Druid gathering at Stonehenge
Ukrainian temple of the RUNVira in Spring Glen, New York

Modern paganism, also known as "contemporary" or "neopagan", encompasses a wide range of religious groups and individuals. These may include old occult groups, those that follow a New Age approach, those that try to reconstruct old ethnic religions, and followers of the pagan religion or Wicca.

Early movements

Pre-World War II neopagan or proto-neopagan groups, growing out of occultism and/or Romanticism (Mediterranean revival, Viking revival, Celtic revival, etc.).

Ethnic and cultural

Further information: Polytheistic reconstructionism


Winternights sacrifice at Öskjuhlíð, in Reykjavík

Main article: Heathenry (new religious movement)

Heathenism (also Heathenry, or Greater Heathenry), is a blanket term for the whole Germanic neopagan movement. Various currents and denominations have arisen over the years within it. Some of these denominations follow white supremacy, and some of the groups listed here follow folkish ideology.


The Druid Order Ceremony at Tower Hill, London on the Spring Equinox of 2010

Main article: Celtic neopaganism





Members of the Lithuanian Romuva perform a ceremony in front of the Monument of Gediminas, in Vilnius, Lithuania

Main article: Baltic neopaganism


The community of the Union of Slavic Native Belief Communities celebrating Mokosh, Russia

Main articles: Slavic Native Faith and List of Slavic Native Faith's organisations


Main article: Uralic neopaganism


Main article: Caucasian neopaganism

Other European

Ritual at the Temple of Garni, in Armenia


Tengrist temple of the Sülde Tngri in the town of Uxin Banner in Inner Mongolia, China

Main articles: Tengrism and List of Tengrist movements





Sub-Saharan African



Main article: Wicca

See also: Category: Wiccan traditions

Wicca originated in 1940s Britain and became the mainstream of neopaganism in the United States in the 1970s. There are two core traditions of Wicca which originated in Britain, Gardnerian and Alexandrian, which are sometimes referred to as British Traditional Wicca. From these two arose several other variant traditions. Wicca has also inspired a great number of other traditions in Britain, Europe and the United States, most of which base their beliefs and practices on Wicca. Many movements are influenced by the Movement of the Goddess, and New Age and feminist worldviews.

A Wiccan ritual altar
Other Wiccan-related traditions

Eclectic or syncretic

Main article: Eclectic paganism

See also


  1. ^ https://tradizioneromana.org/
  2. ^ a b Aitamurto, Kaarina (2016). Paganism, Traditionalism, Nationalism: Narratives of Russian Rodnoverie. London; New York: Routledge. pp. 35–37. ISBN 9781472460271.
  3. ^ a b c d Popov, Igor (2016). "Тюрко-монгольские религии (тенгрианство)" [Turko-Mongolic Religions (Tengrism)]. Справочник всех религиозных течений и объединений в России [The Reference Book on All Religious Branches and Communities in Russia] (in Russian). Retrieved November 23, 2019.
  4. ^ "First Tengrian religious organization registered" (in Russian). International Fund of Tengri Research. April 22, 2019. Retrieved November 23, 2019.
  5. ^ a b c Balogh, Matyas (2010). "Contemporary shamanisms in Mongolia". Asian Ethnicity. 11 (2): 229–38. doi:10.1080/14631361003779489. S2CID 145595446.
  6. ^ a b Schlehe, Judith (2004). "Shamanism in Mongolia and in New Age Movements". In Rasuly-Paleczek, Gabriele (ed.). Central Asia on Display: Proceedings of the VIIth Conference of the European Society for Central Asian Studies. Vol. 1. Vienna: Lit Verlag. pp. 283–96. ISBN 3-8258-8309-4.