Christian Science
Aerial photograph of a triangular lot between roads and their sidewalks. The lot contains a small, Romanesque church filling the front point to the sidewalks, connected to a much larger and impressive domed, Neoclassical building behind it, filling the lot to the sidewalks to the left and right.
The First Church of Christ, Scientist, Christian Science Center, Boston, Massachusetts. The original Mother Church (1894) is in the foreground and behind it the Mother Church Extension (1906).[1]
FounderMary Baker Eddy (1821–1910)
TextsScience and Health with Key to the Scriptures by Mary Baker Eddy and Bible
MembersEstimated 106,000 in the United States in 1990[2] and under 50,000 in 2009;[3] according to the church, 400,000 worldwide in 2008.[n 1]
Beliefs"Basic teachings", Church of Christ, Scientist
Website
christianscience.com

Christian Science is a set of beliefs and practices associated with members of the Church of Christ, Scientist. Adherents are commonly known as Christian Scientists or students of Christian Science, and the church is sometimes informally known as the Christian Science church. It was founded in 19th-century New England by Mary Baker Eddy, who wrote the 1875 book Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures, which outlined the theology of Christian Science.[n 2] The book became Christian Science's central text, along with the Bible, and by 2001 had sold over nine million copies.[5]

Eddy and 26 followers were granted a charter by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1879 to found the "Church of Christ (Scientist)"; the church would be reorganized under the name "Church of Christ, Scientist" in 1892.[6] The Mother Church, The First Church of Christ, Scientist, was built in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1894.[7] Christian Science became the fastest growing religion in the United States, with nearly 270,000 members there by 1936, a figure that had declined by 1990 to just over 100,000,[8] and by 2009 reportedly to under 50,000.[3] The church is known for its newspaper, The Christian Science Monitor, which won seven Pulitzer Prizes between 1950 and 2002, and for its public Reading Rooms around the world.[n 3]

Eddy described Christian Science as a return to "primitive Christianity and its lost element of healing".[10] There are key differences between Christian Science theology and that of traditional Christianity.[11] In particular, adherents subscribe to a radical form of philosophical idealism, believing that reality is purely spiritual and the material world an illusion.[12] This includes the view that disease is a mental error rather than physical disorder, and that the sick should be treated not by medicine but by a form of prayer that seeks to correct the beliefs responsible for the illusion of ill health.[13][14]

The church does not require that Christian Scientists avoid medical care—adherents use dentists, optometrists, obstetricians, physicians for broken bones, and vaccination when required by law—but maintains that Christian Science prayer is most effective when not combined with medicine.[15][16] Most controversially, the reliance on prayer and avoidance of medical treatment has been blamed for the deaths of several adherents and their children. Between the 1880s and 1990s, parents and others were prosecuted for, and in a few cases convicted of, manslaughter or neglect.[17]

Overview

Metaphysical family

See also: Great Awakening

Several periods of Protestant Christian revival nurtured a proliferation of new religious movements in the United States.[18] In the latter half of the 19th century these included what came to be known as the metaphysical family: groups such as Christian Science, Divine Science, the Unity School of Christianity, and (later) the United Church of Religious Science.[n 4] From the 1890s the liberal section of the movement became known as New Thought, in part to distinguish it from the more authoritarian Christian Science.[24]

The term metaphysical referred to the movement's philosophical idealism, a belief in the primacy of the mental world.[n 5] Adherents believed that material phenomena were the result of mental states, a view expressed as "life is consciousness" and "God is mind." The supreme cause was referred to as Divine Mind, Truth, God, Love, Life, Spirit, Principle or Father–Mother, reflecting elements of Plato, Hinduism, Berkeley, Hegel, Swedenborg, and transcendentalism.[26][27]

The metaphysical groups became known as the mind-cure movement because of their strong focus on healing.[28][n 6] Medical practice was in its infancy, and patients regularly fared better without it. This provided fertile soil for the mind-cure groups, who argued that sickness was an absence of "right thinking" or failure to connect to Divine Mind.[31] The movement traced its roots in the United States to Phineas Parkhurst Quimby (1802–1866), a New England clockmaker turned mental healer, whose motto was "the truth is the cure."[32][n 7] Mary Baker Eddy had been a patient of his, leading to debate about how much of Christian Science was based on his ideas.[34]

New Thought and Christian Science differed in that Eddy saw her views as a unique and final revelation.[35][n 8] Eddy's idea of malicious animal magnetism (that people can be harmed by the bad thoughts of others) marked another distinction, introducing an element of fear that was absent from the New Thought literature.[37][38] Most significantly, she dismissed the material world as an illusion, rather than as merely subordinate to Mind, leading her to reject the use of medicine, or materia medica, and making Christian Science the most controversial of the metaphysical groups. Reality for Eddy was purely spiritual.[39][n 9]

Christian Science theology

Further information: § Christian Science prayer

Christian Science seal, with the Cross and Crown and words from Matthew 10:8
Christian Science seal, with the Cross and Crown and words from Matthew 10:8

Christian Science leaders place their religion within mainstream Christian teaching, according to J. Gordon Melton, and reject any identification with the New Thought movement.[n 10] Eddy was strongly influenced by her Congregationalist upbringing.[42] According to the church's tenets, adherents accept "the inspired Word of the Bible as [their] sufficient guide to eternal Life ... acknowledge and adore one supreme and infinite God ... [and] acknowledge His Son, one Christ; the Holy Ghost or divine Comforter; and man in God's image and likeness."[43] When founding the Church of Christ, Scientist, in April 1879, Eddy wrote that she wanted to "reinstate primitive Christianity and its lost element of healing".[10] Later she suggested that Christian Science was a kind of second coming and that Science and Health was an inspired text.[n 11][46] In 1895, in the Manual of the Mother Church, she ordained the Bible and Science and Health as "Pastor over the Mother Church".[47]

Christian Science theology differs in several respects from that of traditional Christianity. Eddy's Science and Health reinterprets key Christian concepts, including the Trinity, divinity of Jesus, atonement, and resurrection; beginning with the 1883 edition, she added with a Key to the Scriptures to the title and included a glossary that redefined the Christian vocabulary.[n 10] At the core of Eddy's theology is the view that the spiritual world is the only reality and is entirely good, and that the material world, with its evil, sickness and death, is an illusion. Eddy saw humanity as an "idea of Mind" that is "perfect, eternal, unlimited, and reflects the divine", according to Bryan Wilson; what she called "mortal man" is simply humanity's distorted view of itself.[50] Despite her view of the non-existence of evil, an important element of Christian Science theology is that evil thought, in the form of malicious animal magnetism, can cause harm, even if the harm is only apparent.[51]

The First Church of Christ, Scientist, Boston

Eddy viewed God not as a person but as "All-in-all". Although she often described God in the language of personhood—she used the term "Father–Mother God" (as did Ann Lee, the founder of Shakerism), and in the third edition of Science and Health she referred to God as "she"—God is mostly represented in Christian Science by the synonyms "Mind, Spirit, Soul, Principle, Life, Truth, Love".[52][n 12] The Holy Ghost is Christian Science, and heaven and hell are states of mind.[n 13] There is no supplication in Christian Science prayer. The process involves the Scientist engaging in a silent argument to affirm to herself the unreality of matter, something Christian Science practitioners will do for a fee, including in absentia, to address ill health or other problems.[55] Wilson writes that Christian Science healing is "not curative ... on its own premises, but rather preventative of ill health, accident and misfortune, since it claims to lead to a state of consciousness where these things do not exist. What heals is the realization that there is nothing really to heal."[56] It is a closed system of thought, viewed as infallible if performed correctly; healing confirms the power of Truth, but its absence derives from the failure, specifically the bad thoughts, of individuals.[57]

