988 was not removed.[286][287] According to George Chryssides, about half of the Unification Church's 500 full-time membership in Britain moved to the United States.[288] The Unification Church sold seven of its twelve principal church centers after the ruling.[289] Other anti-cultists in countries like Germany sought to incorporate the London High Court's decision into law.[284] The Unification Church has won other libel and defamation cases in the United Kingdom, including a similar case against The Daily Telegraph.[286]

Activities in Japan

According to historians, Japan has provided 70% of the Unification Church's wealth. The Unification Church gets funding based on what is called "spiritual sales" in Japan. Steven Hassan, an exit counselor and former Unification Church member, describes spiritual sales as parishioners scanning obituaries, knocking on people's doors, and saying, "Your dead loved one is communicating with us, so please go to the bank and send money to the Unification Church so your loved one can ascend to heaven in the spirit world."[290] According to Shoichi Fujita [ja] of the Religious Information Research Center [ja] and the Zenkoku genriundo higaisha fubo no kai (literally, National Association of Parents of Victims of the Moonism, 全国原理運動被害者父母の会) – an organization formed by the parents of Unification Church members – the Unification Church's doctrines make Japanese people the target of the Unification Church's fundraising efforts by disseminating a doctrine which depicts Korea as “the Adam nation” and Japan as “the Eve nation” that committed sins,[291] and therefore obliged to pay money and people to Korea.[292][293]

In Japan, the activities of the Unification Church have been recognized as a serious social problem since the 1980s. Some of the issues are that the Unification Church uses people's personal worries and anxieties to force them to buy unreasonably expensive items such as pots and seals, conceals its name to entice people to become followers, and forces followers to marry someone it has chosen.[294][295]

The Unification Church and its leaders have been accused by critics of "exploiting the labor and capital of their followers, including billions of dollars transferred from Japan to the United States, to build a business empire". Tak Ji-il, a professor at Busan Presbyterian University, said the Unification Church is fighting over religious principles on the surface but money in reality.[296] Yoshikazu Soejima [ja], a senior official of the Unification Church, revealed the inside story of the Unification Church in the monthly magazine Bungei Shunjū released on June 10, 1984. According to Soejima, over 10 years in the 1970s, about 200 billion yen in donations from Japanese believers were sent to South Korea.[297] In addition, about 800 million dollars were transferred from Japan to the United States in the nine years up to 1984.[298] Soejima was stabbed several times in front of his house on June 2, just before the magazine was released, and he almost died, but the police could not identify the criminal.[297][298]

In 1987, about 300 lawyers in Japan set up an association called the National Network of Lawyers Against Spiritual Sales to help people who were forced to make expensive donations or forced to buy expensive things like pots and seals.[299] [300] According to statistics compiled by the association's lawyers between 1987 and 2021, the association and local government consumer centers received 34,537 complaints alleging that the Unification Church had forced them to make unreasonably large donations or to spend large amounts of money, amounting to about 123.7 billion yen.[301]

According to Hassan, Moon's theology is that Korea is the Adam country, the home of the ruling race destined to rule the world, and Japan is the Eve country, subordinate to Korea. According to him, the church preached that Moon was appointed to save humanity after Eve fell from grace by having sexual relations with Satan.[290] According to Yoshifu Arita, a former journalist and member of the House of Councilors who is investigating the Unification Church, the Unification Church is taking advantage of Japanese youth's sense of redemption for Japan's colonial rule of Korea and defrauding them of money.[302]

In civil cases, Japanese courts have issued a number of rulings ordering the Unification Church to pay compensation to the plaintiffs, saying its missionary work is illegal.[303] Criminal cases related to the Unification Church have also occurred. In 2009, the Tokyo District Court sentenced Unification Church members to prison for forcing victims to buy expensive seals. The court ruled that the missionary work was a pernicious act of forcing the victim to buy a seal immediately after instigating the victim's anxiety by linking the victim's worries with the victim's ancestral past for a long time.[304]

Renaming

Since 1997, the Japanese Unification Church had repeatedly applied to the Agency for Cultural Affairs (ACA), a department directly under the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, for to change its name from "The Holy Spirit Association for the Unification of World Christianity" (世界基督教統一神霊協会) to "Heavenly Parent's Holy Community Family Federation for World Peace and Unification" (天の父母様聖会世界平和統一家庭連合). According to the then chief of the Religious Affairs Division, Kihei Maekawa [ja], the application was rejected by the ACA. When in 2015, Hakubun Shimomura was appointed as the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology under the Third Abe Cabinet, the Unification Church applied for rename again and it was finally approved. Shimomura denied any involvement in the approval process, excusing the final decision was made by the head of the ACA, but Shimomura admitted that he received report about the application of rename, the 2015 head of the ACA also echoed Shimomura's explanation.[305] Maekawa said that for an organization being repeatedly rejected for rename in preview applications, an approval without direct instruction by the parent minister would be unthinkable. Just after the approval, Toru Miyamoto of the Japanese Communist Party requested to see the documents of the approval from the ACA, the documents he received were heavily sanitized. In particular the reason for approval from the department and the argument for rename by the Unification Church were completely redacted.[306]

Assassination of Shinzo Abe

The UC has historically had close ties to the right-wing Liberal Democratic Party, which Abe's grandfather Nobusuke Kishi formed.[307][308][309][310] In 2019, National Network of Lawyers Against Spiritual Sales released a document protesting Abe sending congratulatory messages to events organized by the Unification Church and its affiliated organizations. The association feared that Abe's message would give authority to the Unification Church and encourage its "anti-social activities".[303][311]

In 2022, Abe was assassinated by Tetsuya Yamagami. Tetsuya Yamagami, stated that his motives were not political in nature and that the Unification Church "ruined his life". Yamagami said that he resented the Unification Church because his mother was forced to make a large donation to the church.[312] She joined the Unification Church in 1998, and sold the land she inherited from her father along with the house where she lived with her 3 children. In June 1999, she donated about 100 million yen ($720,000) to the Unification Church, leading to her family's bankruptcy in 2002 and significantly affecting their family, according to Yamagami.[313] Financially troubled, the shooter was unable to enter university despite graduating from a prestigious high school and his brother and father would later commit suicide. Yamagami stated that his original plan was to assassinate Hak Ja Han, the widow of Sun Myung Moon and the current leader of the Unification Church. However, he gave up killing her because he could not get close to her.[314][315] He believes Abe and his grandfather, Nobusuke Kishi, spread the Unification Church in Japan and decided to kill Abe after discovering online that Abe had sent video messages to Unification Church-related organizations.[316]

The National Public Safety Commission chair Satoshi Ninoyu instructed police authorities to set up a panel to investigate the security lapses which may have been involved in the incident.[317] The Commission chair is among several elected officials who promoted a Unification Church event in 2021.[318] Tomihiro Tanaka. a spokesperson for the Unification Church, admitted in a press conference that in the past the Unification Church had problems with its followers due to illegal solicitations and large donations.[299] He claimed that there has been no trouble between the Unification Church and its followers since 2009, when the church began to emphasize legal compliance.[299] On 11 July 2022 the Unification Church issued a press release stating donation amounts are determined by individual members. [319][308][320][321]

Chung Hwan Kwak, the Honorary President of the Global Peace Foundation,[322][323] who had long held a position second to Sun Myung Moon in the UC and left the Unification Church in 2009 after internal strife, apologized on behalf of the Unification Church. He said that the church was responsible for the assassination of Abe. According to Kwak, a wave of bankruptcies, divorces and suicides among Japanese believers had prompted him to attempt to normalize Japan's status as an "economic force" in 2001, but his attempt was thwarted by strong opposition from other church leaders. The Unification Church later denied Kwak's claim, saying that it was Kwak who called for the transfer of Japanese money to the church headquarters. [324][325]

The National Network of Lawyers Against Spiritual Sales reported that victims were cheated out of about 300 million yen in 2021. Hiroshi Yamaguchi, a lawyer for the National Network of Lawyers Against Spiritual Sales, refuted the claim made by the Unification Church at the press conference, saying, "The Unification Church should consider the pain and tragedy of the families of its followers. The Unification Church has bankrupted many of its followers".[299] Another lawyer, Yasuo Kawai, accused Japanese politicians and administrators of taking no action against the Unification Church, which disintegrates families, for more than 30 years.[326]Masaki Kito, a lawyer who is familiar with the actual damage caused by the UC in Japan, said donations amount to 55–60 billion yen and the worst case was to have believers prostituting themselves to raise money.[327] Kito called for Japan's National Diet (parliament) to conduct an investigation of the case bipartisanly.[328][329][330]

Japan's main opposition party, the Constitutional Democratic Party of Japan, and two other opposition parties, the Democratic Party for the People and the Japanese Communist Party, have said that they plan to launch their own investigations into the UC's political influence and connections in Japanese politics.[331] On August 31, 2022, the ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), of which Shinzo Abe was a member, announced that it would no longer have any ties with the Unification Church and related organizations. The Liberal Democratic Party has announced that it will expel its members if they do not break ties with the Unification Church.[332]

Esotericism

The Unification Church is sometimes said to be esoteric in that it keeps some of its doctrines secret from nonmembers,[333][334][335] a practice that is sometimes called "heavenly deception".[336] In 1979, critics Tingle and Fordyce commented: "How different the openness of Christianity is to the attitude of Reverend Moon and his followers who are often reluctant to reveal to the public many of their basic doctrines."[337] Since the 1990s, many Unification texts that were formerly regarded as esoteric have been posted on the Family Federation for World Peace and Unification's official websites.[338]

Related organizations

Although Moon was commonly known as a religious figure, commentators have mentioned his belief in a literal Kingdom of God on earth to be brought about by human effort as a motivation for his establishment of multitudinous groups that are not strictly religious in their purposes.[339][177] Moon was not directly involved with managing the day-to-day activities of the numerous organizations that he indirectly oversaw, yet all of them attribute the inspiration behind their work to his leadership and teachings.[12] Others have said that one purpose of these non-sectarian organizations is to pursue social respectability.[340] These organizations have sometimes been labeled "front groups", an expression which originally referred to Soviet supported organizations during the Cold War.[341]

Multi-faceted organizations

Collegiate Association for the Research of Principles (CARP)

The Collegiate Association for the Research of Principles (CARP) is a collegiate organization founded by Moon and his followers in 1955, which promotes intercultural, interracial, and international cooperation through the Unification world view.[342][343] J. Isamu Yamamoto states in Unification Church: "At times CARP has been very subtle about its association with the Unification Church, however, the link between the two has always been strong, since the purpose of both is to spread Moon's teachings."[344]

Family Peace Association (FPA)

The Family Peace Association was founded by Sun Myung Moon's eldest living son, Hyun Jin Preston Moon together with his wife, Junsook Moon.[345][61] It has the mission: "To enlighten humanity by uplifting their spiritual consciousness through universal principles and values rooted in God-centered families."[346]

Universal Peace Federation (UPF)

Universal Peace Federation (UPF) is an international and interreligious civil society organization that was founded in 2005 which promotes religious freedom.[347] UPF is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit NGO in general consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).[348] Dialogue and Alliance is its journal published from Tarrytown, New York.[349]

Women's Federation for World Peace (WFWP)

WFWP logo
WFWP logo

The Women's Federation for World Peace was founded in 1992 by Hak Ja Han. Its stated purpose is to encourage women to work more actively in promoting peace in their communities and greater society. It has members in 143 countries.[350][351][352]

Han has traveled the world speaking at conventions on the WFWP's behalf.[353] In 1993 the WFWP held a conference in Tokyo, Japan, at which the keynote speaker was former U.S. Vice President Dan Quayle's wife Marilyn Tucker Quayle, and in a speech at the event Han spoke positively of Mrs. Quayle's humanitarian work.[354]

In 1993 Han traveled to 20 cities in the United States promoting the WFWP,[355] as well as to 12 countries.[350] At an event in Salt Lake City, Utah, she told attendants: "If a family is not centered on God's ideal of love, there will be conflict among the members of that family. Without God's love as an absolute center, such a family will ultimately break down. A nation of such families will also decline."[355] Her 1993 speeches in the United States focused on increasing violence in the U.S., and the degradation of the family unit.[356]

In 1995 the WFWP generated controversy when it indirectly contributed $3.5 million to help Liberty University, which at that time was in financial difficulty. This was reported in the United States news media as an example of closer relationships between the Unification movement and conservative Christian congregations.[357] That same year former United States president George H. W. Bush spoke at several WFWP meetings in Japan,[358][359] and at a related conference in Washington, D.C. There he was quoted by The New York Times as saying: "If as president I could have done one thing to have helped the country more it would have been to do a better job in finding a way, either through speaking out or through raising a moral standard, to strengthen the American family."[360]

The events in Japan drew protests from Japanese people who were wary of unorthodox religious groups. Bush's spokesperson Jane Becker stated "We were satisfied that there was not a connection with the Unification Church, and based on the information we were given we felt comfortable speaking to this group."[361] 50,000 people attended Bush's speech in Tokyo.[362] The theme of the talks was "family values".[358] In the half-hour speech, Bush said "what really counts is faith, family and friends". Bush also spoke on the importance of the relationship between Japan and the United States and its importance for world peace.[363] Han spoke after Bush's speech and praised Moon, crediting him for the decline of communism and saying that he must save America from "the destruction of the family and moral decay".[363][364]

In 1999 the WFWP sponsored a conference in Malaysia in which religious and government leaders spoke on the need to strengthen education and support families, as well as the need for peace and understanding between ethnic and racial groups in the nations.[365] In 2009 it co-sponsored, along with the Unification movement affiliated organization the Universal Peace Federation and the government of Taiwan, a conference in Taipei calling for Taiwan's greater participation in world affairs independent of the People's Republic of China. Taiwan's president, Ma Ying-jeou, spoke at the event.[366] The WFWP has also been active in sponsoring various local charity and community events.[367][368]

