The Apostolic Fathers, also known as the Ante-Nicene Fathers, were core Christian theologians among the Church Fathers who lived in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD who are believed to have personally known some of the Twelve Apostles or to have been significantly influenced by them.[1] Their writings, though widely circulated in early Christianity, were not included in the canon of the New Testament. Many of the writings derive from the same time period and geographical location as other works of early Christian literature which came to be part of the New Testament.


The label Apostolic Fathers has been applied to these writers only since the 17th century, to indicate that they were thought of as representing the generation that had personal contact with the Twelve Apostles.[1] The earliest known use of the term "Apostolic(al) Fathers" was by William Wake in 1693, when he was chaplain in ordinary to King William and Queen Mary of England.[2] According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, the use of the term Apostolic Fathers can be traced to the title of a 1672 work by Jean-Baptiste Cotelier, SS. Patrum qui temporibus apostolicis floruerunt opera ("Works of the holy fathers who flourished in the apostolic times"), which was abbreviated to Bibliotheca Patrum Apostolicorum (Library of the Apostolic Fathers) by L. J. Ittig in his 1699 edition of the same.[1] The term "apostolic father" first occurs in the Hogedos of Anastasius of the seventh-century, however states that it was never used to refer to a body of writings until later.[3]

The history of the title for these writers was explained by Joseph Lightfoot, in his 1890 translation of the Apostolic Fathers' works:[4]

...[T]he expression ['Apostolic Fathers'] itself does not occur, so far as I have observed, until comparatively recent times. Its origin, or at least its general currency, should probably be traced to the idea of gathering together the literary remains of those who flourished in the age immediately succeeding the Apostles, and who presumably therefore were their direct personal disciples. This idea first took shape in the edition of Cotelier during the last half of the seventeenth century (A.D. 1672). Indeed such a collection would have been an impossibility a few years earlier. The first half of that century saw in print for the first time the Epistles of Clement (A.D. 1633), and of Barnabas (A.D. 1645), to say nothing of the original Greek of Polycarp's Epistle (A.D. 1633) and the Ignatian Letters in their genuine form (A.D. 1644, 1646). The materials therefore would have been too scanty for such a project at any previous epoch. In his title page however Cotelier does not use the actual expression, though he approximates to it, SS. Patrum qui temporibus Apostolicis floruerunt opera; but the next editor [Thomas] Ittig (1699), adopts as his title Patres Apostolici, and thenceforward it becomes common.

List of works

The following writings are generally grouped together as having been written by the Apostolic Fathers (in italics are writings whose authors are unknown):[5]

Additionally some have argued that the Odes of Solomon was written by a student of the Apostle John around the middle of the first century.[6]

All or most of these works were originally written in Greek. Older English translations of these works can be found online in the Ante-Nicene Fathers series on the Christian Classics Ethereal Library website.[7] Published English translations have also been made by various scholars of early Christianity, such as Joseph Lightfoot, Kirsopp Lake, Bart D. Ehrman and Michael W. Holmes.[note 2] The first English translation of the Apostolic Fathers' works was published in 1693, by William Wake, then rector of Westminster St James, later Archbishop of Canterbury.[note 3] It was virtually the only English translation available until the mid-19th century. Since its publication many better manuscripts of the Apostolic Fathers' works have been discovered.[note 4]

There are several Greek text editions:


Clement of Rome

Clement of Rome (c. 35-99) was bishop of Rome from 88 to 99. Irenaeus and Tertullian list him as the fourth bishop after Peter, Linus and Anacletus.[8] He was said to have been consecrated by Peter the Apostle, and he is known to have been a leading member of the Church in Rome in the late 1st century.[9][10]

The First Epistle of Clement (c. AD 96)[11] was copied and widely read and is generally considered to be the oldest Christian epistle in existence outside of the New Testament. The letter is extremely lengthy, twice as long as the Epistle to the Hebrews,[note 5] and it demonstrates the author's familiarity with many books of both the Old Testament and New Testament. The epistle repeatedly refers to the Old Testament as scripture[12] and includes numerous references to the Book of Judith, thereby establishing usage or at least familiarity with Judith in his time. Within the letter, Clement calls on the Christians of Corinth to maintain harmony and order.[11] Tradition identifies the author as Clement, bishop of Rome, and scholarly consensus is overwhelmingly in favor of the letter's authenticity.[13]

The Second Epistle of Clement was traditionally ascribed by some ancient authors to Clement, but it is now generally considered to have been written later, c. AD 140–160, and therefore could not be the work of Clement, who died in 99.[9] Doubts about the authorship of the letter had already been expressed in antiquity by Eusebius and Jerome.[14][15] Whereas 1 Clement was an epistle, 2 Clement appears to be a transcript of an oral homily or sermon,[9] making it the oldest surviving Christian sermon outside of the New Testament.[citation needed]

Ignatius of Antioch

Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus, from the Greek for God-bearer) (c. 35–110)[16] was bishop of Antioch.[17] He may have known the apostle John directly, and his thought is certainly influenced by the tradition associated with this apostle.[18] En route to his martyrdom in Rome, Ignatius wrote a series of letters which have been preserved as an example of the theology of the earliest Christians. Important topics addressed in these letters include ecclesiology, the sacraments, the role of bishops,[19] and the nature of biblical Sabbath.[20] He clearly identifies the local-church hierarchy composed of bishop, presbyters, and deacons and claims to have spoken in some of the churches through the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. He is the second after Clement to mention the Pauline epistles.[11]

Polycarp of Smyrna

St. Polycarp, depicted with a book as a symbol of his writings.