Eddy accepted as true the creation narrative in the Book of Genesis up to chapter 2, verse 6—that God created man in his image and likeness—but she rejected the rest "as the story of the false and the material", according to Wilson.[58] Her theology is nontrinitarian: she viewed the Trinity as suggestive of polytheism.[n 14] She saw Jesus as a Christian Scientist, a "Way-shower" between humanity and God,[60] and she distinguished between Jesus the man and the concept of Christ, the latter a synonym for Truth and Jesus the first person fully to manifest it.[61] The crucifixion was not a divine sacrifice for the sins of humanity, the atonement (the forgiveness of sin through Jesus's suffering) "not the bribing of God by offerings", writes Wilson, but an "at-one-ment" with God.[62] Her views on life after death were vague and, according to Wilson, "there is no doctrine of the soul" in Christian Science: "[A]fter death, the individual continues his probationary state until he has worked out his own salvation by proving the truths of Christian Science."[13] Eddy did not believe that the dead and living could communicate.[63]

To the more conservative of the Protestant clergy, Eddy's view of Science and Health as divinely inspired was a challenge to the Bible's authority.[64] "Eddyism" was viewed as a cult; one of the first uses of the modern sense of the word was in A. H. Barrington's Anti-Christian Cults (1898), a book about Spiritualism, Theosophy and Christian Science.[65] In a few cases Christian Scientists were expelled from Christian congregations, but ministers also worried that their parishioners were choosing to leave. In May 1885 the London Times' Boston correspondent wrote about the "Boston mind-cure craze": "Scores of the most valued Church members are joining the Christian Scientist branch of the metaphysical organization, and it has thus far been impossible to check the defection."[66] In 1907 Mark Twain described the appeal of the new religion to its adherents:

[Mrs. Eddy] has delivered to them a religion which has revolutionized their lives, banished the glooms that shadowed them, and filled them and flooded them with sunshine and gladness and peace; a religion which has no hell; a religion whose heaven is not put off to another time, with a break and a gulf between, but begins here and now, and melts into eternity as fancies of the waking day melt into the dreams of sleep.

They believe it is a Christianity that is in the New Testament; that it has always been there, that in the drift of ages it was lost through disuse and neglect, and that this benefactor has found it and given it back to men, turning the night of life into day, its terrors into myths, its lamentations into songs of emancipation and rejoicing.

There we have Mrs. Eddy as her followers see her. ... They sincerely believe that Mrs. Eddy's character is pure and perfect and beautiful, and her history without stain or blot or blemish. But that does not settle it. ...[67]

History

Mary Baker Eddy and the early Christian Science movement

Mary Baker Eddy

Further information: Mary Baker Eddy and History of the Christian Science movement

Mary Baker Eddy was born Mary Morse Baker on a farm in Bow, New Hampshire, the youngest of six children in a religious family of Protestant Congregationalists.[68] In common with most women at the time, Eddy was given little formal education, but read widely at home and was privately tutored.[69] From childhood she lived with protracted ill health.[70] Eddy's first husband died six months after their marriage and three months before their son was born, leaving her penniless; and as a result of her poor health she lost custody of the boy when he was four.[71] She married again, and her new husband promised to become the child's legal guardian, but after their marriage he refused to sign the needed papers and the boy was taken to Minnesota and told his mother had died.[72][n 15] Eddy, then known as Mary Patterson, and her husband moved to rural New Hampshire, where Eddy continued to suffer from health problems which often kept her bedridden.[74] Eddy tried various cures for her health problems, including "allopathic" or conventional medicine, and most forms of alternative medicine such as Grahamism, electrotherapy, homeopathy, hydropathy, and finally mesmerism under Phineas Quimby.[75] She was later accused by critics, beginning with Julius Dresser, of borrowing ideas from Quimby in what biographer Gillian Gill would call the "single most controversial issue" of her life.[76]

In February 1866, Eddy fell on the ice in Lynn, Massachusetts. Evidence suggests she had severe injuries, but a few days later she apparently asked for her Bible, opened it to an account of one of Jesus' miracles, and left her bed telling her friends that she was healed through prayer alone.[77] The moment has since been controversial, but she considered this moment one of the "falling apples" that helped her to understand Christian Science, although she said she did not fully understand it at the time.[78]

In 1866, after her fall on the ice, Eddy began teaching her first student and began writing her ideas which she eventually published in Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures, considered her most important work.[79] Her students voted to form a church called the Church of Christ (Scientist) in 1879, later reorganized as The First Church of Christ, Scientist, also known as The Mother Church, in 1892.[80] She founded the Massachusetts Metaphysical College in 1881 to continue teaching students,[81] Eddy started a number of periodicals: The Christian Science Journal in 1883, the Christian Science Sentinel in 1898, The Herald of Christian Science in 1903, and The Christian Science Monitor in 1908, the latter being a secular newspaper.[82] The Monitor has gone on to win seven Pulitzer prizes as of 2011.[83] She also wrote numerous books and articles in addition to Science and Health, including the Manual of The Mother Church which contained by-laws for church government and member activity, and founded the Christian Science Publishing Society in 1898 in order to distribute Christian Science literature.[82] Although the movement started in Boston, the first purpose-built Christian Science church building was erected in 1886 in Oconto, Wisconsin.[84] During Eddy's lifetime, Christian Science spread throughout the United States and to other parts of the world including Canada, Great Britain, Germany, South Africa, Hong Kong, the Philippines, Australia, and elsewhere.[85]

Eddy encountered significant opposition after she began teaching and writing on Christian Science, which only increased towards the end of her life.[86] One of the most prominent examples was Mark Twain, who wrote a number of articles on Eddy and Christian Science which were first published in Cosmopolitan magazine in 1899 and were later published as a book.[87] Another extended criticism, which again was first serialized in a magazine and then published in book form, was Georgine Milmine and Willa Cather's The Life of Mary Baker G. Eddy and the History of Christian Science which first appeared in McClure's magazine in January 1907.[88] Also in 1907, several of Eddy's relatives filed an unsuccessful lawsuit instigated by the New York World, known in the press as the "Next Friends Suit", against members of Eddy's household, alleging that she was mentally unable to manage her own affairs.[89] The suit fell apart after Eddy was interviewed in her home in August 1907 by the judge and two psychiatrists, including Allan McLane Hamilton, who concluded that she was mentally competent.[90] The McClure's and New York World stories are considered to at least partially be the reason Eddy asked the church in July 1908 to found the Christian Science Monitor as a platform for responsible journalism.[91]

Eddy died two years later, on the evening of Saturday, December 3, 1910, aged 89. The Mother Church announced at the end of the Sunday morning service that Eddy had "passed from our sight". The church stated that "the time will come when there will be no more death," but that Christian Scientists "do not look for [Eddy's] return in this world."[92] Her estate was valued at $1.5 million, most of which she left to the church.[93]