Service For Peace (SFP)

Service For Peace (SFP) is a non-profit organization, founded in 2001 by the Sun Myung Moon's third son, Dr. Hyun Jin Preston Moon, to give opportunities to young people who wish to better themselves and their communities. As of April 2007, the organization had established chapters in North America, Central America, Caribbean, Europe, Asia, Africa and Oceania. SFP is active in communities and statewide. Colleges have recruited Service for Peace Campus Corps to benefit their fellow peers as well as the communities around them.[369][370] Some SFP chapters have smaller initiatives designed to meet local needs. In the US, Service For Peace's Backpack Angel program supports students throughout Kentucky by providing backpacks and school supplies for children in need.[371]

International Conference on the Unity of the Sciences (ICUS)

International Conference on the Unity of the Sciences (ICUS) is a series of conferences formerly sponsored by the International Cultural Foundation and since 2017 by the Hyo Jeong International Foundation on the Unity of the Sciences (HJIFUS).[82][175] The first conference, held in 1972, had 20 participants; while the largest conference, in Seoul, South Korea in 1982, had 808 participants from over 100 countries.[180]

Participants in one or more of the conferences included Nobel laureates John Eccles (Physiology or Medicine 1963, who chaired the 1976 conference),[175] Eugene Wigner (Physics 1963),[372] economist and political philosopher Friedrich Hayek,[373] ecologist Kenneth Mellanby, Frederick Seitz, pioneer of solid state physics, Ninian Smart, President of the American Academy of Religion,[374] and Holocaust theologian Richard Rubenstein,[375]

Moon believed that religion alone can not save the world,[176] and his particular belief in the importance of the unity of science and religion was reportedly a motivation for the founding of the ICUS.[177] American news media have suggested that the conferences were also an attempt to improve the often controversial Unification movement's public image.[178][179]

The last two editions of the conference have focused on environmental issues, such as rising sea levels and water temperatures, food scarcity, renewable energy, and waste management. The theme in 2017, at ICUS XXIII, was "Earth's Environmental Crisis and the Role of Science", with a similar theme following at ICUS XXIV, in 2018: "Scientific Solutions to the Earth's Environmental Challenges".[376]. At ICUS XXV in 2019, the theme was "Environmental Health and the Quality of Human Life."[377]

InterFaith organizations

Educational organizations

Arts-related organizations

Sports organizations

Political organizations

Businesses

Members of the Unification Movement own a number of businesses in various countries. In Eastern Europe Unification movement missionaries are using the church's business ties to win new converts.[438] David Bromley, a sociologist at Virginia Commonwealth University, said: "The corporate section is understood to be the engine that funds the mission of the church. The wealth base is fairly substantial. But if you were to compare it to the LDS Church or the Catholic Church or other churches that have massive landholdings, this doesn't look on a global scale like a massive operation."[439]

Automotive

Pyeonghwa Motors is an automobile manufacturer based in Seoul, South Korea, and owned by the movement. It is involved in a joint-venture with the North Korean Ryonbong General Corp. The joint venture produces two small cars under license from Fiat,[440] and a pick-up truck and an SUV using complete knock down kits from Chinese manufacturer Dandong Shuguang. Pyeonghwa has the exclusive rights to car production, purchase, and sale of used cars in North Korea. However, most North Koreans are unable to afford a car. Because of the very small market for cars in the country, Pyeonghwa's output is reportedly very low. In 2003, only 314 cars were produced even though the factory had the facilities to produce up to 10,000 cars a year.[441] Erik van Ingen Schenau, author of the book Automobiles Made in North Korea, has estimated the company's total production in 2005 at not more than around 400 units.[442]

Health care

Manufacturing

In South Korea the Tongil Group was founded in 1963 by Sun Myung Moon as a nonprofit organization which would provide revenue for the movement. Its core focus was manufacturing but in the 1970s and 1980s it expanded by founding or acquiring businesses in pharmaceuticals, tourism, and publishing.[447] In the 1990s Tongil Group suffered as a result of the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis. By 2004 it was losing money and was $3.6 billion in debt. In 2005 Sun Myung Moon's son, Kook-jin Moon was appointed chairman of Tongil Group.[447] Among Tongil Group's chief holdings are: The Ilwha Company, which produces ginseng and related products; Ilshin Stone, building materials; and Tongil Heavy Industries, machine parts including hardware for the South Korean military. The Tongil Group funds the Tongil Foundation which supports Unification movement projects including schools and the Little Angels Children's Folk Ballet of Korea.[448]

Maritime

Master Marine, a shipbuilding and fishing company in Alabama;[449][450] International Seafood of Kodiak, Alaska;[451][452] and True World Foods, which runs a major portion of the sushi trade in the US.[453][454] In 2011 Master Marine opened a factory in Las Vegas, Nevada, to manufacture a 27-foot pleasure boat designed by Moon.[455][456]

Media

News World Communications is an international news media corporation.[457] It was founded in New York City, in 1976, by Sun Myung Moon. Its first two newspapers, The News World (later renamed the New York City Tribune) and the Spanish-language Noticias del Mundo, were published in New York from 1976 until the early 1990s. In 1982 The New York Times described News World as "the newspaper unit of the Unification Church."[458] Moon's son Hyun Jin Moon is its chairman of the board.[459] News World Communications owns United Press International, The World and I, Tiempos del Mundo (Latin America), The Segye Ilbo (South Korea), The Sekai Nippo (Japan), the Zambezi Times (South Africa), The Middle East Times (Egypt).[460] Until 2008 it published the Washington, D.C.-based newsmagazine Insight on the News.[457] Until 2010, it owned The Washington Times. On November 2, 2010, Sun Myung Moon and a group of former Times editors purchased the paper from News World.[461]

Real estate

In the 1970s the Unification Church of the United States began making major real estate investments. Church buildings were purchased around the nation. In New York State the Belvedere Estate, the Unification Theological Seminary, and the New Yorker Hotel were purchased. The international headquarters of the church was established in New York City.[462] In Washington, D.C., the church purchased a church building from The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints,[463] and in Seattle the historic Rolland Denny mansion for $175,000 in 1977.[464][465] In 1991 Donald Trump criticized Unification Church real estate investments as possibly disruptive to communities.[466] As of December 1994, Unification Church had invested $150 million in Uruguay. Members own the country's largest hotel, one of its leading banks, the second-largest newspaper and two of the largest printing plants.[467] In 2008 church related real estate investment partnership USP Rockets LLC was active in Richmond, Virginia.[468] In 2011 the church related National Hospitality Corporation sold the Sheraton National Hotel.[469] U.S. Property Development Corporation, real estate investment[470] Yongpyong Resort, which hosted the alpine skiing events for the 2018 Winter Olympics and Paralympics.[471][472]

United Nations-related non-governmental organizations

From 2000 until his death in 2012, Moon promoted the creation of an interreligious council at the United Nations as a check and balance to its political-only structure.[473][474] Since then King Abdullah of Saudi Arabia and King Juan Carlos I of Spain hosted officially a program to promote the proposal.[475] Moon's Universal Peace Federation is in special consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council[476][477] and a member of the UN Commission on Sustainable Development,[476][478] a member of the United Nations Division for Palestinian Rights,[479][480] a member of the United Nations Human Rights Council,[481][482][483] a member of the UNHRC,[484][485] a member of the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs and United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific.[486] Three of Moon's non-governmental organizations (NGOs) – Universal Peace Federation, Women's Federation for World Peace and Service for Peace – are in consultative status with the United Nations Economic and Social Council.[487][477][488]

