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ScriptureBrahmo Dharma
Pradhanacharya-1Raja Ram Mohan Roy
Pradhanacharya-2Dwarkanath Tagore
Pradhanacharya-3Debendranath Tagore
AssociationsBrahmo Samaj (Adi Brahmo Samaj and Sadharan Brahmo Samaj)
FounderRam Mohan Roy
Origin28 August 1828 (195 years ago) (1828-08-28)
Calcutta, British India

Brahmoism is a Hindu religious movement which originated from the mid-19th century Bengali Renaissance, the nascent Indian independence movement.[1][2] Adherents, known as Brahmos (singular Brahmo), are mainly of Indian or Bangladeshi origin or nationality.

The Brahmo Samaj, literally the "Society of Brahma", was founded as a movement by Raja Ram Mohan Roy.[3]

Fundamental principles

The Brahmo articles of faith derive from the Fundamental (Adi) Principles of the Adi Brahmo Samaj religion.[4]

Articles of faith

The Articles of faith for Brahmos are:[5]

Adherence to these articles are required only of Adi Brahmos or such Sadharan Brahmos who accept Adi-ism i.e. Trust Deed of Brahmo Sabha (1830). Brahmoism is considered a synthesis of Hinduism, Islam and Unitarianism.[6][7][8][9][10]


While Raja Ram Mohan Roy aimed at reforming the Hindu religion through Unitarianism, his successor Maharshi Debendranath Tagore in 1850 rejected the infallibility of the Vedas. Tagore tried to retain some Hindu customs, but a series of schisms eventually resulted in the formation of the breakaway Sadharan Brahmo Samaj in 1878.

So, in 1901, a decision of the Privy Council of British India found that "the vast majority of Brahmo religionists are not Hindus and have their own religion".[11]

The Brahma Dharma was first codified by Debendranath Tagore with the formulation of the Brahmo Dharma Beej and publication of the Brahma Dharma, a book of 1848 or 1850 in two parts. The Brahma Dharma is the source of every Brahmo's spiritual faith and reflects Brahmo repudiation of the Hindu Vedas as authority and the shift away from Ram Mohan Roy's Unitary version of God. The traditional seed principles and Debendranath's Brahmo Dharma (or religious and moral law) now stand evolved as the "Fundamental Principles of Brahmoism" and are supplemented by precise evolving rules for adherents, akin to "Articles of Faith" which regulate the Brahmo way of life. In addition the assembly of Brahmos (and also Brahmo Samajists) for meeting or worship is always consonant with the Trust Principles of 1830 or its derivatives.

Brief history and timeline

See also


  1. ^ David Kopf. The Brahmo Samaj and the Shaping of the Modern Indian Mind. Archived from the original on 22 December 2019.
  2. ^ "The Brahmo Samaj became the first organized vehicle for the expression of national awakening in India" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 August 2018.
  3. ^ Chambers Dictionary Of World History. Editor BP Lenman. Chambers. 2000.
  4. ^ "Brahmo Samaj Website". Archived from the original on 1 May 2016. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
  5. ^ " - BRAHMO SAMAJ". Archived from the original on 1 May 2016. Retrieved 5 June 2019.
  6. ^ Natesan, G.A. (1948). The Indian Review. G. A. Natesan & Company. Retrieved 1 March 2023.
  7. ^ Bergunder, M.; Frese, H.; Schröder, U. (2011). Ritual, Caste, and Religion in Colonial South India. Primus Books. p. 319. ISBN 978-93-80607-21-4. Archived from the original on 1 March 2023. Retrieved 1 March 2023.
  8. ^ van Bijlert, V.A. (2020). Vedantic Hinduism in Colonial Bengal: Reformed Hinduism and Western Protestantism. Routledge Studies in Religion. Taylor & Francis. p. 188. ISBN 978-1-000-16997-3. Retrieved 1 March 2023.
  9. ^ Indian Institute of World Culture (1993). Transaction - Indian Institute of World Culture. Retrieved 1 March 2023.
  10. ^ The Court Journal: Court Circular & Fashionable Gazette. Alabaster, Pasemore & sons, Limited. 1833. p. 723. Retrieved 1 March 2023.
  11. ^ Official website Archived 1 May 2016 at the Wayback Machine "In 1901 (Bhagwan Koer & Ors v J.C.Bose & Ors, 31 Cal 11, 30 ELR IA 249) the Privy Council (Britain's highest judicial authority) upholds the finding of the High Court of the Punjab that the vast majority of Brahmo religionists are not Hindus and have their own religion"
  12. ^ Roy, Samaren (2005). Calcutta: Society and Change 1690-1990. IUniverse. ISBN 9780595790005.
  13. ^ "Heritage Institute of India - article by Dr. Gautam Chatterjee". Archived from the original on 10 October 2008. Retrieved 28 March 2008.
  14. ^ " - Banian "Trust" Deed Chitpore Road Brahmo Sabha". Archived from the original on 19 November 2009. Retrieved 27 March 2008.
  15. ^ Mohanta, Sambaru Chandra (2003). "Tattvabodhini Sabha". In Islam, Sirajul; Jamal, Ahmed A. (eds.). Banglapedia: National Encyclopedia of Bangladesh (First ed.). Asiatic Society of Bangladesh. Archived from the original on 4 October 2006.
  16. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 May 2008. Retrieved 27 March 2008.((cite web)): CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  17. ^ Roy, Bhaskar (2004). "Time for Planning Commission to Step Back!!!" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 May 2008.
  18. ^ Shivanath Shastri's Brahmo History (1911) p. 114.
  19. ^ "Daughter of Boston: The Extraordinary Diary of Caroline Dall", by Helen Deese. p. XV.
  20. ^ a b Charles Dall Archived March 14, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
  21. ^ Primary Source: History of Brahmo Samaj by Sivanath Sastri 1911, Secondary Source: Official website