The Christian Science movement after 1910

The First Church of Christ, Scientist, 1974

Further information: History of the Christian Science movement

In the aftermath of Eddy's death some newspapers speculated that the church would fall apart, while others expected it to continue just as it had before.[94] As it was, the movement continued to grow in the first few decades after 1910.[95] The Manual of the Mother Church prohibits the church from publishing membership figures,[n 16] and it is not clear exactly where the height of the movement was. A 1936 census counted c. 268,915 Christian Scientists in the United States (2,098 per million), and Rodney Stark believes this to be close to the height.[97] However the number of Christian Science churches continued to increase until around 1960, at which point there was a reversal and since then many churches have closed their doors.[98] The number of Christian Science practitioners in the United States began to decline in the 1940s according to Stark.[99] According to J. Gordon Melton, In 1972 there were 3,237 congregations worldwide, of which roughly 2,400 were in the United States; and in the following ten years about 200 congregations were closed.[100]

During the years after Eddy's death, the church has gone through a number of hardships and controversies.[101] This included attempts to make practicing Christian Science illegal in the United States and elsewhere;[102] a period known as the Great Litigation which involved two intertwined lawsuits regarding church governance;[103] persecution under the Nazi and Communist regimes in Germany[104] and the Imperial regime in Japan;[105] a series of lawsuits involving the deaths of members of the church, most notably some children;[106] and a controversial decision to publish a book by Bliss Knapp.[107] In conjunction with the Knapp book controversy, there was controversy within the church involving The Monitor Channel, part of The Christian Science Monitor which had been losing money, and which eventually led to the channel shutting down.[108] In addition, it has since its beginning been branded as a cult by more fundamentalist strains of Christianity, and attracted significant opposition as a result.[109] A number of independent teachers and alternative movements of Christian Science have emerged since its founding, but none of these individuals or groups have achieved the prominence of the Christian Science church.[110]

Despite the hardships and controversies, many Christian Science churches and Reading Rooms remain in existence around the world,[111] and in recent years there have been reports of the religion growing in Africa.[112] The Christian Science Monitor also remains a well respected non-religious paper which is especially noted for its international reporting and lack of partisanship.[113]

Healing practices

Christian Science prayer

Further information: Christian Science practitioner

[A]ll healing is a metaphysical process. That means that there is no person to be healed, no material body, no patient, no matter, no illness, no one to heal, no substance, no person, no thing and no place that needs to be influenced. This is what the practitioner must first be clear about.

— Practitioner Frank Prinz-Wondollek, 2011.[114]
Mary Baker Eddy Library, 200 Massachusetts Avenue, Boston
Mary Baker Eddy Library, 200 Massachusetts Avenue, Boston

Christian Scientists avoid almost all medical treatment, relying instead on Christian Science prayer.[115] This consists of silently arguing with oneself; there are no appeals to a personal god, and no set words.[116] Caroline Fraser wrote in 1999 that the practitioner might repeat: "the allness of God using Eddy's seven synonyms—Life, Truth, Love, Spirit, Soul, Principle and Mind," then that "Spirit, Substance, is the only Mind, and man is its image and likeness; that Mind is intelligence; that Spirit is substance; that Love is wholeness; that Life, Truth, and Love are the only reality." She might deny other religions, the existence of evil, mesmerism, astrology, numerology, and the symptoms of whatever the illness is. She concludes, Fraser writes, by asserting that disease is a lie, that this is the word of God, and that it has the power to heal.[117]

Christian Science practitioners are certified by the Church of Christ, Scientist, to charge a fee for Christian Science prayer. There were 1,249 practitioners worldwide in 2015;[118] in the United States in 2010 they charged $25–$50 for an e-mail, telephone or face-to-face consultation.[119] Their training is a two-week, 12-lesson course called "primary class", based on the Recapitulation chapter of Science and Health.[120] Practitioners wanting to teach primary class take a six-day "normal class", held in Boston once every three years, and become Christian Science teachers.[121] There are also Christian Science nursing homes. They offer no medical services; the nurses are Christian Scientists who have completed a course of religious study and training in basic skills, such as feeding and bathing.[122]

The Christian Science Journal and Christian Science Sentinel publish anecdotal healing testimonials (they published 53,900 between 1900 and April 1989),[123] which must be accompanied by statements from three verifiers: "people who know [the testifier] well and have either witnessed the healing or can vouch for [the testifier's] integrity in sharing it".[124] Philosopher Margaret P. Battin wrote in 1999 that the seriousness with which these testimonials are treated by Christian Scientists ignores factors such as false positives caused by self-limiting conditions. Because no negative accounts are published, the testimonials strengthen people's tendency to rely on anecdotes.[123] A church study published in 1989 examined 10,000 published testimonials, 2,337 of which the church said involved conditions that had been medically diagnosed, and 623 of which were "medically confirmed by follow-up examinations". The report offered no evidence of the medical follow-up.[125] The Massachusetts Committee for Children and Youth listed among the report's flaws that it had failed to compare the rates of successful and unsuccessful Christian Science treatment.[126]

Nathan Talbot, a church spokesperson, told the New England Journal of Medicine in 1983 that church members were free to choose medical care,[127] but according to former Christian Scientists those who do may be ostracized.[119] In 2010 the New York Times reported church leaders as saying that, for over a year, they had been "encouraging members to see a physician if they feel it is necessary", and that they were repositioning Christian Science prayer as a supplement to medical care, rather than a substitute. The church has lobbied to have the work of Christian Science practitioners covered by insurance.[119]

As of 2015, it was reported that Christian Scientists in Australia were not advising anyone against vaccines, and the religious exception was deemed "no longer current or necessary".[128] In 2021, a church Committee on Publication reiterated that although vaccination was an individual choice, that the church did not dictate against it, and those who were not vaccinated did not do so because of any "church dogma".[129]

Church of Christ, Scientist

Governance

Further information: Christian Science Center; Category:Christian Science churches; and List of former Christian Science churches, societies and buildings

The First Church of Christ, Scientist, Boston

In the hierarchy of the Church of Christ, Scientist, only the Mother Church in Boston, The First Church of Christ, Scientist, uses the definite article in its name. Otherwise the first Christian Science church in any city is called First Church of Christ, Scientist, then Second Church of Christ, Scientist, and so on, followed by the name of the city (for example, Third Church of Christ, Scientist, London). When a church closes, the others in that city are not renamed.[130]

Founded in April 1879, the Church of Christ, Scientist is led by a president and five-person board of directors. There is a public-relations department, known as the Committee on Publication, with representatives around the world; this was set up by Eddy in 1898 to protect her own and the church's reputation.[131] The church was accused in the 1990s of silencing internal criticism by firing staff, delisting practitioners and excommunicating members.[132]

The church's administration is headquartered on Christian Science Center on the corner of Massachusetts Avenue and Huntington Avenue, Boston.[133] The 14.5-acre site includes the Mother Church (1894), Mother Church Extension (1906), the Christian Science Publishing Society building (1934)—which houses the Mary Baker Eddy Library and the church's administrative staff—the Sunday School building (1971), and the Church Colonnade building (1972).[134] It also includes the 26-story Administration Building (1972), designed by Araldo Cossutta of I. M. Pei & Associates, which until 2008 housed the administrative staff from the church's 15 departments. There is also a children's fountain and a 690 ft × 100 ft (210 m × 30 m) reflecting pool.[135][136]

Manual of the Mother Church

Eddy's Manual of the Mother Church, 89th edition[137]
Eddy's Manual of the Mother Church, 89th edition[137]