Other organizations

Organizations which are supported by the members of the Unification Movement

See also

References

  1. ^ Eileen Barker. Abstract of "The Unification Church: A Kaleidoscopic Introduction." Society Register 2, no. 2 (2018): 19–62.
  2. ^ Eileen Barker. "The Unification Church: A Kaleidoscopic Introduction." Society Register 2, no. 2 (2018): 19–62.
  3. ^ a b Bednarowski, Mary Farrell (1995). New Religions and the Theological Imagination in America. Indiana University Press. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-253-20952-8. Retrieved 28 December 2008.
  4. ^ Barker, Eileen, The Making of a Moonie: Choice Or Brainwashing? Modern Revivals in Sociology, illustrated, reprint, revised ed. (Gregg Revivals, 1993)[page needed] ISBN 978-0751201369
  5. ^ Bromley, David G. and Anson D. Shupe, Jr., "Moonies" in America: Cult, Church, and Crusade, edited by David G. Bromley, Sage Library of Social Research (Sage, 1979)
  6. ^ a b Goodman, Walter (21 January 1992). "Review/Television; Sun Myung Moon Changes Robes". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 10 August 2022.
  7. ^ a b c Diamond, Sara (1989). Spiritual Warfare: The Politics of the Christian Right. South End Press. ISBN 978-0-89608-361-5.
  8. ^ Kent, Stephen A., From Slogans to Mantras: Social Protest and Religious Conversion in the Late Vietnam War Era (Syracuse University Press, 2001), 168.
  9. ^ Fisher, Marc; Leen, Jeff (23 November 1997). "A Church in Flux Is Flush With Cash". The Washington Post. pp. A01. Retrieved 10 August 2022.
  10. ^ a b Yamamoto, J. I., 1995, Unification Church, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House ISBN 0-310-70381-6 (Excerpt: Archived 2012-02-10 at the Wayback Machine)
    "1. The Unification Theological Seminary
    a. The Unification Church has a seminary in Barrytown, New York called The Unification Theological Seminary.
    b. It is used as a theological training center, where members are prepared to be leaders and theologians in the church.
    c. Since many people regard Moon as a cult leader, there is a false impression that this seminary is academically weak.
    d. Moon's seminary, however, has not only attracted a respectable faculty (many of whom are not members of his church), but it also has graduated many students (who are members of his church) who have been accepted into doctoral programs at institutions such as Harvard and Yale."
  11. ^ a b Sun Myung Moon forms new political party to merge divided Koreas Archived 2013-09-01 at the Wayback Machine Church and State, May 2003
  12. ^ a b Swatos, Jr, William H. (1998). Encyclopedia of religion and society. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press. ISBN 978-0-7619-8956-1. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
  13. ^ a b Introvigne, Massimo (2000). The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion. Salt Lake City, Utah: Signature Books. pp. 47–52. ISBN 1-56085-145-7.
  14. ^ U. S. Department of the Army (2001). Religious Requirements and Practices of Certain Selected Groups: A Handbook for Chaplains. The Minerva Group, Inc. pp. 1-41 to 1-47. ISBN 978-0-89875-607-4.
  15. ^ Miller, Timothy (1995). America's Alternative Religions. State University of New York Press. pp. 223, 414. ISBN 978-0-7914-2398-1.
  16. ^ "Church leaders unite against Moonies". PacNews. Pacific Island News Agency Service. 17 February 2006.
  17. ^ Enroth, Ronald M. (2005). A Guide To New Religious Movements. InterVarsity Press. pp. 69, 72. ISBN 978-0-8308-2381-9.
  18. ^ Shupe, Anson D.; Bronislaw Misztal (1998). Religion, Mobilization, and Social Action. Praeger. pp. 197, 213, 215. ISBN 978-0-275-95625-7.
  19. ^ Ofcom (20 February 2006). "Complaint by Mr Robin Marsh on behalf of The Family Federation for World Peace and Unification – UK (formerly known as the Unification Church)". Broadcast Bulletin. www.ofcom.org.uk (54). Archived from the original on 30 March 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2009.
  20. ^ Helvarg, David (2004). The War Against the Greens. Johnson Books. p. 211. ISBN 978-1-55566-328-5.
  21. ^ Hatch, Walter (13 February 1989). "Big names lend luster to group's causes – Church leader gains legitimacy among U.S. conservatives". The Seattle Times. Seattle Times Company. p. A1.
  22. ^ Shupe, Anson D.; Misztal, Bronislaw (1998). Religion, Mobilization, and Social Action. Praeger. pp. 197, 213, 215. ISBN 978-0-275-95625-7.
  23. ^ Jenkins, Philip (2000). Mystics and Messiahs: Cults and New Religions in American History. Oxford University Press. pp. 28, 200. ISBN 0-19-512744-7.
  24. ^ Petri, Alexandra E. (26 September 2018). "Unification Parents Are Primary Matchmakers for Their Children". The New York Times. Retrieved 14 September 2022.
  25. ^ "Moon is mourned by sister in N Korea. Agence France Press". Archived from the original on 26 April 2012. Retrieved 18 July 2018.
  26. ^ a b "BBC News | Unification Church | Mass Moonie Marriage in the US". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 9 August 2022.
  27. ^ "김백문의 기독교근본원리 연재 1 - 국역 서론". 기독교포털뉴스 (in Korean). 10 September 2021. Retrieved 9 August 2022.
  28. ^ "교회와신앙". www.amennews.com. Retrieved 9 August 2022. Sun Myung Moon saw the manuscript of "Root cause of The Human Fall and Principle of Restoration" by Ben-mun Kim during the evacuation in Busan, Dongrae in 1952. And He said, "I will proofread the manuscript it" and took it home. After that he didn't return it for more than 6 months, causing a turmoil.
  29. ^ Richard Greene; K.J. Kwon; Greg Botelho (3 September 2013). "Rev. Moon, religious and political figure, dies in South Korea at 92". CNN. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
  30. ^ a b Brown, Emma (2 September 2012). "Sun Myung Moon dies at 92; Washington Times owner led the Unification Church". The Washington Post. ISSN 0740-5421. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 12 June 2013. self-professed messiah who claimed millions of religious followers in his Unification Church and sought to become a powerful voice in the American conservative movement through business interests
  31. ^ a b c d e Introvigne, 2000
  32. ^ Wakin, Daniel J. (2 September 2012). "Rev. Sun Myung Moon, 92, Unification Church Founder, Dies". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
  33. ^ Woo, Elaine (3 September 2012). "Sun Myung Moon dies at 92; led controversial Unification Church". Los Angeles Times. ISSN 0458-3035. Archived from the original on 5 October 2012. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
  34. ^ Brown, Emma (4 September 2012). "Sun Myung Moon dies at 92; Washington Times owner led the Unification Church". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2 January 2013.
  35. ^ a b Barker, Eileen (3 September 2012). "My Take: Moon's death marks end of an era". CNN. Retrieved 10 August 2022.
  36. ^ "'Moonies' founder dies, aged 92". The Irish Times. 3 September 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
  37. ^ Introvigne, Massimo, 2000, The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7, excerpt Archived 2008-05-13 at the Wayback Machine pp. 12–16
  38. ^ Moon-struck, Time, 15 October 1973, "The core members – most in their 20s, many of them converts from other spiritual, psychological or political trips – display a dogged devotion that makes even Jehovah's Witnesses look like backsliders. They are enthusiastic capitalists who rise at dawn to hit the streets with wares to exchange for "donations": flowers, votive light candles, even peanuts. Last year, when Master Moon moved his international headquarters to Tarrytown, New York, members sold candles across the U.S. for seven weeks to meet the down payment of $300,000 on an $850,000 estate".
  39. ^ "Czechs, Now "Naively" Seeking Direction, See Dangers in Cults", The New York Times, February 14, 1996
  40. ^ "Unification Church Gains Respect in Latin America", The New York Times, November 24, 1996
  41. ^ The Moonies in Moscow: a second coming?, Green Left Weekly, 28 May 1997. "With the dismantling of the Soviet Union in 1991, Moon's anticommunism lost much of its camouflage value. There was, however, the compensating possibility of being able to expand his operations into Russia – both with the bible, and with business. One of Moon's schemes in Russia during the early 1990s was reportedly to rent Red Square for a mass wedding ceremony of the type practised by his sect in many cities around the world, in which scores and perhaps hundreds of couples – selected for one another by UC leaders, and introduced only a few days previously – are married simultaneously. This plan came to nothing. The most that was achieved was that Moon's wife was allowed to broadcast from the stage of the Kremlin Palace of Congresses".
  42. ^ a b A Less Secular Approach Archived 2012-02-29 at the Wayback Machine, The Saint Petersburg Times, June 7, 2002
  43. ^ Schmemann, Serge (28 July 1993). "Religion Returns to Russia, With a Vengeance". The New York Times.
  44. ^ Quebedeaux, Richard (1982). Lifestyle: Conversations with Members of Unification Church – "Quebedeaux, Richard" – Google Книги. ISBN 9780932894182. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
  45. ^ Reed, Christoper (2 September 2012). "The Rev Sun Myung Moon obituary Korean founder of the Unification church – the Moonies". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 10 September 2012.
  46. ^ "Japan". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  47. ^ Moon's Japanese Profits Bolster Efforts in U.S. The Washington Post, September 16, 2008
  48. ^ The Unification Church Aims a Major Public Relations Effort at Christian Leaders Christianity Today, April 19, 1985.
  49. ^ Moon's financial rise and fall,Harvard Crimson, October 11, 1984
  50. ^ Introvigne, Massimo, 2000, The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7, excerpt Archived 2008-05-13 at the Wayback Machine
  51. ^ Patrick Hickey Tahoe Boy: A journey back home John, Maryland, Seven Locks Press (2009) ISBN 978-0-9822293-6-1 pp. 163–168
  52. ^ Stymied in U.S., Moon's Church Sounds a Retreat, Marc Fisher and Jeff Leen, The Washington Post, November 24, 1997
  53. ^ a b "CNN - Breaking News, Latest News and Videos". CNN. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  54. ^ a b Families Arrive in Washington For March Called by Farrakhan, The New York Times, October 16, 2000
  55. ^ a b c Clarkson, Frederick (9 October 2000). "Million Moon March". Salon. Salon.com, Inc. Retrieved 5 November 2009.
  56. ^ a b c "Moonies" launch political party in S Korea,The Independent (South Africa), March 10, 2003
  57. ^ Universal peace federation, Middle east peace initiative Archived 2013-01-17 at the Wayback Machine
  58. ^ Andrea Noble, The Gazette, Bowie resident pushes for peace, Gazette.net, Jan. 8, 2009
  59. ^ a b Babington, Charles; Alan Cooperman (23 June 2004). "The Rev. Moon Honored at Hill Reception - Lawmakers Say They Were Misled". Washington Post. pp. A01.
  60. ^ a b "Lawmakers Scurry From the Light". The New York Times. 27 June 2004. Archived from the original on 13 May 2008. Retrieved 13 February 2017.
  61. ^ a b c <"Life and Legacy of Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Movements in Scholarly Perspective". www.cesnur.org (in Italian). CESNUR Center for Studies on New Religions. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
  62. ^ Yoon, Sangwon (15 August 2012). "Unification Church Says Leader Moon Is 'Gravely Ill'". Bloomberg. Retrieved 16 August 2012.
  63. ^ Unification Church founder dies, Korea Herald, 2012-9-3
  64. ^ a b "자유게시판". Unikorea.go.kr. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
  65. ^ a b "mk 'ş˝ş ĹëŔĎąłŔ°˝ÉŔÇŔ§ °łĂÖ..łťłâ ĹëŔĎąłŔ° šćÇâ źłÁ¤". News.mk.co.kr. 28 December 2006. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
  66. ^ Nepalese Constituent Assembly Archived 2012-03-02 at the Wayback Machine
  67. ^ "News in Nepal: Fast, Full & Factual". Myrepublica.Com. 19 May 2012. Retrieved 4 September 2012.
  68. ^ Unificationists in the Voting Booth
  69. ^ Khmer Times: "Three leaders chosen to receive Peace Prize"
  70. ^ Ban Ki-Moon Centre : "Co-chair Ban Ki-moon's acceptance speech for Sunhak Peace Prize"
  71. ^ Yeonhap News - Trump: "My greatest achievement during my presidency was contributing to the construction of a new path between the two Koreas."
  72. ^ Huffington Post: "Trump hails Unification Church"
  73. ^ Woodward, Alex (21 September 2021). "Trump gives virtual speech to event linked to controversial religious "cult" on 9/11 anniversary". The Independent. Retrieved 18 July 2022.
  74. ^ Trinidad and Tobago Newsday: "Carmona, Trump call for Korean reunification"
  75. ^ Akahata (14 October 2006). "Prime Minister Abe sent congratulatory telegrams to Unification Church". Japan Press Weekly (japan-press.co.jp).
  76. ^ The Guardian - Japan PM Fumio Kishida popularity dives - Unification Church
  77. ^ Boorstein, Michelle; Shapira, Ian (23 November 2009). "Succession, division worry church members and beneficiaries". Washington Post. Retrieved 10 February 2018.
  78. ^ Barker, Eileen (2016). Revisionism and Diversification in New Religious Movements. Routledge. ISBN 9781317063605.
  79. ^ "Hak Ja Han Moon calls for South Korea Japan Solidarity". The Washington Times. 6 October 2019.
  80. ^ a b The Washington Times, 11-22-2020, Rally for Hoope Draws Million Attendees
  81. ^ Charles. "Belvedere Unification Family, Tarrytown, NY". Belvedere Family. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  82. ^ a b excerpt Archived 2008-05-13 at the Wayback Machine The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Massimo Introvigne, 2000, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7
  83. ^ John Bowker, 2011, The Message and the Book, UK, Atlantic Books, pp. 13–14
  84. ^ a b Korean Moon: Waxing of Waning?, Leo Sandon Jr., Theology Today, Vol 35, No 2, July 1978, "The movement's official doctrinal statement, and a part of the revelation, is the Divine Principle. Both an oral tradition and a written one and published in several versions, Divine Principle is the Completed Testament. Moon claims to have come not to destroy or abrogate the Old and New Testaments, but to fulfill them – to "complete" them. To his Moonist followers, Moon is primarily "true father", probably the Messiah, and only secondarily a theologian. In an effort to systematize Moon's teachings, several members of the Unification Church in Korea have put together a developing theological system in Divine Principle which is impressive in its imaginative nature, coherence, and consistency, if not in its Christian orthodoxy. As the most complete expression of Moonist teachings to date, Divine Principle is the basic text of the Unification Church.4 The two major divisions of the system are the doctrines of Creation and Restoration. There are many subsets to these major divisions, but Creation and Restoration are the foci for the Moonist theological system."
  85. ^ Moon At Twilight: Amid scandal, the Unification Church has a strange new mission Archived 2020-02-16 at the Wayback Machine, Peter Maass New Yorker Magazine, September 14, 1998. "Moon sees the essence of his own mission as completing the one given to Jesus--establishing a "true family" untouched by Satan while teaching all people to lead a God-centered life under his spiritual leadership."
  86. ^ Chryssides, 1991. p. 99
  87. ^ Yamamoto, J. ISamu (2016). Unification Church. Zondervan.
  88. ^ "Duddy, Neil Interview: Dr. Mose Durst". Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 24 June 2007.
  89. ^ "NEW YORK DAY BY DAY; Wedding Day for 4,000". The New York Times. 1 July 1982.
  90. ^ Marriage by the numbers; Moon presides as 6,500 couples wed in S. Korea Archived 2008-10-08 at the Wayback Machine Peter Maass The Washington Post October 31, 1988
  91. ^ From the Unification Church to the Unification Movement, 1994–1999: Five Years of Dramatic Changes Massimo Introvigne, Center for Studies on New Religions "The ceremony in Washington, D.C., included six "co-officiators" from other faiths, including controversial minister Louis Farrakhan from the Nation of Islam. The Blessing ceremony in Seoul on February 7, 1999 also featured seven co-officiators including Orthodox Rabbi Virgil Kranz (Chairman of the American Jewish Assembly), controversial Catholic Archbishop Emmanuel Milingo and the General Superintendent of the Church of God in Christ (a large African American Pentecostal denomination), Rev. T.L. Barrett."
  92. ^ Children of Moon church's mass-wedding age face a crossroads, The Washington Post, January 3, 2009
  93. ^ The men and women entered a large room, where Moon began matching couples by pointing at them."NY Daily News "In the Unification tradition, romantic liaisons are forbidden until the members are deemed by Mr. Moon to be spiritually ready to be matched at a huge gathering where he points future spouses out to one another. His followers believe that his decisions are based on his ability to discern their suitability and see their future descendants. Many are matched with people of other races and nationalities, in keeping with Mr. Moon's ideal of unifying all races and nations in the Unification Church. Though some couples are matched immediately before the mass wedding ceremonies, which are held every two or three years, most have long engagements during which they are typically posted in different cities or even continents, and get to know one another through letters."The New York Times "Many were personally matched by Moon, who taught that romantic love led to sexual promiscuity, mismatched couples and dysfunctional societies. Moon's preference for cross-cultural marriages also meant that couples often shared no common language."Manchester Guardian "Moon's death Sept. 2 and funeral Saturday signaled the end of the random pairings that helped make Moon's Unification Church famous – and infamous – a generation ago." Washington Post "Many of the couples who married at mass weddings were hand-picked by Moon from photos. It led to some strange pairs such as a 71-year-old African Catholic archbishop who wed a 43-year-old Korean acupuncturist. In 1988 Moon entered the Guinness Book of Records when he married 6,516 identically dressed couples at Seoul's Olympic Stadium. Moonie newly-weds were forbidden to sleep together for 40 days to prove their marriage was on a higher plane. They then had to consummate their marriage in a three-day ritual with the sexual positions stipulated by their leader."Daily Mirror
  94. ^ Despite controversy, Moon and his church moving into mainstream Archived 2008-07-25 at the Wayback Machine Chicago Tribune, April 11, 2006. 'The church's most spectacular rite remains mass weddings, which the church calls the way "fallen men and women can be engrafted into the true lineage of God."'
  95. ^ At RFK, Moon Presides Over Mass Wedding, The Washington Post, November 3, 1997, "Church and stadium officials estimated that more than 40,000 people, mostly couples, attended the event, including the Moon-matched couples who took their marriage vows on the football field and exchanged gold rings displaying the church symbol. Those couples, however, must still fulfill whatever requirements exist where they live to be considered legally married."
  96. ^ 28,000 Couples Gather for Rev. Moon Rites, The New York Times, November 30, 1997
  97. ^ Lucas, Phillip Charles; Thomas Robbins (2004). New Religious Movements in the Twenty-first Century. Routledge. p. 320. ISBN 978-0-415-96577-4. Retrieved 28 December 2008.
  98. ^ Unification Church pres sees smaller mass weddings Archived 2009-03-22 at the Wayback Machine, The Monitor (Uganda), 30 December 2008, "Moon said the church does not give its wedding blessing to same sex couples."
  99. ^ Goodstein, Laurie (28 November 1997). "35,000 Couples Are Invited To a Blessing by Rev. Moon". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 December 2008.
  100. ^ Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America: African diaspora traditions and other American innovations, Volume 5 of Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America, W. Michael Ashcraft, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006, ISBN 0-275-98717-5, ISBN 978-0-275-98717-6, page 180
  101. ^ Exploring New Religions, Issues in contemporary religion, George D. Chryssides, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2001ISBN 0-8264-5959-5, ISBN 978-0-8264-5959-6 p. 1
  102. ^ Exploring the climate of doomArchived 2012-04-23 at the Wayback Machine, Rich Lowry, 2009-12-19 'The phrase "doomsday cult" entered our collective vocabulary after John Lofland published his 1966 study, "Doomsday Cult: A Study of Conversion, Proselytization, and Maintenance of Faith." Lofland wrote about the Unification Church.'
  103. ^ Conversion Archived 2012-01-21 at the Wayback Machine, Unification Church Archived 2012-01-13 at the Wayback Machine, Encyclopedia of Religion and Society, Hartford Institute for Religion Research, Hartford Seminary
  104. ^ a b Frederick E. Sontag dies at 84; Pomona College philosophy professor, Los Angeles Times, June 20, 2009
  105. ^ a b Who is this Pied Piper of Religion?, St. Petersburg Times, February 4, 1978
  106. ^ a b Moon: an objective look at his theology, Boca Raton News, 1977-11-25
  107. ^ Review, William Rusher, National Review, December 19, 1986.
  108. ^ The Market for Martyrs Archived 2012-01-11 at the Wayback Machine, Laurence Iannaccone, George Mason University, 2006, "One of the most comprehensive and influential studies was The Making of a Moonie: Choice or Brainwashing? by Eileen Barker (1984). Barker could find no evidence that Moonie recruits were ever kidnapped, confined, or coerced. Participants at Moonie retreats were not deprived of sleep; the lectures were not "trance-inducing"; and there was not much chanting, no drugs or alcohol, and little that could be termed "frenzy" or "ecstatic" experience. People were free to leave, and leave they did. Barker's extensive enumerations showed that among the recruits who went so far as to attend two-day retreats (claimed to be Moonie's most effective means of "brainwashing"), fewer than 25% joined the group formore than a week and only 5% remained full-time members one year later. And, of course, most contacts dropped out before attending a retreat. Of all those who visited a Moonie centre at least once, not one in two-hundred remained in the movement two years later. With failure rates exceeding 99.5%, it comes as no surprise that full-time Moonie membership in the U.S. never exceeded a few thousand. And this was one of the most New Religious Movements of the era!"
  109. ^ Oakes, Len "By far the best study of the conversion process is Eileen Barker's The Making of a Moonie [...]" from Prophetic Charisma: The Psychology of Revolutionary Religious Personalities, 1997, ISBN 0-8156-0398-3
  110. ^ Storr, Anthony Dr. Feet of clay: a study of gurus 1996 ISBN 0-684-83495-2
  111. ^ Past Winners Archived 2010-02-06 at the Wayback Machine
  112. ^ Kent, Stephen; Theresa Krebs (1998). "Academic Compromise in the Social Scientific Study of Alternative Religions". Nova Religio. 2 (1): 44–54. doi:10.1525/nr.1998.2.1.44.
  113. ^ Rudin, A. James, 1978 A View of the Unification Church, American Jewish Committee Archives
  114. ^ Sun Myung Moon Is Criticized by Religious Leaders; Jewish Patrons Enraged, David F. White, The New York Times, December 29, 1976
  115. ^ Response to A. James Rudin's Report, Unification Church Department of Public Affairs, Daniel C. Holdgeiwe, Johnny Sonneborn, March 1977.
  116. ^ "Religion: Sun Myung Moon's Goodwill Blitz". Time Magazine. 22 April 1985. Archived from the original on 7 September 2008.
  117. ^ "Unification Church seen as persecuted", The Milwaukee Sentinel, September 15, 1984, p. 4
  118. ^ To Bigotry, No Sanction, Mose Durst, 1984
  119. ^ Guidelines for Members of The Unification Church in Relations with the Jewish People, Peter Ross and Andrew Wilson, March 15, 1989.
  120. ^ a b Unifying or Dividing? Sun Myung Moon and the Origins of the Unification Church George D. Chryssides, University of Wolverhampton, U.K. 2003
  121. ^ Yamamoto, J. 1995, Unification Church, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Press, ISBN 0-310-70381-6 p. 40
  122. ^ Walter Ralston Martin, Ravi K. Zacharias, The Kingdom of the Cults, Bethany House, 2003, ISBN 0764228218 pp. 368–370
  123. ^ Yamamoto, J. I., 1995, Unification Church, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House ISBN 0-310-70381-6 (Excerpt: Archived 2012-02-10 at the Wayback Machine)
    "1. The Unification Theological Seminary
    a. The Unification Church has a seminary in Barrytown, New York called The Unification Theological Seminary.
    b. It is used as a theological training center, where members are prepared to be leaders and theologians in the church.
    c. Since many people regard Moon as a cult leader, there is a false impression that this seminary is academically weak.
    d. Moon's seminary, however, has not only attracted a respectable faculty (many of whom are not members of his church), but it also has graduated many students (who are members of his church) who have been accepted into doctoral programs at institutions such as Harvard and Yale."
  124. ^ a b Korean Moon: Waxing or Waning Leo Sandon Jr. Theology Today, July 1978, "The Unification Church purchased the estate and now administers a growing seminary where approximately 110 Moonies engage in a two-year curriculum which includes biblical studies, church history, philosophy, theology, religious education, and which leads to a Master of Religious Education degree."
  125. ^ a b Dialogue with the Moonies Rodney Sawatsky, Theology Today, April 1978. "Only a minority of their teachers are Unification devotees; a Jew teaches Old Testament, a Christian instructs in church history and a Presbyterian lectures in theology, and so on. Typical sectarian fears of the outsider are not found among Moonies; truth is one or at least must become one, and understanding can be delivered even by the uninitiated."
  126. ^ Where have all the Moonies gone? Archived 2012-07-30 at archive.today K. Gordon Neufeld, First Things, March 2008, "While I was studying theology, church history, and the Bible—taught by an eclectic faculty that included a rabbi, a Jesuit priest, and a Methodist minister—most of my young coreligionists were standing on street corners in San Francisco, Boston, and Miami urging strangers to attend a vaguely described dinner."
  127. ^ Helm, S. Divine Principle and the Second Advent Archived 2008-09-21 at the Wayback Machine Christian Century May 11, 1977 "In fact Moon's adherents differ from previous fringe groups in their quite early and expensive pursuit of respectability, as evidenced by the scientific conventions they have sponsored in England and the U.S. and the seminary they have established in Barrytown, New York, whose faculty is composed not of their own group members but rather of respected Christian scholars."
  128. ^ New Hope for Dialogue with National Council of Churches of Christ, Chris Antal, February, 2000
  129. ^ Sontag, Frederick, Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church, (Abingdon Press, 1977; Korean translation, Pacific Publishing Company, 1981; Japanese translation, Tuttle-Mori Agency, Inc., 1977; German translation, SINUS-Verlag, Krefeld, 1981) ISBN 0-687-40622-6"
  130. ^ The Unification Church Aims a Major Public Relations Effort at Christian Leaders Christianity Today April 19, 1985.
  131. ^ Introvigne, Massimo, 2000, The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7, excerpt Archived 2003-04-29 at the Wayback Machine
  132. ^ Raspberry, William, "Did Unpopular Moonie Get a Fair Trial?", The Washington Post, April 19, 1984
  133. ^ Clear Lake Journal; Congregation Dismisses Its Minister Over Trip, The New York Times, May 25, 1988
  134. ^ Russian unorthodox The Globe and Mail February 8, 2008.
  135. ^ a b Fisher, Marc (23 November 1997). "A Church in Flux Is Flush With Cash". The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 November 2007. "Also in 1995, the Women's Federation made another donation that illustrates how Moon supports fellow conservatives. It gave a $3.5 million grant to the Christian Heritage Foundation, which later bought a large portion of Liberty University's debt, rescuing the Rev. Jerry Falwell's Lynchburg, Va., religious school from the brink of bankruptcy."
  136. ^ "Archbishop rejects Vatican ultimatum". www.cesnur.org. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  137. ^ Allen Jr., John (31 August 2001). "The archbishop's wife speaks for herself". National Catholic Reporter.
  138. ^ Archbishop launches married priests movement Archived 2007-12-22 at the Wayback Machine
  139. ^ Archbishop Milingo: 'Married Priesthood Now'; Healer Missing from Italy Emerges in U.S., Proclaims End to Mandatory Celibacy U.S. Newswire
  140. ^ ""Tear down the Cross" Ceremony – Bronx, New York – Unification News 4/2003". www.tparents.org. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  141. ^ "Quotes from Sun Myung Moon relevant to the May 2003 Pilgrimage to Israel (Take Down the Cross)". www.tparents.org. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  142. ^ Rome and Israel Pilgrim Tour – Burying of the Cross.
  143. ^ Exposition of the Divine Principle 1996 Translation Chapter 3 Eschatology and Human History, accessed September 3, 2010