Eddy's Manual of The Mother Church (first published 1895) lists the church's by-laws.[138] Requirements for members include daily prayer and daily study of the Bible and Science and Health.[n 17] Members must subscribe to church periodicals if they can afford to, and pay an annual tax to the church of not less than one dollar.[140]

Prohibitions include engaging in mental malpractice; visiting a store that sells "obnoxious" books; joining other churches; publishing articles that are uncharitable toward religion, medicine, the courts or the law; and publishing the number of church members.[141] The manual also prohibits engaging in public debate about Christian Science without board approval,[142] and learning hypnotism.[143] It includes "The Golden Rule": "A member of The Mother Church shall not haunt Mrs. Eddy's drive when she goes out, continually stroll by her house, or make a summer resort near her for such a purpose."[144]

Services

Further information: Reader (Christian Science Church)

The Church of Christ, Scientist is a lay church which has no ordained clergy or rituals, and performs no baptisms; with clergy of other faiths often performing marriage or funeral services since they have no clergy of their own. Its main religious texts are the Bible and Science and Health. Each church has two Readers, who read aloud a "Bible lesson" or "lesson sermon" made up of selections from those texts during the Sunday service, and a shorter set of readings to open Wednesday evening testimony meetings. In addition to readings, members offer testimonials during the main portion of the Wednesday meetings, including recovery from ill health attributed to prayer. There are also hymns, time for silent prayer, and repeating together the Lord’s Prayer at each service.[145]

Notable members

Main article: List of Christian Scientists (religious denomination)

Notable Scientists have included Directors of Central Intelligence William H. Webster and Admiral Stansfield M. Turner; Richard Nixon's chief of staff H. R. Haldeman; and Chief Domestic Advisor John Ehrlichman.[146] The viscountess Nancy Astor was a Christian Scientist, as was naval officer Charles Lightoller, who survived the sinking of the Titanic in 1912.[147]

There used to be a concentration of Scientists in the film industry, including Joan Crawford, Carol Channing, Doris Day, Colleen Dewhurst, Cecil B. DeMille, Horton Foote, George Hamilton, Mary Pickford, Ginger Rogers, Mickey Rooney, Jean Stapleton and King Vidor.[148] Robert Duvall and Val Kilmer are Christian Scientists.[149] Those raised by Christian Scientists include jurist Helmuth James Graf von Moltke, military analyst Daniel Ellsberg,[150] Ellen DeGeneres, Henry Fonda, James Hetfield, Audrey Hepburn, Marilyn Monroe, Robin Williams, and Elizabeth Taylor.[151] Taylor's godfather, the British politician Victor Cazalet, was also a member of the church. Actor Anne Archer was raised within Christian Science; she left the church when her son, Tommy Davis, was a child, and both became prominent in the Church of Scientology.[152]

A conspicuous event was the death in June 1937 of actress Jean Harlow, who died of kidney failure at age 26. Her mother, known as Mama Jean, was a recent convert to Christian Science and did on at least two occasions attempt to block conventional medical treatment for her daughter. Fellow actors and studio executives intervened, and Harlow received medical treatment, although in 1937, nothing could be done for kidney failure and she perished.[153][154]

Christian Science Publishing Society

The Christian Science Publishing Society, Massachusetts Avenue, Boston
The Christian Science Publishing Society, Massachusetts Avenue, Boston

The Christian Science Publishing Society publishes several periodicals, including the Christian Science Monitor, winner of seven Pulitzer Prizes between 1950 and 2002. This had a daily circulation in 1970 of 220,000, which by 2008 had contracted to 52,000. In 2009 it moved to a largely online presence with a weekly print run.[155] In the 1980s the church produced its own television programs, and in 1991 it founded a 24-hour news channel, which closed with heavy losses after 13 months.[156]

The church also publishes the weekly Christian Science Sentinel, the monthly Christian Science Journal, and the Herald of Christian Science, a non-English publication. In April 2012 JSH-Online made back issues of the Journal, Sentinel and Herald available online to subscribers.[157]

Works by Mary Baker Eddy

See also

Citations

Notes

  1. ^ PBS, August 2008: "The church estimates it has about 400,000 members worldwide, but independent studies put membership at around 100,000."[4]
  2. ^ The book was originally just called Science and Health, the subtitle with a Key to the Scriptures was added in 1883 and was later amended to with Key to the Scriptures.[citation needed]
  3. ^ In April 2010, the Christian Science Journal listed 1,068 Reading Rooms in the United States and 489 elsewhere.[9]
  4. ^ Dawn Hutchinson, 2014: "Scholars of American religious history have used the term "New Thought" to refer either to individuals and churches that officially joined the International New Thought Alliance (INTA) or to American metaphysical religions affiliated with Phineas Quimby, Mary Baker Eddy, and Emma Curtis Hopkins. New Thought writers shared the idea that God is Mind."[19]
    John Saliba, 2003: "The Christian Science–Metaphysical Family. This family, known also as 'New Thought' in academic literature, stresses the need to understand the functioning of the human mind in order to achieve the healing of all human ailments. ... Metaphysics/New Thought is a nineteenth-century movement and is exemplified by such groups as the Unity School of Christianity, the United Church of Religious Science, Divine Science Federation International, and Christian Science."[20]
    James R. Lewis, 2003: "Groups in the metaphysical (Christian Science–New Thought) tradition ... usually claim to have discovered spiritual laws which, if properly understood and applied, transform and improve the lives of ordinary individuals ..."[21]
    John K. Simmons, 1995: "While members, past and present, of the Christian Science movement understandably claim Mrs. Eddy's truths to be part of a unique and final religious revelation, most outside observers place Christian Science in the metaphysical family of religious organizations ..."[22]
    Charles S. Braden, 1963: "[I]t was in America that [mesmerism] ... gave rise to a complex of religious faiths varying from one another in significant ways, but all agreeing upon the central fact that healing and for that matter every good thing is possible through a right relationship with the ultimate power in the Universe, Creative Mind—called God, Principle, Life, Wisdom ...
    "This broad complex of religions is sometimes described by the rather general term 'metaphysical' ... The general movement has proliferated in many directions. Two main streams seem most vigorous: one is called Christian Science; the other, which no single name adequately describes, has come rather generally to be known as New Thought."[23]
  5. ^ John K. Simmons, 1995: "The broad descriptive term 'metaphysical' is not used in a manner common to the trained philosopher. Instead, it denotes the primacy of Mind as the controlling factor in human experience. At the heart of the metaphysical perspective is the theological/ontological affirmation that God is perfect Mind and human beings, in reality, exist in a state of eternal manifestation of that Divine Mind."[25]
  6. ^ William James, 1902: "To my mind a current far more important and interesting religiously ... I will give the title of the Mind-Cure movement. There are various sects of this "New Thought" ... but their agreements are so profound that their differences may be neglected for my present purposes ...".[29] "Christian Science so-called, the sect of Mrs. Eddy, is the most radical branch of mind-cure in its dealings with evil."[30]
  7. ^ Philip Jenkins, 2000: "Christian Science and New Thought both emerged from a common intellectual background in mid-nineteenth-century New England, and they shared many influences from an older mystical and magical fringe, including Swedenborgian teachings, Mesmerism, and Transcentalism. The central figure and prophet of the emerging synthesis was Phineas P. Quimby, 'the John the Baptist of Christian Science,' whose faith-healing work began in 1838. Quimby and his followers taught the overwhelming importance of thought in shaping reality, a message that was crucial for healing. If disease existed only as thought, then only by curing the mind could the body be set right: disease was a matter of wrong belief."[33]
  8. ^ Meredith B. McGuire, 1988: "The most familiar offshoot of the metaphysical movement ... is Christian Science, which was based upon a more extreme interpretation of metaphysical healing than that of the New Thought groups. ... Christian Science is unlike New Thought and other metaphysical movements of that era in that Mary Baker Eddy successfully arrogated to herself all teaching authority, centralized decision-making and organizational power, and developed the movement's sectarian character."[36]
  9. ^ Charles S. Braden, 1963: "Mary Baker Eddy pushed the postulates of positive thinking to their absolute limit. ... She proposed not merely that the spiritual overshadows the material, but that the material world does not exist. The world of our senses is but an illusion of our minds. If the material world causes us pain, grief, danger and even death, that can be changed by changing our thoughts."[40]