  144. ^ Afghanistan: eight years of Soviet occupation, United States Department of State, March 1988, The campaign to target foreign journalists had more tragic results. Two American filmmakers, Lee Shapiro and Jim Lindelof, were apparently killed by a regime attack while traveling with the mujahidin. In 1986, Lindelof had been named paramedic of the year for his efforts training Afghan medical workers. In response to protests, Kabul stated it could not "guarantee the security of foreign subjects" who enter illegally, whose presence it views as "evidence" of "external interference".
  145. ^ 2 Americans killed in ambush, Pacific Stars and Stripes, October 29, 1987
  146. ^ Two US journalists reported killed in Afghanistan; details murky, Christian Science Monitor, October 28, 1987 "Two American journalists are believed dead in northwest Afghanistan, diplomatic and resistance forces say here. Filmmaker Lee Shapiro and his soundman, Jim Lindalos, both of New York, were killed Oct. 11, reportedly in a Soviet or Afghan government ambush, according to United States consular officials. However, the resistance group that accompanied the film team has a poor reputation among most informed observers, and doubts have arisen over whether the two Americans did indeed die in an Afghan government or Soviet attack."
  147. ^ Kaplan, Robert, Soldiers of God : With Islamic Warriors in Afghanistan and Pakistan, New York : Vintage Departures, 2001, p. 170
  148. ^ a b As U.S. Media Ownership Shrinks, Who Covers Islam?, Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, December 1997
  149. ^ From the Unification Church to the Unification Movement, 1994–1999: Five Years of Dramatic Changes Massimo Introvigne, Center for Studies on New Religions "The ceremony in Washington, D.C., included six "co-officiators" from other faiths, including controversial minister Louis Farrakhan from the Nation of Islam. The Blessing ceremony in Seoul on 7 February 1999 also featured seven co-officiators including Orthodox Rabbi Virgil Kranz (Chairman of the American Jewish Assembly), controversial Catholic Archbishop Emmanuel Milingo and the General Superintendent of the Church of God in Christ (a large African American Pentecostal denomination), Rev. T.L. Barrett."
  150. ^ Prayers for Minister Farrakhan health, recovery continue Archived 2011-07-11 at the Wayback Machine, Frost Illustrated, January 31, 2007
  151. ^ Unification Church of America History by Lloyd Pumphrey
  152. ^ John Dempsey (1 June 2007). "American Life TV targets baby boomers". Variety. Retrieved 9 October 2007.
  153. ^ a b American Life TV targets baby boomers: Channel airing Clooney's Darfur docu Variety, June 1, 2007
  154. ^ Beah, Ishmael (3 May 2007). "The 2007 Time 100". Time. Retrieved 19 January 2019 – via content.time.com.
  155. ^ Clooney's Docu on Darfur to Air Monday Archived 2008-11-01 at the Wayback Machine
  156. ^ AmericanLife TV Network (ALN) Donates Proceeds From "A Journey to Darfur" DVD to the International Rescue Committee Archived 2009-01-13 at the Wayback Machine
  157. ^ a b Moon, Sun Myung (2009). As a Peace-Loving Global Citizen. Gimm-Young Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7166-0299-6.
  158. ^ World Muslim League plans seminar for Taiwan, Taiwan Today, February 16, 2011
  159. ^ "Fuero Militar Policial". Fmp.gob.pe. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
  160. ^ "Portal Peruano Sociedad y Parlamento". Congreso.gob.pe. Retrieved 7 November 2015.
  161. ^ "Centro de Noticias el Heraldo". Archived from the original on 30 July 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
  162. ^ Escrito por Imagen Institucional. "David Yamashiro Es Nombrado Embajador Para La Paz". Municportillo.gob.pe. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
  163. ^ "Centro de Noticias el Heraldo". Archived from the original on 23 July 2012. Retrieved 4 May 2012.
  164. ^ "Espacio de Concertación – Dirección General de Desplazados y Cultura de Paz". Mimdes.gob.pe. Archived from the original on 20 December 2009. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
  165. ^ "mk 'ş˝ş ĹëŔĎął źź°čşťşÎąłČ¸ ťő źşŔü, żëťężĄ żĎ°ř". News.mk.co.kr. 18 February 2010. Retrieved 23 May 2012.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  166. ^ "International Day Of Peace 2009 Timeline". Dipity.com. Archived from the original on 3 September 2013. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
  167. ^ http://web.parliament.go.th/php4/radio/temp/news8688.doc[dead link]
  168. ^ "Incontro per la settimana mondiale per l'armonia interreligiosa a Torino il 4 febbraio". Torinotoday.it. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
  169. ^ "United Nations Webcast – "Common ground for the common good" on the occasion of the World Interfaith Harmony Week". Unmultimedia.org. Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
  170. ^ "Deputy Secretary-General, at Interfaith Harmony Week Event, Says Common Cause in Mutual Respect for Shared Values Is Only Way to Unite Nations, Peoples". Un.org. 7 February 2012. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
  171. ^ "UN officials underline religions' role in promoting global harmony". Un.org. 7 February 2012. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
  172. ^ "Letter to Your Holiness, Pope Benedict XVI" (PDF). 24 January 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 July 2018. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
  173. ^ "UN launches first World Interfaith Harmony Week" (PDF). UN Daily News. 1 February 2011. p. 9. Retrieved 30 March 2019.
  174. ^ excerpt Archived 2003-04-29 at the Wayback Machine The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Massimo Introvigne, 2000, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7
  175. ^ a b c d Kety Quits Moon-Linked ICF Conference Harvard Crimson, 1976-08-10.
  176. ^ a b Tingle, D. and Fordyce, R. 1979, Phases and Faces of the Moon: A Critical Examination of the Unification Church and its Principles, Hicksville, NY: Exposition Press ISBN 0-682-49264-7 pp. 86–87
  177. ^ a b c Biermans, J. 1986, The Odyssey of New Religious Movements, Persecution, Struggle, Legitimation: A Case Study of the Unification Church Lewiston, New York and Queenston, Ontario: The Edwin Melton Press ISBN 0-88946-710-2 p. 173
  178. ^ a b Church Spends Millions On Its Image The Washington Post. 1984-09-17
  179. ^ a b Rev. Moon is sponsor of scholarly conference, St. Petersburg Times, November 12, 1977
  180. ^ a b "ICUS". Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  181. ^ Eugene Paul Wigner Papers Archived 2008-02-24 at the Wayback Machine Princeton University Library
  182. ^ Library journal, Volume 131, Issues 12–15. 2006. p. 45. Libraries with larger budgets may want to purchase books that represent viewpoints at the extremes of this struggle, including such intelligent design tracts as ... Jonathan Wells's Icons of Evolution ... For example we may be obligated to our patrons to make available works that embody ideas fundamental to significant cultural undercurrents such as "intelligent design" but not to burden budgets and minds with every other form of pseudoscience.
  183. ^ "Icons of Evolution?". NCSE. 19 October 2008. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  184. ^ Survival of the Fakest Archived 2006-12-05 at the Wayback Machine, Jonathan Wells, 2000 (A reprint from the American Spectator)
  185. ^ "CAUSA/The Downfall of Communism". www.tparents.org. Retrieved 10 August 2022.
  186. ^ "The Resurrection of Reverend Moon". Frontline. PBS. 21 January 1992. Archived from the original on 7 January 2011.
  187. ^ The Way of Restoration, (April, 1972)
  188. ^ Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church, Frederick Sontag, Abingdon Press, Jan 1, 1977, page 122
  189. ^ Introvigne, Massimo, 2000, The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7, excerpt Archived 2003-04-29 at the Wayback Machine page 16
  190. ^ Dole meeting with Moon aide called cordial, Lawrence Journal-World, February 24, 1976
  191. ^ a b Ahrens, Frank (23 May 2002). "Moon Speech Raises Old Ghosts as the Times Turns 20". The Washington Post. Retrieved 16 August 2009.
  192. ^ Pak was founding president of the Washington Times Corporation (1982-1992), and founding chairman of the board. Bo Hi Pak, Appendix B: Brief Chronology of the Life of Dr. Bo Hi Pak, in Messiah: My Testimony to Rev. Sun Myung Moon, Vol I by Bo Hi Pak (2000), Lanham, MD: University Press of America.
  193. ^ "Rabbi Joins the Board of Moonie Newspaper", The Palm Beach Post, May 21, 1978
  194. ^ Halloran, Richard (16 March 1978). "Unification Church Called Seoul Tool". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  195. ^ Ex-aide of Moon Faces Citation for Contempt, Associated Press, Eugene Register-Guard, August 5, 1977
  196. ^ a b "Moon's "Cause" Takes Aim At Communism in Americas." The Washington Post. August 28, 1983
  197. ^ a b Sun Myung Moon's Followers Recruit Christians to Assist in Battle Against Communism Christianity Today, June 15, 1985
  198. ^ a b Church Spends Millions On Its Image, The Washington Post, 1984-09-17. "Another church political arm, Causa International, which preaches a philosophy it calls "God-ism," has been spending millions of dollars on expense-paid seminars and conferences for Senate staffers, Hispanic Americans and conservative activists. It also has contributed $500,000 to finance an anticommunist lobbying campaign headed by John T. (Terry) Dolan, chairman of the National Conservative Political Action Committee (NCPAC)."
  199. ^ Corry, John (29 July 1986). "On 13, Sandinistas Vs. Miskitos". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  200. ^ "Revista Envío - How to Read the Reagan Administration: The Miskito Case". www.envio.org.ni. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  201. ^ "FAIR". Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  202. ^ 2 Americans Reported Killed In an Ambush in Afghanistan The New York Times, 1987-10-28
  203. ^ 30,000 participate in anti-draft rally in Washington Archived 2016-09-16 at the Wayback Machine, Daily Collegian, March 24, 1980
  204. ^ Moon's Sect Is Taxable, Court Rules, The New York Times, May 7, 1981
  205. ^ N.Y. Upholds Tax Exemption for 'Moonies', Los Angeles Times, May 6, 1982
  206. ^ Miller, Johnny (3 September 1983). "Police chief dies at ballgame". San Francisco Chronicle. For a second day, the Soviet Consulate in Pacific Heights was the scene of emotional protests against the shooting down of a Korean Air Lines jumbo jet. About 300 people held demonstration yesterday morning. Among them were members of the Unification Church, or "Moonies," whose founder is the Rev. Sun Myung Moon, the controversial South Korean who has melded a fierce anti-communism into his ideology. Eldridge Cleaver, the onetime black radical who recently has had ties with the Moonies, spoke at the rally. Many pickets carried signs accusing the Soviet Union of murdering the 269 passengers and crew aboard the airliner. In another development, San Francisco attorney Melvin Belli filed a $109 billion lawsuit against the Soviet Union on behalf of the 269 victims.
  207. ^ a b c Isikoff, Michael (17 September 1984). "Church Spends Millions On Its Image". The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 September 2022.
  208. ^ a b Ribadeneira, Diego (21 August 1999). "Ire at school Star of David ruling unites ACLU, Pat Robertson". The Boston Globe. The New York Times Company. p. B2.
  209. ^ Projections about a post-Soviet world-twenty-five years later. // Goliath Business News
  210. ^ EVOLUTION IN EUROPE; New Flock for Moon Church: The Changing Soviet Student from The New York Times
  211. ^ Goodman, Walter (21 January 1992). "Review/Television; Sun Myung Moon Changes Robes". New York Times.
  212. ^ The same old game Archived 2009-02-15 at the Wayback Machine, Al-Ahram, November 12–18, 1998, "The Washington Times is a mouthpiece for the ultra conservative Republican right, unquestioning supporters of Israel's Likud government. The newspaper is owned by Sun Myung Moon, originally a native of North Korea and head of the Unification Church, whose ultra-right leanings make him a ready ally for Netanyahu. Whether or not Netanyahu is personally acquainted with Moon is unclear, though there is no doubt that he has established close friendships with several staff members on The Washington Times, whose editorial policy is rabidly anti-Arab, anti-Muslim and pro-Israel."
  213. ^ Pollack, Andrew (15 September 1995). "Bushes Speak at Tokyo Rally of Group Linked to Moon Church". The New York Times.
  214. ^ Brozan, Nadine (15 July 1995). "CHRONICLE". The New York Times.
  215. ^ Sanger, David E. (17 September 1995). "SEPT. 10–16; Mr. Bush's Asian Tour". The New York Times.
  216. ^ a b Rev. Moon and the United Nations: A Challenge for the NGO Community, Harold Paine and Birgit Gratzer, Global Policy Forum
  217. ^ a b "Welcome to WANGO, World Association of Non-Governmental Organizations". www.wango.org. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  218. ^ a b In Ban's UN, Sun Myung Moon's Paper is Praised, While Gambari Raises Him Funds, WFP Demurs Inner City Press, June 5, 2007
  219. ^ Christianity: A Global History, David Chidester, HarperCollins, 2001, ISBN 0062517708, 9780062517708, pages 514 to 515
  220. ^ The World's Religions: Continuities and Transformations, Peter B Clarke, Peter Beyer, Taylor & Francis, 2008 ISBN 1135211000, 9781135211004
  221. ^ a b c "Korean denies influence peddling". Bangor Daily News. Retrieved 21 March 2012.
  222. ^ Quebedeaux, Richard (1982). Richard Quebedeaux, Lifestyle : Conversations with Members of Unification Church. ISBN 9780932894182. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  223. ^ At Time of Change for Rev. Moon Church, a Return to Tradition // The New York Times, 14 October 2009
  224. ^ A Desire to Feed the World and Inspire Self-Sufficiency, The New York Times, August 11, 2007
  225. ^ 임상균,김규식. "金장례식에 日여자마술사 초청한 까닭". mk.co.kr. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  226. ^ Kirk, Don (2 May 1998). "Reverend Moon's Group Wants to Talk Investment : Seoul Nods At Church's Foray North". The New York Times.
  227. ^ Kirk, Don (16 February 2000). "Church Reaches Across Border in Korea Car Venture : Moon's Northward Push". The New York Times.
  228. ^ The Bush Administration's Secret Link to North Korea, Aram Roston, The Daily Beast, February 7, 2012
  229. ^ Unification Church president on condolence visit to N. Korea, Yonhap News, December 26, 2011
  230. ^ "문선명은 김정일 사망 알았나". well.hani.co.kr. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  231. ^ "Son of Unification Church founder meets with senior North Korean official in Pyongyang". The San Diego Union-Tribune. 15 December 2011. Retrieved 6 August 2018 – via The Associated Press.
  232. ^ 김광태 (30 November 2011). "S. Korea says food aid reached intended beneficiaries in N. Korea". Yonhap News Agency. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  233. ^ "Kbs News". Sports.kbs.co.kr. Archived from the original on 25 May 2013. Retrieved 23 May 2012.