    Roy M. Anker, 1999: " ... Mary Baker Eddy, the founder of Christian Science (denominationally known as the Church of Christ, Scientist), the most prominent, successful, controversial, and distinctive of all the groups whose inspiration scholars trace to the healing and intellectual influence of Quimby."[41]

  10. ^ a b J. Gordon Melton, 1992: "Almost as much as the medical controversy, charges of heresy from orthodox Christian churches have hounded the Church. Leaders of Christian Science insist that they are within the mainstream of Christian teachings, a concern which leads to their strong resentment of any identification with the New Thought movement, which they see as having drifted far from their central Christian affirmations. At the same time, strong differences with traditional Christian teachings concerning the Trinity, the unique divinity of Jesus Christ, atonement for sin, and the creation are undeniable. While using Christian language, Science and Health with Key to Scriptures and Eddy's other writings radically redefine basic theological terms, usually by the process commonly called allegorization. Such redefinitions are most clearly evident in the glossary to Science and Health (pages 579–599)."[48]

    Rodney Stark, 1998: "But, of course, Christian Science was not just another Protestant sect. Like Joseph Smith, Mary Baker Eddy added too much new religious culture for her movement to qualify fully as a member of the Christian family—as all the leading clerics of the time repeatedly and vociferously pointed out. However, unlike Madame Blavatsky's Theosophical Society, and like the Mormons, Christian Science retained an immense amount of Christian culture. These continuities allowed converts from a Christian background to preserve a great deal of cultural capital."[49]

  11. ^ Mary Baker Eddy, 1891: "The second appearing of Jesus is, unquestionably, the spiritual advent of the advancing idea of God, as in Christian Science."[44]

    Eddy, January 1901: "I should blush to write of Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures as I have, were it of human origin, and I, apart from God, its author. But, as I was only a scribe echoing the harmonies of heaven in divine metaphysics, I cannot be super-modest in my estimate of the Christian Science textbook."[45]

  12. ^ Eddy, Science and Health: "Question. — What is God?" Answer. — God is incorporeal, divine, supreme, infinite Mind, Spirit, Soul, Principle, Life, Truth, Love."[53]
  13. ^ Wilson 1961: "[T]he Holy Ghost is understood to be Christian Science—the promised Comforter." "Heaven and Hell are understood to be mental states ..."[54]
  14. ^ Eddy, Science and Health: "The theory of three persons in one God (that is, a personal Trinity or Tri-unity) suggests polytheism, rather than the one ever-present I AM."[59]
  15. ^ Per the legal doctrine of coverture, women in the United States could not then be their own children's guardians.
    Harvard Business School, 2010: "A married woman or feme covert was a dependent, like an underage child or a slave, and could not own property in her own name or control her own earnings, except under very specific circumstances. When a husband died, his wife could not be the guardian to their under-age children."[73]
  16. ^ Manual of the Mother Church: "Christian Scientists shall not report for publication the number of the members of The Mother Church, nor that of the branch churches. According to the Scripture they shall turn away from personality and numbering the people."[96]
  17. ^ Members are expected to pray each day: "Thy kingdom come; let the reign of divine Truth, Life, and Love be established in me, and rule out of me all sin; and may Thy Word enrich the affections of all mankind, and govern them!"[139]

Sources

References

  1. ^ "Christian Science Center Complex", Boston Landmarks Commission, Environment Department, City of Boston, January 25, 2011 (hereafter Boston Landmarks Commission 2011), pp. 6–12.
  2. ^ Stark, Rodney (1998). "The Rise and Fall of Christian Science". Journal of Contemporary Religion. 13 (2): (189–214), 191. doi:10.1080/13537909808580830.
  3. ^ a b Prothero, Donald; Callahan, Timothy D. (2017). UFOs, Chemtrails, and Aliens: What Science Says. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. p. 165.
  4. ^ Valente, Judy (August 1, 2008). "Christian Science Healing", PBS.
  5. ^ Gutjahr, Paul C. (2001). "Sacred Texts in the United States". Book History. 4: (335–370) 348. doi:10.1353/bh.2001.0008. JSTOR 30227336. S2CID 162339753.
  6. ^ "Women and the Law". The Mary Baker Eddy Library. The Mary Baker Eddy Library. 22 January 2016. Archived from the original on 18 January 2021.
  7. ^ For the charter, Eddy, Mary Baker (1908) [1895]. Manual of the Mother Church, 89th edition. Boston: The First Church of Christ, Scientist. pp. 17–18.
  8. ^ Stark 1998, pp. 190–191.
  9. ^ Fuller, Linda K. (2011). The Christian Science Monitor: An Evolving Experiment in Journalism. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO. p. 175.
  10. ^ a b Wilson, Bryan (1961). Sects and Society: A Sociological Study of the Elim Tabernacle, Christian Science, and Christadelphians. Berkeley: University of California Press. p. 125.

    Eddy, Manual of the Mother Church, p. 17.

  11. ^ Wilson 1961, p. 124.
  12. ^ Wilson 1961, p. 127; Rescher, Nicholas (2009) [1996]. "Idealism", in Jaegwon Kim, Ernest Sosa (eds.). A Companion to Metaphysics. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 318.
  13. ^ a b Wilson 1961, p. 125.
  14. ^ Battin, Margaret P. (1999). "High-Risk Religion: Christian Science and the Violation of Informed Consent". In DesAutels, Peggy; Battin, Margaret P.; May, Larry (eds.). Praying for a Cure: When Medical and Religious Practices Conflict. Lanham, MD, and Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 11. ISBN 0-8476-9262-0.
  15. ^ Schoepflin, Rennie B. (2003). Christian Science on Trial: Religious Healing in America. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. pp. 192–193.

    Trammell, Mary M., chair, Christian Science board of directors (March 26, 2010). "Letter; What the Christian Science Church Teaches". The New York Times.

  16. ^ Regarding vaccines specifically, see:
    Christine Pae (September 1, 2021). "Here's who qualifies for a religious exemption to Washington's COVID-19 vaccine mandate". KING 5.
    Samantha Maiden (April 18, 2015). "No Jab, No Pay reforms: Religious exemptions for vaccination dumped". Daily Telegraph.
  17. ^ Schoepflin 2003, pp. 212–216; Peters, Shawn Francis (2007). When Prayer Fails: Faith Healing, Children, and the Law. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 91, 109–130.
  18. ^ William G. McLoughlin, Revivals, Awakenings, and Reform, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980, pp. 10–11, 16–17.

    Roy M. Anker, "Revivalism, Religious Experience and the Birth of Mental Healing," Self-help and Popular Religion in Early American Culture: An Interpretive Guide, Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Company, 1999(a), (pp. 11–100), pp. 8, 176ff.

  19. ^ Hutchinson, Dawn (November 2014). "New Thought's Prosperity Theology and Its Influence on American Ideas of Success", Nova Religio: The Journal of Alternative and Emergent Religions, 18(2), (pp. 28–44), p. 28. JSTOR 10.1525/nr.2014.18.2.28
  20. ^ Saliba, John (2003). Understanding New Religious Movements. Walnut Creek, CA: Rowman Altamira. p. 26.
  21. ^ Lewis, James R. (2003). Legitimating New Religions. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. p. 94.
  22. ^ Simmons, John K. (1995). "Christian Science and American Culture", in Timothy Miller (ed.). America's Alternative Religions, New York: State University of New York Press. p. 61.
  23. ^ Charles S. Braden, Spirits in Rebellion: The Rise and Development of New Thought, Dallas: Southern Methodist University Press, 1963, pp. 4–5.
  24. ^ John S. Haller, The History of New Thought: From Mental Healing to Positive Thinking and the Prosperity Gospel, West Chester, PA: Swedenborg Foundation Press, 2012, pp. 10–11.
    Horatio W. Dresser, A History of the New Thought Movement, New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1919, pp. 152–153.

    For early uses of New Thought, William Henry Holcombe, Condensed Thoughts about Christian Science (pamphlet), Chicago: Purdy Publishing Company, 1887; Horatio W. Dresser, "The Metaphysical Movement" (from a statement issued by the Metaphysical Club, Boston, 1901), The Spirit of the New Thought, New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1917, p. 215.

  25. ^ Simmons 1995, p. 61.
  26. ^ Dell De Chant, "The American New Thought Movement," in Eugene Gallagher and Michael Ashcraft (eds.), Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America, Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Company, 2007, pp. 81–82.
  27. ^ William James, The Varieties of Religious Experience (Gifford Lectures, Edinburgh), New York: Longmans, Green, & Co, 1902, pp. 75–76; "New Thought", Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2014.
  28. ^ de Chant 2007, p. 73.
  29. ^ James 1902, p. 94.
  30. ^ James 1902, p. 106.
  31. ^ Stark 1998, pp. 197–198, 211–212; de Chant 2007, p. 67.
  32. ^ Wilson 1961, p. 135; Braden 1963, p. 62 (for "the truth is the cure"); McGuire 1988, p. 79.

    Also see "Religion: New Thought", Time magazine, 7 November 1938; "Phineas Parkhurst Quimby", Encyclopædia Britannica, September 9, 2013.

  33. ^ Philip Jenkins, Mystics and Messiahs: Cults and New Religions in American History, Oxford University Press, 2000, pp. 53–54.
  34. ^ Simmons 1995, p. 64; Fuller 2013, pp. 212–213, n. 16.
  35. ^ Wilson 1961, p. 156; Braden 1963, pp. 14, 16; Simmons 1995, p. 61.
  36. ^ McGuire 1988, p. 79.
  37. ^ Wilson 1961, pp. 126–127; Braden 1963, pp. 18–19.
  38. ^ Gottschalk, Stephen (1973). The Emergence of Christian Science in American Religious Life. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 128, 148–149.
    Moore, Laurence R. (1986). Religious Outsiders and the Making of Americans. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 112–113.

    Simmons 1995, p. 62; Whorton, James C. (2004). Nature Cures: The History of Alternative Medicine in America. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 128–129.

  39. ^ Craig R. Prentiss, "Sickness, Death and Illusion in Christian Science," in Colleen McDannell (ed.), Religions of the United States in Practice, Vol. 1, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001, p. 322.

    Claudia Stokes, The Altar at Home: Sentimental Literature and Nineteenth-Century American Religion, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2014, p. 181.