  234. ^ "Moon Sun Myung Awarded National Reunification Prize", Korean Central News Agency, 7 September 2012, archived from the original on 29 July 2014, retrieved 13 September 2012
  235. ^ North Korean leader extends condolences over 1 yr anniversary of Unification Church founder death, Yonhap News, August 20, 2013
  236. ^ a b Proposal for a Joint Mission to North Korea, Tehran Times, 2017-11-6
  237. ^ a b Sontag, Frederick (1977). Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church. Abingdon Press. Nashville, Tenn.: Abingdon Press. p. 102–105. ISBN 0-687-40622-6. OCLC 3071834.
  238. ^ Kim, Young Oon, 1980, Unification Theology, Barrytown, NY: Unification Theological Seminary, LCCN 80-52872
  239. ^ Walter Ralston Martin, Ravi K. Zacharias, The Kingdom of the Cults, Bethany House, 2003, ISBN 0764228218 pp. 368–370.
  240. ^ Divine Principle, Chapter 7, Section 2.2
  241. ^ United States Department of the Army (2001). Religious Requirements and Practices: A Handbook for Chaplains. The Minerva Group, Inc. pp. 1–42. ISBN 978-0-89875-607-4.
  242. ^ Weatherhead, L.D. (1965). The Christian Agnostic. England: Hodder and Stoughton. pp. 59–63. Archived from the original on 6 April 2016. Retrieved 8 February 2021.
  243. ^ Another Gospel: Cults, Alternative Religions, and the New Age Movement by Ruth A. Tucker 1989 ISBN 0-310-25937-1 pp. 250–251
  244. ^ Daske, D. and Ashcraft, W. 2005, New Religious Movements, New York: New York University Press, ISBN 0-8147-0702-5 "To restart the process toward perfection, God has sent messiahs to earth who could restore the true state of humanity's relationship with God. Before that can happen, however, humans must perform good deeds that cancel the bad effects of sin. Unificationists call this "indemnity". Showing love and devotion to one's fellow humans, especially within families, helps pay this indemnity." p. 142.
  245. ^ Yamamoto, J. 1995, Unification Church, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Press, ISBN 0-310-70381-6 "The doctrine of indemnity. Indemnity is that which people do to restore themselves to God's kingdom. Young Oon Kim describes it this way: 'We atone for our sins through specific acts of penance.' Kwang-Yol Yoo, a Unification teacher, even goes so far as to say that by following the Divine Principle, "man's perfection must be accomplished by his own effort without God's help." God does most of the work, but people must still do their part in order to achieve God's plan of salvation: 'Five percent is only to say that man's responsibility is extremely small compared to God's.' "p35 "The doctrine of indemnity is not biblical. 'In simple language.' states Ruth Tucker, 'indemnity is salvation by works.' Bob Larson makes a distinction between Moon's doctrine and biblical theology, saying, 'Moon's doctrine of sinless perfection by "indemnity [forgiveness of sin by works on Moon's behalf], which can apply even to deceased ancestors, is a denial of the salvation by grace offering through Jesus Christ.' 'Farewell,' said John Calvin. 'to the dream of those who think up a righteousness flowing together out of faith and works.'" p40
  246. ^ THE POWER OF THE PRINCIPLE: WHENCE IT CAME; WHERE IT WENT Richard Quebedeaux, "Rev. Moon calls such a mode of living, such a lifestyle, "restoration through indemnity." With indemnity viewed as a persistent pattern of behavior, not as a mere doctrine to be affirmed or a rational list of rules, God's ideal for human relationships is "restored" through restitution. Restitution-in the sense of a "natural law"-assuages resentment, because it is the means by which the powerful and enfranchised give the people who feel downtrodden and powerless what they believe is rightly theirs. Indemnity means that 'I'm here for you.'"
  247. ^ Exposition of the Divine Principle 1996 Translation
  248. ^ Deliberately misinterpreted. It is completely different from the original meaning and the definition of Sun-myung Moon. (→'Tang-gam (탕감 蕩減)')
  249. ^ a b c d Exposition of the Divine Principle
  250. ^ Exposition of the Divine Principle Korea
  251. ^ Naver Korean-English Dictionary
  252. ^ Search result for '탕감' Naver English-Korean Dictionary
  253. ^ 탕감(蕩減) - sillokwiki
  254. ^ Bible verses with tang-gam: Deuteronomy 15:1, 2, 3, 9, 31; Nehemiah 10:31, Matthew 8:27, 32; Luke 7:42, 43.
  255. ^ goognews-가톨릭정보-성경검색
  256. ^ 다국어 성경 Holy-Bible "탕감"
  257. ^ Yamamoto, J. I., 1995, Unification Church, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House ISBN 0-310-70381-6
  258. ^ a b Daske and Ashcraft[not specific enough to verify]
  259. ^ Daske, D. and Ashcraft, W. 2005, New Religious Movements, New York: New York University Press, ISBN 0814707025 p142.
  260. ^ Yamamoto, J. I., 1995, Unification Church, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House ISBN 0-310-70381-6 (Excerpt: Archived 2012-02-10 at the Wayback Machine)
    "1. The Unification Theological Seminary
    a. The Unification Church has a seminary in Barrytown, New York called The Unification Theological Seminary.
    b. It is used as a theological training center, where members are prepared to be leaders and theologians in the UC.
    c. Moon's seminary, however, has not only attracted a respectable faculty (many of whom are not members of the UC), but it also has graduated many students (who are members of the UC) who have been accepted into doctoral programs at institutions such as Harvard and Yale."
  261. ^ Tingle, D. and Fordyce, R. 1979, The Phases and Faces of the Moon: A Critical Examination of the Unification Church and Its Principles, Hicksville, New York: Exposition Press p53-55
  262. ^ The LDP’s Tangled Ties to the Unification Church - The Diplomat 2022.7.28
  263. ^ Rodney Sawatsky, 1978, Dialogue with the Moonies Theology Today.
  264. ^ Mad About Moon, Time Magazine, 10 November 1975
  265. ^ a b Unifying or Dividing? Sun Myung Moon and the Origins of the Unification Church George D. Chryssides, University of Wolverhampton, U.K. 2003, Since doctrine looms large in Christian thought, it is understandable that its objections to Unificationism are principally on doctrinal grounds. Although the Christian counter-cult literature does not always expound Unification teachings fairly, it is almost unanimous in identifying the respects in which Unificationism diverges from mainstream Christianity: it is unbiblical; teaches erroneous doctrines of God, Christ and salvation; Divine Principle usurps the status of the Judaeo-Christian Bible; it teaches that Jesus did not fully accomplish his mission and that a new messiah is needed to complete it; it introduces new rituals and forms of worship; and it is spiritist. As new religions progress, they occasionally gain acceptance into the mainstream fold, as happened with Seventh-day Adventism, and, even more strikingly, with the Worldwide Church of God. At the turn of the 21st century, however, Unificationism seems no more likely to gain recognition by mainstream Christians.
  266. ^ Daske, D. and Ashcraft, W. 2005, New Religious Movements, New York: New York University Press, ISBN 0-8147-0702-5 p142
  267. ^ Yamamoto, J. 1995, Unification Church, Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Press, ISBN 0-310-70381-6 p40
  268. ^ Walter Ralston Martin, Ravi K. Zacharias, The Kingdom of the Cults, Bethany House, 2003, ISBN 0764228218 pages 368-370
  269. ^ Helm, S. Divine Principle and the Second Advent Archived 21 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine Christian Century 11 May 1977.
  270. ^ excerpt Archived 29 April 2003 at the Wayback Machine The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Massimo Introvigne, 2000, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7 "From a different perspective, it is true that participation of people who are not members of the Unification Church in certain Unificationist activities, such as marriage blessings, may be of concern to established churches. They perceive the possibility that their own members may become confused by their participation in such Unificationist activities and fear that they may in fact end up converting to Unificationism." -p 59–60
  271. ^ Moon at Twilight Archived 11 April 2001 at the Wayback Machine, Peter Maass, The New Yorker "The campaign has dismayed some church members, because a blessing from Moon used to be a hard-won privilege, typically attained only after a person had joined the church, worked in it for several years, and agreed to marry someone--usually a stranger--selected by Moon. But grumblings about the blessing campaign are just the beginning of Moon's current troubles."
  272. ^ John Warwick Montgomery and Thomas J. J. Altizer, The Altizer-Montgomery Dialogue: A Chapter in the God is Dead Controversy (InterVarsity Press, Chicago, 1967), p.7
  273. ^ "Richard L. Rubenstein Papers". www.americanjewisharchives.org. Archived from the original on 29 July 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
  274. ^ "Rabbi Joins the Board of Moonie Newspaper", The Palm Beach Post, 21 May 1978
  275. ^ U. of Bridgeport Honors Rev. Moon, Fiscal Savior, The New York Times, 8 September 1995
  276. ^ The same old game Archived 15 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine, Al-Ahram, 12–18 November 1998, "The Washington Times is a mouthpiece for the ultra conservative right, unquestioning supporters of Israel's Likud government. The newspaper is owned by Sun Myung Moon, originally a native of North Korea and head of the Unification Church, whose ultra-right leanings make him a ready ally for Netanyahu. Whether or not Netanyahu is personally acquainted with Moon is unclear, though there is no doubt that he has established close friendships with several staff members on The Washington Times, whose editorial policy is rabidly anti-Arab, anti-Muslim and pro-Israel."
  277. ^ As U.S. Media Ownership Shrinks, Who Covers Islam?, Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, December 1997
  278. ^ Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church, Frederick Sontag, Abingdon Press, 1 Jan 1977, page 122
  279. ^ "The Way of God's Will Chapter 3. Leaders". Unification.org. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
  280. ^ "Crazy for God". Theologytoday.ptsem.edu. Retrieved 4 January 2012.
  281. ^ a b c William Borders, "Moon's Sect Loses Libel Suit in London," The New York Times, 1 April 1981.
  282. ^ "The Church That Breaks Up Families," Daily Mail (London), 29 May 1978.
  283. ^ Hilary Devries, ed., "Unification Church loses suit against British paper," The Christian Science Monitor, 1 April 1981.
  284. ^ a b c James T. Richardson and Barend van Driel, "New Religious Movements in Europe: Developments and Reactions" in Anti-Cult Movements in Cross-Cultural Perspective, edited by Anson Shupe and David G. Bromley, 129–170 [144], (New York: Garland, 1994), ISBN 9780815314288.
  285. ^ Eileen Barker, The Making of a Moonie: Choice or Brainwashing? (1984; repr., Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1989), 2.[ISBN missing]
  286. ^ a b Eileen Barker, "General Overview of the "Cult Scene" in Great Britain," Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions 4, no. 2 (2001): 235–240, [236].[ISBN missing]
  287. ^ George D. Chryssides, Exploring New Religions (London and New York: Cassell, 1999), 358. ISBN 9780304336517
  288. ^ George D. Chryssides, "Britain's Anti-cult movement," in New Religious Movements: Changes and Responses, edited by Jamie Cresswell and Bryan Wilson, 257–273 [268], (London and New York: Routledge, 1999), ISBN 9780415200509.
  289. ^ George D. Chryssides, "Britain's Changing Faiths: Adaptation in a New Environment," in The Growth of Religious Diversity: Britain from 1945, Volume II: Issues, edited by G. Parson, 55–84 [79], London: Routledge, 1994. ISBN 978-0415083287
  290. ^ a b "How Abe and Japan became vital to Moon's Unification Church". Washington Post. 12 July 2022. Archived from the original on 13 July 2022.
  291. ^ "How Abe's killing exposes Japan's thin line between church and state". Financial Times. 3 August 2022. Retrieved 10 August 2022.
  292. ^ 統一協会信者の救出 (in Japanese). Fukuoka Prefectural Lawyers Association. 26 February 2008. Archived from the original on 28 October 2021.
  293. ^ 日本における統一教会の活動とその問題点 (PDF) (in Japanese). Religious Information Research Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 January 2022.
  294. ^ 銃撃男と統一教会 教団が会見「銃撃されたことは知っている」「合同結婚式」「霊感商法」社会問題化...被害救済の弁護士「今も深刻」 (in Japanese). Yahoo news Japan/ Nippon television network. 12 July 2022. Archived from the original on 12 July 2022.
  295. ^ 統一教会とは 安倍晋三氏や祖父・岸信介氏との関係は? (in Japanese). Mainichi shimbun. 11 July 2022. Archived from the original on 12 July 2022.
  296. ^ "Church or cult? Inside the Moonies' 'world of delusion'". Financial Times. 16 July 2022. Archived from the original on 16 July 2022.
  297. ^ a b Tsuyoshi Hida. (2018) 記者襲撃 赤報隊事件30年目の真実. pp.160–168 Iwanami Shoten. ISBN 978-4000612487
  298. ^ a b "Moon's Japanese Profits Bolster Efforts in U.S." The Washington Post. 16 September 1984. Archived from the original on 6 May 1997.
  299. ^ a b c d 自己破産させられた信者はたくさんいる. 2世の苦しみがどんなにつらいか. 霊感商法弁護団が会見. (in Japanese). Yahoo news Japan. 12 July 2022. Archived from the original on 12 July 2022.
  300. ^ 全国霊感商法対策弁護士連絡会 (in Japanese). National Network of Lawyers Against Spiritual Sales. Archived from the original on 12 July 2022.
  301. ^ 窓口別被害者集計(1987年~) (in Japanese). National Network of Lawyers Against Spiritual Sales. Archived from the original on 12 July 2022.
  302. ^ 霊感商法に合同結婚式...「統一教会」が創始者危篤で分裂の危機 (in Japanese). Asahi Shimbun/Aera dot. 25 August 2012. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020.
  303. ^ a b 旧統一教会被害者弁護士ら会見 「献金の強要ないという説明はうそ」 (in Japanese). Mainichi shimbun. 12 July 2022. Archived from the original on 12 July 2022.
  304. ^ 統一協会の霊感商法に懲役刑 (in Japanese). Consumer law news. Archived from the original on 12 July 2022.
  305. ^ "旧統一教会トップと国会議員らがアメリカで面会…目的は?開示された名称変更の理由示した文書は黒塗り…政治家の関与は不明のまま", Tokyo Broadcasting System (in Japanese), 28 July 2022, retrieved 10 August 2022 – via YouTube
  306. ^ "旧統一教会 名称変更の真相は…元文科次官「外部の力が働いた」", All-Nippon News Network (in Japanese), 5 August 2022, retrieved 10 August 2022 – via YouTube
  307. ^ "【独自】安倍元首相を撃った山上徹也が供述した、宗教団体「統一教会」の名前(現代ビジネス編集部". Gendai Bijinesu (in Japanese). Kodansha. 9 July 2022. Retrieved 9 July 2022.
  308. ^ a b "Assassin may have killed Abe as revenge against religious group that bankrupted his mother", Washington Post, 9 July 2022, retrieved 11 July 2022
  309. ^ "【独自】安倍元総理射殺事件 「山上容疑者」父の自殺の背景にあった"もうひとつの団体"の名" (in Japanese). Yahoo News. Retrieved 14 July 2022.
  310. ^ "【《安倍元首相銃殺》「母親が宗教に傾倒し、大病を患う兄が自殺」山上徹也容疑者が自殺未遂に至った"不遇な家庭環境"と事件直前の"悪質レビュートラブル"" (in Japanese). Yahoo News. Retrieved 14 July 2022.
  311. ^ 衆議院議員 安倍晋三 先生へ (in Japanese). National Network of Lawyers Against Spiritual Sales. 11 September 2019. Archived from the original on 10 July 2022.
  312. ^ 父は急死、母は宗教団体へ多額の金 安倍氏銃撃容疑者の生い立ち:朝日新聞デジタル [Father died suddenly, mother went to a religious group A large amount of money Mr. Abe's background of the shooting suspect]. 朝日新聞デジタル (Asahi Shimbun) (in Japanese). 9 July 2022. Archived from the original on 9 July 2022. Retrieved 9 July 2022.
  313. ^ 関係者「母親は旧統一教会に献金1億円」、土地・自宅売却で破産 (in Japanese). Yomiuri shimbun. 13 July 2022. Archived from the original on 13 July 2022. Retrieved 13 July 2022.
  314. ^ 独自「火炎放射器を持って」供述で判明した旧統一教会襲撃計画 安倍元総理を狙った理由 (in Japanese). TV asahi. 12 July 2022. Archived from the original on 12 July 2022.
  315. ^ "Suspected Abe assassin cited religious group grudge as reason". The Asahi Shimbun. Archived from the original on 9 July 2022. Retrieved 9 July 2022.
  316. ^ 動機は?旧統一教会「家庭の破綻は把握」山上容疑者「安倍総理のビデオレター見た」 (in Japanese). TV asahi. 11 July 2022. Archived from the original on 10 July 2022.
  317. ^ "Govt. to set up panel to investigate security lapses in Abe shooting | NHK WORLD-JAPAN News". NHK WORLD. Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  318. ^ "安倍元首相銃撃事件で注目の旧統一教会「主導イベント」国家公安委員長が呼びかけ人だった!(SmartFLASH)". Yahoo!ニュース (in Japanese). Retrieved 17 July 2022.
  319. ^ "【独自】安倍元首相を撃った山上徹也が供述した、宗教団体「統一教会」の名前(現代ビジネス編集部". Gendai Bijinesu (in Japanese). Kodansha. 9 July 2022. Retrieved 9 July 2022.
  320. ^ "【独自】安倍元総理射殺事件 「山上容疑者」父の自殺の背景にあった"もうひとつの団体"の名" (in Japanese). Yahoo News. Retrieved 14 July 2022.
  321. ^ "【《安倍元首相銃殺》「母親が宗教に傾倒し、大病を患う兄が自殺」山上徹也容疑者が自殺未遂に至った"不遇な家庭環境"と事件直前の"悪質レビュートラブル"" (in Japanese). Yahoo News. Retrieved 14 July 2022.
  322. ^ "Unification Church's founder 'was close' to Shinzo Abe's grandfather". 20 July 2022.
  323. ^ "Dr. Chung Hwan Kwak | Global Peace Foundation".
  324. ^ "아베 사망, 통일교 무리한 헌금 탓" 전 통일교 2인자 곽정환 주장 (in Korean). The Hankyoreh. 20 July 2022. Archived from the original on July 2022.
  325. ^ 旧統一教会"元No.2"が謝罪「安倍元総理の死に責任」...献金も痛烈批判「教団は堕落」 (in Japanese). TV Asahi. 20 July 2022. Archived from the original on 20 July 2022.
  326. ^ 「政治家として配慮いただきたい、ということを繰り返しお願いしてきた」安倍元総理の銃撃事件、旧統一教会の記者会見を受け、全国霊感商法対策弁護士連絡会が声明 (in Japanese). Abema times/Yahoo news Japan. 12 July 2022. Archived from the original on 12 July 2022.
  327. ^ "紀藤正樹弁護士 旧統一教会系の〝集金実態〟明かす「信者に売春させた事件も」", Tokyo Sport News (in Japanese), 20 July 2022, retrieved 25 July 2022
  328. ^ 旧統一教会問題「行政も思考停止」 紀藤弁護士、国会での調査求める
  329. ^ 警察はなぜ旧統一教会を放置し続けた? 1995年の摘発を退けた「政治圧力
  330. ^ "Shinzo Abe's ties to the Unification Church may have cost him". The Washington Post.
  331. ^ "Unification Church ties to Japan's lawmakers emerge as major political issue". The Japan Times. Retrieved 30 July 2022.
  332. ^ 旧統一教会と関係絶てない議員「同じ党で活動できない」自民党・茂木幹事長 (in Japanese). Yahoo news Japan. 31 August 2022. Archived from the original on 31 August 2022.
  333. ^ Evangelical-Unification Dialogue (Conference series – Unification Theological Seminary; no. 3) Richard Quebedeaux, Rodney Sawatsky, Paragon House, 1979, ISBN 093289402X, pp. 77–99.
  334. ^ Frederick Sontag,1977, Sun Myung Moon and the Unification Church, Abingdon Press, ISBN 0687406226, p. 185.
  335. ^ Irving Louis Horowitz, 1978, Science, Sin, and Scholarship: The Politics of Reverend Moon and the Unification Church, MIT Press, ISBN 0262081008, p. 114
  336. ^ The A to Z of New Religious Movements, George D. Chryssides Scarecrow Press, 2006, p. 155
  337. ^ Tingle, D. and Fordyce, R. 1979, The Phases and Faces of the Moon: A Critical Examination of the Unification Church and Its Principles, Hicksville, New York: Exposition Press ISBN 0682492647, pp. 20–21
  338. ^ George D. Chryssides, "Unificationism: A study in religious syncretism", Chapter 14 in Religion: empirical studies, Editor: Steven Sutcliffe, Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2004, ISBN 978-0-7546-4158-2, p. 232.
  339. ^ Swatos, Jr, William H. (1998). Encyclopedia of religion and society. Walnut Creek, Calif.: AltaMira Press. ISBN 978-0-7619-8956-1.
  340. ^ Helm, S. Divine Principle and the Second Advent Archived 2008-09-21 at the Wayback Machine. Christian Century May 11, 1977 "In fact Moon's adherents differ from previous fringe groups in their quite early and expensive pursuit of respectability, as evidenced by the scientific conventions they have sponsored in England and the U.S. and the seminary they have established in Barrytown, New York, whose faculty is composed not of their own group members but rather of respected Christian scholars."
  341. ^ Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America: African diaspora traditions and other American innovations: Introduction, Eugene V. Gallagher, W. Michael Ashcraft, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2006, pp. 94–95
  342. ^ "In 1955, Reverend Moon established the Collegiate Association for the Research of the Principle (CARP). CARP is now active on many campuses in the United States and has expanded to over eighty nations. This association of students promotes intercultural, interracial, and international cooperation through the Unification world view." [1] Archived 2018-01-05 at the Wayback Machine
  343. ^ Storey, John Woodrow; Glenn H. Utter (2002). Religion and Politics. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. p. 99. ISBN 978-1-57607-218-9.
  344. ^ Yamamoto, J.; Alan W Gomes (1995). Unification Church. Grand Rapids: Zondervan. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-310-70381-5.
  345. ^ Fefferman, Dan. "SCHISM in the Unification Church" (PDF). CESNUR Center for Studies on New Religions. 2016 CESNUR Conference. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
  346. ^ "Family Peace Association – GuideStar Profile". www.guidestar.org. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
  347. ^ Religious persecution, Business World, January 9, 2014
  348. ^ "United Nations Civil Society Participation – General".
  349. ^ R. North, S.J. (Compiled), Elenchus of Biblica 1987, Rome, 1990, p. 544.[2]
  350. ^ a b Staff (19 June 1993). "Moon's wife to speak in Lawrence". The Kansas City Star. The Kansas City Star Co. p. E10.
  351. ^ Cuda, Amanda (28 December 2004). "Event works for understanding through friendships". Connecticut Post. p. Section: Womanwise.
  352. ^ Peterson, Thair (21 March 1998). "Bridging the Interracial Gap". Long Beach Press-Telegram. p. A3.
  353. ^ Bainbridge, William Sims (1997). The Sociology of Religious Movements. Routledge. pp. 203–205. ISBN 978-0-415-91202-0.
  354. ^ Shupe, Anson D.; Bronislaw Misztal (1998). Religion, mobilization, and social action. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 211, 213. ISBN 978-0-275-95625-7.
  355. ^ a b Bonham, Nicole A. (5 June 1993). "Moon's Wife Urges Utah Women To Unite Family Against Corruption". The Deseret News. Deseret News Publishing Company. p. A8.
  356. ^ Graham, Jennifer (16 July 1993). "Rev. Moon's Wife to Speak: Activist Will Stump for World Peace Saturday at Fairgrounds". The State. p. 2B.
  357. ^ Fisher, Marc (23 November 1997). "A Church in Flux Is Flush With Cash". The Washington Post. Retrieved 14 November 2007. "Also in 1995, the Women's Federation made another donation that illustrates how Moon supports fellow conservatives. It gave a $3.5 million grant to the Christian Heritage Foundation, which later bought a large portion of Liberty University's debt, rescuing the Rev. Jerry Falwell's Lynchburg, Va., religious school from the brink of bankruptcy."
  358. ^ a b Bouza, Tony (1996). The Decline And Fall Of The American Empire: Corruption, Decadence, And The American Dream. p. 187. ISBN 978-0-306-45407-3.
  359. ^ Staff (19 September 1995). "Moon Brings Message of Family Love –Touring Evangelist Sees Cure For World Problems". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved 20 April 2009.
  360. ^ Chronicle, The New York Times, July 15, 1995
  361. ^ Sullivan, Kevin; Mary Jordan (6 September 1995). "Moon Group Paying Bush For Speeches – Foes of Church Criticize Japan Tour". The Washington Post. p. A25.
  362. ^ Goldsmith, Steven (19 September 1995). "Moon Brings Message of Family Love – Touring Evangelist Sees Cure For World Problems". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. p. B1.
  363. ^ a b Sullivan, Kevin (15 September 1995). "Bush Stresses Family In Tokyo Speech – Former President Addresses Followers of Unification Church Leader's Wife". The Washington Post. p. A27.
  364. ^ Staff (17 September 1995). "SEPT. 10-16; Mr. Bush's Asian Tour". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 April 2009.
  365. ^ "Catering to Emerging Needs of Families", New Straits Times, 1999-4-16
  366. ^ Bilateral economic ties will ease tensions with China: Ma Archived 2012-08-26 at the Wayback Machine, China Post, January 18, 2009
  367. ^ Councilman Lauds Citizens' Group for Jackson Park Clean-Up, New Jersey Today, January 13, 2012
  368. ^ Fukushima children to visit Cyprus for Christmas[permanent dead link], Cyprus Mail, January 17, 2012
  369. ^ "Our history". Service For Peace. Archived from the original on 8 September 2014. Retrieved 28 May 2015.
  370. ^ Wetzstein, Cheryl. "Rev. Moon, Times founder, dies at 92". The Washington Times. Retrieved 28 May 2015. Rev. Moon also founded numerous international, interfaith service groups, such as the International Relief Friendship Foundation, Religious Youth Service and Service for Peace, and sponsored thousands of conferences on world peace, family and interfaith issues.
  371. ^ Thomas, Matthew (17 May 2014). "Backpack Angel Program Preparing for next School Year". WLKY. Retrieved 14 September 2022.
  372. ^ Eugene Paul Wigner Papers Archived 2008-02-24 at the Wayback Machine Princeton University Library
  373. ^ Register of the Friedrich A. von Hayek Papers, 1906–1992 Online Archive of California.
  374. ^ Prophets and Protons: new religious movements and science in late twentieth-century America, Benjamin E. Zeller, NYU Press, pp. 21–22
  375. ^ Richard L. Rubenstein Papers American Jewish Archives
  376. ^ "ICUS XXIII". Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  377. ^ "ICUS Legacy: 2017-Present-HJIFUS". Retrieved 26 September 2022.
  378. ^ "Rev. Sun Myung Moon's Projects". www.unification.net. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  379. ^ "The Reunification of Korea and World Peace – Sun Myung Moon". www.tparents.org. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  380. ^ "Inter Religious Federation for World Peace – A Home for Religious Harmony, Understanding, and Collaboration". Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  381. ^ The Encyclopedia Of Christianity, Erwin Fahlbusch, et al., p. 598
  382. ^ False Dawn, Lee Penn, p. 122
  383. ^ Moonstruck, SF Weekly, 2006-02-22
  384. ^ Ghouse, Mike (21 February 2012). "Commitment to Israel-Palestine, Part 2". Huffington Post.
  385. ^ "선학UP대학원대학교". www.sunhakup.ac.kr. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  386. ^ Elisabeth Rosenthal Published: 12 September 2000 (12 September 2000). "Group Founded by Sun Myung Moon Preaches Sexual Abstinence in China". The New York Times. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  387. ^ About Archived 2009-09-04 at the Wayback Machine, Professors World Peace Academy
  388. ^ "Project Vision," New World Encyclopedia. Retrieved, June 25, 2008.
  389. ^ "About," New World Encyclopedia. Retrieved, April 10, 2015.
  390. ^ McDowell, Edwin (2 April 1984). "Unification Church Is Starting A Publishing House". The New York Times.
  391. ^ "The Peace Academy, based in New York, was founded by Moon in 1973. It is financed primarily by his International Cultural Foundation." [3]
  392. ^ History of PWPA, Professors World Peace Academy
  393. ^ Sun Moon University
  394. ^ Robertson, Roland and Garrett, William R., 1991, Religion and Social Order, Paragon House, p. 206
  395. ^ "New England, Mid-Atlantic Accreditors Reaffirmation of the Seminary's Accreditation" Archived 2016-03-26 at the Wayback Machine MSA CHE. accessed March 16, 2016
  396. ^ "List of Accredited Institutions by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education" MSA CHE. accessed March 16, 2016
  397. ^ "Removal of Probation and Reaffirmation of Accreditation" Archived 2017-07-05 at the Wayback Machine MSA CHE. accessed March 16, 2016
  398. ^ Where have all the Moonies gone? Archived 2012-07-30 at archive.today K. Gordon Neufeld, First Things, March 2008, "While I was studying theology, church history, and the Bible – taught by an eclectic faculty that included a rabbi, a Jesuit priest, and a Methodist minister – most of my young coreligionists were standing on street corners in San Francisco, Boston, and Miami urging strangers to attend a vaguely described dinner."
  399. ^ Divine Principle and the Second Advent Archived 2008-09-21 at the Wayback Machine Christian Century May 11, 1977 "In fact Moon's adherents differ from previous fringe groups in their quite early and expensive pursuit of respectability, as evidenced by the scientific conventions they have sponsored in England and the U.S. and the seminary they have established in Barrytown, New York, whose faculty is composed not of their own group members but rather of respected Christian scholars."
  400. ^ Oluwa, Rasheed (11 December 2003). "Church urges Christian unity: Valley seminary open since 1975". Poughkeepsie Journal. Archived from the original on 10 March 2014. The seminary usually hosts about 120 students from all over the world, with the majority coming from Japan and Korea, where Unification has large bases.
  401. ^ "New Hope Academy, international private school in Prince George's County, Maryland". www.newhopeacademy.org. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  402. ^ "Statement on Faith, Devotions, and Traditions". New Hope Academy. Retrieved 14 September 2022.
  403. ^ Rosenthal, Elisabeth (12 September 2000). "Group Founded by Sun Myung Moon Preaches Sexual Abstinence in China". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 18 July 2012. Retrieved 22 February 2008.
  404. ^ "Glenallen resident returns from Thailand after helping victims of human trafficking". 7 May 2012.
  405. ^ "Mo. woman helps victims of human trafficking". archive.is. 7 September 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2019.[dead link]
  406. ^ Gruzen, Tara (13 February 1996). "College Group Preaches A Lesson On Pure Love At Anti-porn Protest". Chicago Tribune.
  407. ^ Dance View; A Wobbly Kirov Is Saved by 'The Firebird', The New York Times, July 7, 1995
  408. ^ Sewell, Rhonda B. (28 February 2003). "Korean Culture Takes the Stage". The Blade. p. D11. The colors, sounds, and heritage of South Korea will come alive tonight as the Little Angels, an all-girls Korean folk ballet company, performs in the Ritz Theatre in Tiffin. ... The company was founded in 1962 by the Rev. Sun Myung Moon and his wife, Hak Ja Han, as a way to project a positive image of the country...