  40. ^ Braden 1963, p. 19; Stark 1998, p. 195
  41. ^ Anker 1999(a), p. 9.
  42. ^ Catherine Albanese, A Republic of Mind and Spirit: A Cultural History of American Metaphysical Religion, New Haven: Yale University Press, 2007, p. 284.
  43. ^ Wilson 1961, p. 121; Eddy, Manual of the Mother Church, pp. 15–16.
  44. ^ Eddy, Retrospection and Introspection, The First Church of Christ, Scientist, 1891, p. 70.
  45. ^ Eddy, Christian Science Journal, January 1901, reprinted in "The Christian Science Textbook," The First Church of Christ, Scientist, and Miscellany, Boston: Alison V. Stewart, 1914, p. 115.
  46. ^ David L. Weddle, "The Christian Science Textbook: An Analysis of the Religious Authority of Science and Health by Mary Baker Eddy", The Harvard Theological Review, 84(3), 1991, p. 281; Gottschalk 1973, p. xxi.
  47. ^ Eddy, Manual of the Mother Church, p. 58; Weddle 1991, p. 273.
  48. ^ J. Gordon Melton, "Church of Christ, Scientist (Christian Science)," Encyclopedic Handbook of Cults in America, New York: Routledge, 1992, p. 36.
  49. ^ Stark 1998, p. 195.
  50. ^ Wilson 1961, p. 122.
  51. ^ Wilson 1961, p. 127; Moore 1986, p. 112; Simmons 1995, p. 62.
  52. ^ For personhood, "Father–Mother God" and "she", see Gottschalk 1973, p. 52; for Ann Lee, see Stokes 2014, p. 186. For the seven synonyms, see Wilson 1961, p. 124.
  53. ^ Eddy, Science and Health, "Recapitulation" Archived 2014-02-03 at the Wayback Machine, p. 465:
  54. ^ Wilson 1961, pp. 121, 125.
  55. ^ Wilson 1961, p. 129; Stark 1998, pp. 196–197
  56. ^ Wilson 1961, pp. 125–126.
  57. ^ Wilson 1961, pp. 123, 128–129.
  58. ^ Wilson 1961, p. 122; Gottschalk 1972, p. xxvii; "Genesis Chapter 2", kingjamesbibleonline.org.
  59. ^ Eddy, Science and Health, p. 256; Wilson 1961, p. 127.
  60. ^ Eddy, Retrospection and Introspection, p. 26.
  61. ^ Wilson 1961, p. 121; Stark 1998, pp. 199
  62. ^ Wilson 1961, p. 124.
  63. ^ Gottschalk 1973, p. 95.
  64. ^ Melton 1992, p. 36.
  65. ^ J. Gordon Melton, "An Introduction to New Religions," in James R. Lewis (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of New Religious Movements, New York: Oxford University Press, 2003, p. 17; for Barrington, see Jenkins 2000, p. 49.
  66. ^ Raymond J. Cunningham, "The Impact of Christian Science on the American Churches, 1880–1910", The American Historical Review, 72(3), April 1967 (pp. 885–905), p. 892; "Faith Healing in America," The Times, May 26, 1885.
  67. ^ Mark Twain, Christian Science, p. 180; "Mark Twain & Mary Baker Eddy, a film by Val Kilmer", YouTube, from 04:30 mins.
  68. ^ Bates & Dittemore 1932, pp. 3–5; Gill 1998, p. 3.
  69. ^ Bates & Dittemore 1932, pp. 16–25; Gill 1998, pp. 35–37; Voorhees 2021, pp. 22–24.
  70. ^ Milmine 1909, p. 41; Voorhees 2021, pp. 24–26; Melton 1992 p. 29.
  71. ^ Bates & Dittemore 1932, pp. 30, 36, 40, 50–52; Fraser 1999, pp. 36–37.
  72. ^ Gill 1998, pp. 100–102, 113–115.
  73. ^ "Women and the Law". Women, Enterprise & Society. Harvard Business School. Archived from the original on 24 August 2019.
  74. ^ Voorhees 2021, pp. 30.
  75. ^ Piepmeier, Alison (2004). Out in public: configurations of women's bodies in nineteenth-century America. University of North Carolina Press. pp. 63, 229; Voorhees 2021, pp. 32–34; Bates & Dittemore 1932, p. 88; Melton 1992 p. 29.
  76. ^ Gill 1998, pp. 119–121.
  77. ^ Gill 1998, pp. 161–168; Voorhees 2021, pp. 57–58; Melton 1992 pp. 29–30; Mead, Frank S. (1995) Handbook of Denominations in the United States. Abingdon Press. p. 104.
  78. ^ Gill 1998, pp. 161–168; Voorhees 2021, pp. 57–58. For her account see: Eddy, "The Great Discovery", Retrospection and Introspection, pp. 24–29.
  79. ^ Bates & Dittemore 1932, pp. 118–135; Gottschalk 2006, pp. 80–81; Voorhees 2021, pp. 65–70; Gutjahr, Paul C. "Sacred Texts in the United States", Book History, 4, 2001 (335–370), 348. JSTOR 30227336
  80. ^ Gill 1998, pp. xxxi, xxxiii, 274, 357–358. Milmine, McClure's, August 1907, p. 458.
  81. ^ Koestler-Grack 2004, p. 52; Milmine, McClure's, September 1907, p. 567; Bates & Dittemore 1932, p. 210; Melton 1992 p. 30.
  82. ^ a b Gill 1998, pp. xxxix–xxxv; Chronology, Mary Baker Eddy Library.
  83. ^ Fuller 2011, p. 1.
  84. ^ Paul Eli Ivey, Prayers in Stone: Christian Science Architecture in the United States, 1894–1930, Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1999, p. 31; "First Church of Christ, Scientist" Archived 2013-10-29 at the Wayback Machine, Oconto County Historical Society.
  85. ^ Gill 1998, p. 450; Beasley 1956, pp. 385–386.
  86. ^ Gill 1998, pp. xxi–xxii, 169–208, 471–520.
  87. ^ Gill 1998, pp. 453–454.
  88. ^ Gill 1998, pp. 563–568.
  89. ^ Bates & Dittemore 1932, p. 396-417; Gill 1998, pp. 471–520.
  90. ^ Bates & Dittemore 1932, pp. 411–417; "Dr. Alan McLane Hamilton Tells About His Visit to Mrs. Eddy", The New York Times, August 25, 1907.
  91. ^ Canham, Erwin (1958). Commitment To Freedom: The Story of the Christian Science Monitor. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. pp. 14–15.
  92. ^ Bates & Dittemore 1932, p. 451; "New York Eddyites Take Death Calmly", The New York Times, December 5, 1910; "Look for Mrs. Eddy to rise from tomb", The New York Times, December 29, 1910.
  93. ^ "Nothing left to relatives", The New York Times, December 8, 1910; "Church gets most of her estate", The New York Times, December 15, 1910.
  94. ^ Beasley 1956, p. 3.
  95. ^ Stark 1998; Beasley 1956, p. 80.
  96. ^ Eddy, "Discipline" Archived 2013-07-24 at the Wayback Machine, Manual of the Mother Church, Article VIII, Section 28.
  97. ^ Stark 1998, pp. 190–191; Dart, John (20 December 1986). "Healing Church Shows Signs It May Be Ailing", Los Angeles Times.
  98. ^ Stores, Bruce (2004). Christian Science: Its Encounter with Lesbian/Gay America. iUniverse. p. 34
  99. ^ Christian Science practitioner figures, and practitioners per million, 1883–1995: Stark 1998, p. 192, citing the Christian Science Journal.
  100. ^ Melton 1992 p. 34.
  101. ^ Melton 1992 pp. 34–37.
  102. ^ Melton 1992 p. 34; Beasley 1956, pp. 46–77, 81.
  103. ^ Simmons, John K. (1991). When Prophets Die: The Postcharismatic Fate of New Religious Movements. Albany: State University of New York Press. pp. 113–115; Beasley 1956, pp. 144–181; The "Great Litigation". Mary Baker Eddy Library. March 30, 2012.
  104. ^ King, Christine Elizabeth. (1982). The Nazi State and The New Religions: Five Case Studies in Non-Conformity. Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press. pp. 29–57; Beasley 1956, pp. 233–246; Sandford, Gregory W. (2014). Christian Science in East Germany: The Church that Came in from the Cold. CreateSpace Independent Publishing.
  105. ^ Beasley 1956, pp. 245–246; Abiko, Emi (1978). A Precious Legacy: Christian Science Comes to Japan. E. D. Abbott Co.
  106. ^ Barns, Linda L.; Plotnikoff, Gregory A.; Fox, Kenneth; Pendleton, Sara (2000). "Spirituality, Religion, and Pediatrics: Intersecting Worlds of Healing". Pediatrics 104, no. 6: 899–911; DesAutels, Peggy; Battin, Margaret; May, Larry (1999). Praying for a Cure: When Medical and Religious Practices Conflict. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers; Kondos, Elena M. (1992). "The Law and Christian Science Healing for Children: A Pathfinder." Legal Reference Services Quarterly. 12: 5–71; Gill 1998, pp. xv–xvi.
  107. ^ "Court rejects Christian Science motion on bequests" Stanford University. Press release, September 23, 1992; "Christian Scientists Charge Their Church with Violating Its Principles" Christian Research Institute, April 9, 2009; "Christian Science Church Settles Claim to Bequest" The New York Times, October 14, 1993.
  108. ^ Bridge, Susan (1998). Monitoring the News: The Brilliant Launch and Sudden Collapse of the Monitor Channel. Armonk, New York: M.E. Sharpe; Gold, Allan R. (November 15, 1988). "Editors of Monitor Resign Over Cuts". The New York Times.
  109. ^ Knee 1994, pp. 62, 134–135; Melton 1992 pp. 4, 34–37.
  110. ^ Melton, J. Gordon (1999). Encyclopedia of American religions. Detroit: Gale Research. pp. 140–142.
  111. ^ Christian Science Journal Directory Search. christianscience.com
  112. ^ Christa Case Bryant (June 9, 2009). "Africa contributes biggest share of new members to Christian Science church". The Christian Science Monitor.
  113. ^ Fuller 2011, pp. 1–8; Squires, L. Ashley (2015). "All the News Worth Reading: The Christian Science Monitor and the Professionalization of Journalism". Book History. 18: 235–272.
  114. ^ Frank Prinz-Wondollek, "How does Christian Science heal?", Boston: Christian Science Lectures, April 28, 2011, from 00:02 mins.
  115. ^ Battin 1999, p. 7.
  116. ^ Stark 1998, pp. 196–197; Gottschalk 2006, p. 86.
  117. ^ Fraser 1999, pp. 94–96.
  118. ^ "Teachers and practitioners", Christian Science Journal.
  119. ^ a b c Vitello, Paul (March 23, 2010). "Christian Science Church Seeks Truce With Modern Medicine", The New York Times.
  120. ^ Fraser 1999, pp. 91–93; Eddy, "Recapitulation" Archived 2014-02-03 at the Wayback Machine, Science and Health.
  121. ^ Fraser 1999, p. 91.
  122. ^ Fraser 1999, p. 329; "Christian Science nursing facilities", Commission for Accreditation of Christian Science Nursing Organizations/Facilities.
  123. ^ a b Battin 1999, p. 15.
  124. ^ "Testimony Guidelines", JSH-Online, Christian Science church.
  125. ^ Battin 1999, p. 15; "An Empirical Analysis of Medical Evidence in Christian Science Testimonies of Healing, 1969–1988" Archived 2010-07-10 at the Wayback Machine, Christian Science church, April 1989, pp. 2, 7, courtesy of the Johnson Fund.
  126. ^ Peters 2007, p. 22; "An Analysis of a Christian Science Study of the Healings of 640 Childhood Illnesses", Death by Religious Exemption, Coalition to Repeal Exemptions to Child Abuse Laws, Massachusetts Committee for Children and Youth, January 1992, Section IX, p. 34.
  127. ^ Talbot, Nathan (1983). "The position of the Christian Science church". New England Journal of Medicine. 309 (26): 1641–1644 [1642]. doi:10.1056/NEJM198312293092611. PMID 6646189.
  128. ^ Samantha Maiden (April 18, 2015). "No Jab, No Pay reforms: Religious exemptions for vaccination dumped". Daily Telegraph.
  129. ^ Christine Pae (September 1, 2021). "Here's who qualifies for a religious exemption to Washington's COVID-19 vaccine mandate". KING 5.
  130. ^ Stark 1998, p. 193.
  131. ^ Eddy, "List of Church Officers" Archived 2014-03-22 at archive.today, Manual of the Mother Church; Gottschalk 1973, p. 190; Fraser (Atlantic) 1995.
  132. ^ Steve Stecklow, "Church's Media Moves At Issue A Burgeoning Network Sparks Dissent", Philadelphia Inquirer, October 14, 1991;[failed verification] Fraser 1999, pp. 373–374[better source needed]
  133. ^ Boston Landmarks Commission 2011, p. 1.
  134. ^ Boston Landmarks Commission 2011, pp. 5–6.
  135. ^ "Christian Science Plaza Revitalization Project Citizen Advisory Committee (CAC)", Boston Redevelopment Authority.
  136. ^ Boston Landmarks Commission 2011, p. 18.
  137. ^ Eddy, Manual of the Mother Church Archived 2013-08-19 at the Wayback Machine, 89th edition.
  138. ^ Gottshalk 1973, p. 183.
  139. ^ Eddy, "Discipline" Archived 2013-07-24 at the Wayback Machine, Manual of the Mother Church, Article VIII, Section 4; for more about prayer, Gottschalk 1973, pp. 239–240.
  140. ^ Eddy, "Discipline" Archived 2013-07-24 at the Wayback Machine, Manual of the Mother Church, Article VIII, Sections 13, 14.
  141. ^ Eddy, "Discipline" Archived 2013-07-24 at the Wayback Machine, Manual of the Mother Church, Article VIII, Sections 8, 12, 17, 26, 28.
  142. ^ Eddy, "Discipline" Archived 2013-07-24 at the Wayback Machine, Manual of the Mother Church, Article X, Section 1.
  143. ^ Eddy, "Discipline" Archived 2013-07-24 at the Wayback Machine, Manual of the Mother Church, Article XI, Section 9.
  144. ^ Eddy, "Discipline" Archived 2013-07-24 at the Wayback Machine, Manual of the Mother Church, Article VIII, Section 27.
  145. ^ Stuart M. Matlins; Arthur J. Magida, How to Be a Perfect Stranger: The Essential Religious Etiquette Handbook, Skylight Paths Publishing, 2003 (pp. 70–76)
    Dell de Chant, "World Religions made in the U.S.A.: Metaphysical Communities – Christian Science and Theosophy," in Jacob Neusner (ed.), World Religions in America, Westminster John Knox Press, 2009 (pp. 251–270), p. 257.