  409. ^ Moon, Sun Myung (2009). As a Peace-Loving Global Citizen. Gimm-Young Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7166-0299-6. page 67. "My plan was to have these seventeen children learn how to dance and then send them out into the world. Many foreigners knew about Korea only as a poor country that had fought a terrible war. I wanted to show them the beautiful dances of Korea so that they would realize that the Korean people are a people of culture."
  410. ^ Dunning, Jennifer (29 December 1973). "Dance: The Little Angels; Korean Folk Ballet Presents 31 Children in Intricate Routines and Songs". The New York Times. p. 53.
  411. ^ Dunning, Jennifer (1 February 1993). "Dance in Review". The New York Times.
  412. ^ a b A Church in Flux is Flush with Cash The Washington Post, November 23, 1997
  413. ^ Moon Church Founds Ballet School New York Times, 1990-09-08
  414. ^ "Universal Ballet". www.universalballet.com. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  415. ^ Interview with Julia Moon exploredance.com
  416. ^ Inside and Outside the Korean Dance Scene Archived 2012-02-15 at the Wayback Machine
  417. ^ "Reverendo Moon retorna à Grã-Bretanha" (in Portuguese). BBC Brasil. 5 November 2005. Retrieved 16 November 2004.
  418. ^ South Korea to host global peace cup in JulySports Illustrated May 6, 2003
  419. ^ "Seongnam Ilhwa Chunma at ROKfootball.com". Archived from the original on 12 February 2008. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  420. ^ Warming Up for the Kick-off, The Wall Street Journal, August 2, 2010
  421. ^ "Jerez se convierte hoy en una de las sedes oficiales de la 'Peace Cup 2009'" (in Spanish). AndaluciaPress. Archived from the original on 22 April 2009. Retrieved 14 June 2008.
  422. ^ "Peace Cup might go to Spain". The Washington Times. Retrieved 14 June 2008.
  423. ^ "Soccer World News//World Roundup". CNN.
  424. ^ Church Spends Millions On Its Image The Washington Post September 17, 1984. "In May, a church political group called the Freedom Leadership Foundation paid for four Republican Senate staff members – including aides to Sens. Steve Symms (R-Idaho), Robert W. Kasten Jr. (R-Wis.) and William L. Armstrong (R-Colo.) – to fly to Central America where they met with government leaders and U.S. Embassy officials in Honduras and Guatemala and joined the official U.S. observer delegation to the Salvadoran election."
  425. ^ My Four and One Half Years with The Lord of The Flies Archived 2018-07-18 at the Wayback Machine, Allen Tate Wood "From March to December of 1970 I was head of the Unification Church's political arm in the United States (The Freedom Leadership Foundation). On Moon's behalf we sought to defuse the Peace Movement and buttress the hawk position by convincing senators and congressmen that there was substantial grass roots support for a hard line stand in Asia. In 1969 we were just scratching the surface. Today Moon's organization is in a position of vastly increased power and prestige. Through the Freedom Leadership Foundation and its descendant CAUSA, Moon has won the gratitude and respect of many congressmen and senators, not to mention former presidents Nixon, Reagan and Bush."
  426. ^ New moons are rising, Asia Times, October 31, 2009
  427. ^ Neil Bush, the Rev. Moon, Paraguay and the U.S. Dept. of Education by Bill Berkowitz, Scoop (New Zealand), 2008-03-29.
  428. ^ The Pittsburgh Press, December 20, 1982, page 11
  429. ^ "The Washington Institute for Values in Public Policy". www.unification.net. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  430. ^ Church Spends Millions On Its Image The Washington Post September 17, 1984. "The church also is spending $1.5 million a year on a new local think tank, the Washington Institute for Values in Public Policy, that is underwriting conservative-oriented research and seminars at Stanford University, the University of Chicago, the Institute for Energy Analysis in Oak Ridge, Tenn., and other institutions."
  431. ^ Public TV Tilts Toward Conservatives, Fairness & Accuracy In Reporting "While conservatives dismiss Bill Moyers' world-class documentaries on our constitutional checks and balances as "propaganda", they never mention PBS's airing of unabashed right-wing agitprop films such as Nicaragua Was Our Home (the pro-contra film produced by Rev. Sun Myung Moon's CAUSA, which funded the contras after Congress' ban)..."
  432. ^ Dorsey, Gary (26 August 1999). "Unification Church group sues state over task force; Investigation of cults called unconstitutional". The Baltimore Sun. p. 2B.
  433. ^ Argetsinger, Amy (14 October 1999). "Task Force Finds Few Instances of Campus Cults". The Washington Post. p. M4.
  434. ^ "International Coalition for Religious Freedom". berkleycenter.georgetown.edu. Archived from the original on 15 February 2018. Retrieved 15 February 2018.
  435. ^ Wetzel, Frank (21 May 1989). "More sunshine needed on Moon units". The Seattle Times. Seattle Times Company. p. A21.
  436. ^ Reid, T.R. (5 August 1977). "House Subcommittee's Report Links Rev. Moon to the KCIA". The Washington Post. p. A7.
  437. ^ Boettcher, Robert; Gordon L. Freedman (1980). Gifts of Deceit. Holt, Rinehart and Winston. pp. 152, 164. ISBN 978-0-03-044576-7.
  438. ^ After Cold War, Cold Peace National Catholic Reporter October 1, 1999
  439. ^ A Church in Flux Is Flush With Cash,
  440. ^ "Pyongwha Fiparam, el utilitario que anima la industria del automóvil de la RPDC" (in Spanish). Choson Digest. Archived from the original on 8 August 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
  441. ^ "Commercial Billboards Seen in Communist N Korea". The Chosun Ilbo. 18 January 2004. Archived from the original on 26 May 2008. Retrieved 27 September 2018.
  442. ^ "China Car Forums – View Single Post – Pyeonghwa Motors (DPRK) and Mekong (Vietnam)". www.chinacarforums.com. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  443. ^ Unification Church founder Sun Myung Moon, 15 others injured in helicopter crash Herald Tribune, July 19, 2008
  444. ^ Sons Rise in a Moon Shadow,Forbes, April 12, 2010
  445. ^ Clarke, Peter Bernard, 1999, Bibliography of Japanese new religions, with annotations and an introduction to Japanese new religions at home and abroad, Japan Library
  446. ^ Dept. of Religious Studies, Punjabi University., 1988, Journal of Religious Studies: Volume 16
  447. ^ a b Kim, Hyung-eun (12 April 2010). "Business engine of a global faith". Joong Ang Daily.
  448. ^ a b Kirk, Donald (2 May 2010). "Sons rise in a Moon's shadow". Forbes.
  449. ^ "Bayou La Batre residents embrace church they once called a cult". www.cesnur.org. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  450. ^ "Moon's church settles into quiet fishing town". Rome News-Tribune. 27 November 1985.[permanent dead link]
  451. ^ Philippines political leader visits Kodiak, Kodiak Mirror, September 14, 2010
  452. ^ Horton, Hal Jr. (13 July 2000). "I'm a Moonie and I Love it!". Archived from the original on 15 May 2003.
  453. ^ Sushi and Rev. Moon: How Americans' growing appetite for sushi is helping to support his controversial church Chicago Tribune, April 11, 2006
  454. ^ Fromson, Daniel (5 November 2021). "The Untold Story of Sushi in America". The New York Times.
  455. ^ Unification Church "means business" with Las Vegas facility, Las Vegas Sun, 9-2-2011
  456. ^ Innovative Sport Fishing Boat to Be Unveiled in Las Vegas, Boating World, 8-18-2011
  457. ^ a b "Who Owns What: News World Communications". The Columbia Journalism Review. 24 November 2003. Archived from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 2 February 2008.
  458. ^ AROUND THE NATION; Sun Myung Moon Paper Appears in Washington from The New York Times
  459. ^ Global Peace Festival stirs Japan United Press International November 17, 2008
  460. ^ "Yahoo Finance – Business Finance, Stock Market, Quotes, News". finance.yahoo.com. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  461. ^ Shapira, Ian (3 November 2010). "Moon group buys back Washington Times". The Washington Post. p. C1.
  462. ^ Introvigne, Massimo, 2000, The Unification Church Studies in Contemporary Religion, Signature Books, Salt Lake City, Utah, ISBN 1-56085-145-7, excerpt Archived 2003-04-29 at the Wayback Machine pp. 13–16
  463. ^ Friends Forever gather to remember the Washington Ward, Deseret News, November 27, 2011
  464. ^ A Seattle jewel shines again, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, July 22, 2007
  465. ^ "PCAD – the Pacific Coast Architecture Database – Home". pcad.lib.washington.edu. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  466. ^ Unification Church insists Trump apologize, The New York Times, 1991-5-26
  467. ^ Luft, Kerry (8 December 1994). "Unification Church Invests Heavily In Uruguay". Chicago Tribune.
  468. ^ Riverfront developer's origins are tied to Moon[permanent dead link] Richmond Times-Dispatch January 11, 2008
  469. ^ Sheraton National Hotel Sold, ARL Now, May 27, 2011
  470. ^ Washington's War on Nicaragua, Holly Sklar, South End Press, 1988
  471. ^ "2018 – The "Moonie" Games?". GamesBids.com Forums. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  472. ^ Finance Today
  473. ^ "Universal Peace Federation". Biztechreport.com. 19 April 2012. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  474. ^ "Quotes//Spirituality//Moon". Crossroad.to. 21 September 2001. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  475. ^ "Inter Press Service". Ipsnews.net. Archived from the original on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  476. ^ a b "un.org" (PDF). Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  477. ^ a b James, Barry (15 August 2002). "The expanding reach of nongovernment aid". The New York Times.
  478. ^ "un.org". Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  479. ^ "un.org" (PDF). Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  480. ^ "un.org". Unispal.un.org. Archived from the original on 26 November 2013. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  481. ^ "un.org". un.org. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  482. ^ "un.org". un.org. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  483. ^ "un.org". un.org. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  484. ^ "un.org". Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  485. ^ "unhcr.org". Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  486. ^ "search "IIFWP": this is a former name of Universal Peace Federation un.org". Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  487. ^ "Etpu" (PDF). Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  488. ^ Wetzstein, Cheryl. "Rev. Moon, Times founder, dies at 92". The Washington Times. Retrieved 28 May 2015. Rev. Moon also founded numerous international, interfaith service groups, such as the International Relief Friendship Foundation, Religious Youth Service and Service for Peace, and sponsored thousands of conferences on world peace, family and interfaith issues.
  489. ^ "International Relief Friendship Foundation, Inc. (IRFF)". www.irff.org. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  490. ^ Church Spends Millions On Its Image The Washington Post September 17, 1984."The church-financed International Relief Friendship Foundation recently shipped 1,000 pounds of clothing, nearly seven tons of food and medical supplies to Miskito Indian refugees in the jungles of Honduras, according to Joy Morrow, the foundation's Washington coordinator."
  491. ^ Korean War vets thanked by Little Angels in Norfolk, Virginian-Pilot, June 8, 2010
  492. ^ Guy, Pat (24 April 1989). "Moon ads blast news magazine". USA Today. Gannett Company Inc. p. 2B, section: Money.
  493. ^ "CESNUR – From the Unification Church to the Unification Movement, 1994-1999: Five Years of Dramatic Changes". www.cesnur.org. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  494. ^ "Moons Ocean Church casts nets for souls", Miami Herald – April 11, 1985
  495. ^ How South Korea and America wrecked chance for reconciliation with the North, The Guardian, July 11, 2014
  496. ^ Lawton, Kim A. "Unification Church Ties Haunt New Coalition". ChristianityToday.com. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  497. ^ Diamond, Sara (1989). Spiritual warfare: the politics of the Christian right. Boston: South End Press. pp. 78. ISBN 978-0-89608-361-5.
  498. ^ Jones, W. Landis; Weber, Paul J. (1994). U. S. religious interest groups: institutional profiles. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. pp. 15. ISBN 978-0-313-26695-9.
  499. ^ Groupwatch: Profiles of U.S. Private Organizations and Churches. Albuquerque: N.M. Resource Center. 1989. Retrieved 29 March 2009.
  500. ^ Finance: Moon-Related Funds Filter to Evangelicals, Christianity Today, 2-9-1998
  501. ^ WTimes, Bushes Hail Rev. Moon, Robert Parry, 10-2-2009
  502. ^ Shupe, Anson; Darnell, Susan E. (2006). Agents of Discord. New Brunswick (US), London (UK): Transaction Publishers. pp. 187, 191. ISBN 978-0-7658-0323-8.
  503. ^ "Foundation for Religious Freedom". Archived from the original on 27 November 2010. Retrieved 13 October 2010.
  504. ^ "$1 million Moonie mystery". Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  505. ^ CNA: Married former priests warn against Milingo's group, December 8, 2006
  506. ^ U.S. Newswire: Archbishop Milingo: 'Married Priesthood Now'; Healer Missing from Italy Emerges in U.S., Proclaims End to Mandatory Celibacy Archived 2006-09-12 at the Wayback Machine, July 12, 2006
  507. ^ "FindArticles.com – CBSi". findarticles.com. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  508. ^ Judson, George (17 April 1992). "Making the Hard Choice at Bridgeport U.: Opting to Stay Alive". The New York Times. p. B5. Retrieved 6 October 2009.
  509. ^ A Rev. Moon Group Offers to Take Over Ailing Bridgeport U., The New York Times, William Glaberson, October 3, 1991.
  510. ^ "RICHARD L. RUBENSTEIN". www1bpt.bridgeport.edu. Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  511. ^ Featuring Neil Albert Salonen Archived 2009-02-27 at the Wayback Machine in The American Chiropractor, July 30, 2005.
  512. ^ Financial agreements with PWPA have been terminated and the University has been financially independent since 2004. The University is a licensed and accredited Connecticut nonstock, non-profit corporation with an unpaid Board of Trustees.
  513. ^ "Salonen to leave a very different, stronger University of Bridgeport". 16 May 2018.
  514. ^ The Words of the Milingo Family, Statement of the Family Federation for World Peace and Unification On the Recent Publication of "The Fish Rescued from the Mud" by Archbishop Emanuel Milingo and Michele Zanzucchi

Bibliography