    "Sunday church services and Wednesday testimony meetings", and "Online Wednesday meetings", First Church of Christ, Scientist.

  146. ^ Margolick 1990, p. 2; Fraser (Atlantic) 1995.
  147. ^ Fraser 1999, pp. 186–190, 239, 427; Charles Lightoller, "It is difficult to tell of the experience ...", Christian Science Journal, October 1912.
  148. ^ For Jean Stapleton and Carol Channing: Margolick 1990, p. 2; for Horton Foote: Fraser 1999, p. 215
    For Cecil B. DeMille, Joan Crawford, Mary Pickford, Mickey Rooney, Ginger Rogers, Doris Day, George Hamilton: Gardner 1999.
    For King Vidor: Natacha Rambova, Rudolph Valentino: A Wife's Memories of an Icon, PVG Publishing, 2009, p. 149.

    For Colleen Dewhurst: Susan Ware (editor), Notable American Women: A Biographical Dictionary Completing the Twentieth Century, Volume 5, Cambridge, Mass: Belknap Press, 2004, pp. 174–175.

  149. ^ Gardner 1999; Fraser 1999, p. 215
  150. ^ For Helmuth von Moltke: Joseph Biesinger, Germany: A Reference Guide from the Renaissance to the Present, Infobase Publishing, 2006, p. 576; for Daniel Ellsberg: Tom Wells, Wild Man: The Life and Times of Daniel Ellsberg, Palgrave Macmillan, 2001, p. 49.
  151. ^ Fraser 1999, p. 215; for Ellen DeGeneres, Henry Fonda and Audrey Hepburn: Fuller 2011, p. 48.
  152. ^ Lawrence Wright, Going Clear: Scientology, Hollywood & the Prison of Belief, New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2013, p. 335.
  153. ^ David Bret: Jean Harlow, Tarnished Angel, Aurum Press Ltd, 21 February 2014
  154. ^ Vieira/Rooney: Harlow in Hollywood, Angel City Press, 03 March 2011
  155. ^ Stephanie Clifford, "Christian Science Paper to End Daily Print Edition", The New York Times, October 28, 2008; Jon Fine, "The Christian Science Monitor to Become a Weekly", Business Week, October 28, 2008; David Cook, "Monitor shifts from print to Web-based strategy", The Christian Science Monitor, October 29, 2008.
  156. ^ Seth Faison, "The Media Business; New Deadline for Monitor Channel", The New York Times, April 6, 1992.
  157. ^ "Learn more about JSH-Online", christianscience.com.

Further reading

Church histories

(chronological)

Books by former Christian Scientists

  • Fraser, Caroline. God's Perfect Child: Living and Dying in the Christian Science Church, New York: Metropolitan Books, 1999.
  • Greenhouse, Lucy. Fathermothergod: My Journey Out of Christian Science, New York: Crown Publishers, 2011.
  • Kramer, Linda S. Perfect Peril: Christian Science and Mind Control, Lafayette: Huntington House, 2000 (first published as The Religion That Kills. Christian Science: Abuse, Neglect, and Mind Control).
  • Simmons, Thomas. The Unseen Shore: Memories of a Christian Science Childhood, Boston: Beacon 1991.
  • Swan, Rita. The Last Strawberry, Dublin: Hag's Head Press, 2009.
  • Wilson, Barbara. Blue Windows: A Christian Science Childhood, New York: Picador 1997.