Polycarp (c. AD 69c. 155) was bishop of Smyrna (now İzmir in Turkey).[21] His student Irenaeus wrote that he "was not only instructed by the apostles, and conversed with many who had seen the Lord, but was also appointed bishop by apostles in Asia and in the church in Smyrna",[22] and that he had, as a boy, listened to "the accounts which (Polycarp) gave of his intercourse with John and with the others who had seen the Lord".[23] The options for this John are John the son of Zebedee, traditionally viewed as the author of the Fourth Gospel, or John the Presbyter.[24] Traditional advocates follow Eusebius in insisting that the apostolic connection of Papius was with John the Evangelist, and that this John, the author of the Gospel of John, was the same as the apostle John.

Polycarp tried and failed to persuade Anicetus, bishop of Rome, to have the West celebrate Easter on 14 Nisan, as in the East.[25] He rejected the bishop's suggestion that the East use the Western date. In 155, the Smyrnans demanded Polycarp's execution as a Christian, and he died a martyr. His story has it that the flames built to kill him refused to burn him, and that when he was stabbed to death, so much blood issued from his body that it quenched the flames around him.[11] Polycarp is recognized as a saint in both the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches.

Papias of Hierapolis

Papias of Hierapolis (c. 60 – c. 130) was bishop of Hierapolis (now Pamukkale in Turkey). Irenaeus describes him as "an ancient man who was a hearer of John and a companion of Polycarp".[26] Eusebius adds that Papias was Bishop of Hierapolis around the time of Ignatius of Antioch.[27] The name Papias (Παπίας) was very common in the region, suggesting that he was probably a native of the area.[28]

Papias's major work was the Exposition of the Sayings of the Lord (Greek: Λογίων Κυριακῶν Ἐξήγησις) in five books; it has been lost and only survives in excerpts from Iraeneus and Eusebius. Other fragments come from the works of Philip of Side and George Hamartolos, but the authenticity of those are dubious.[29]

Quadratus of Athens

Quadratus of Athens (died c. 129) was bishop of Athens. Eusebius reports that he was a disciple of the apostles (auditor apostolorum) and that he was appointed as bishop after the martyrdom of his predecessor Publius.[30][31] Quadratus's major work is the Apology, which was apparently read to Emperor Hadrian to convince him to improve imperial policy toward Christians. It has been lost and only survives in an excerpt from Eusebius.[32]

Other sub-apostolic literature


The Didache (Greek: Διδαχή,, translit. Didakhé, lit. "Teaching")[33] is a brief early Christian treatise, dated anywhere from as early as AD 50 to the end of the 1st century.[34] It contains instructions for Christian communities. The text, parts of which may have constituted the first written catechism, has three main sections dealing with Christian lessons, rituals such as baptism and the Eucharist, and church organization. It was considered by some of the Church Fathers as part of the New Testament[35] but rejected as spurious (non-canonical) by others.[36] Scholars knew of the Didache through references in other texts, but the text had been lost; it was rediscovered in 1873 by Philotheos Bryennios, Metropolitan of Nicomedia, in the Codex Hierosolymitanus.

Shepherd of Hermas

The 2nd-century The Shepherd of Hermas was popular in the early church and was even considered scriptural by some of the Church Fathers such as Irenaeus[37] and Tertullian. It was written in Rome in Koine Greek. The Shepherd had great authority in the 2nd and 3rd centuries. The work comprises five visions, 12 mandates, and 10 parables. It relies on allegory and pays special attention to the Church, calling the faithful to repent of the sins that have harmed it.[38]

Epistle to Diognetus

The Epistle to Diognetus, sometimes called Mathetes or Epistle of Mathetes to Diogentus, is the first extant Christian apology. In the apology, the anonymous author explains to a pagan friend who wants to know more about the new religion. The epistle talks mainly about the incarnation of Logos (Jesus Christ), the errors of paganism and Judaism, and explain about the Christian lifestyle.[39] This work is thought to have been written around 130 AD.[40]

See also



  1. ^ Some editors place the Epistle to Diognetus among the apologetic writings, rather than among the Apostolic Fathers (Stevenson, J. A New Eusebius SPCK (1965) p. 400).
  2. ^ For a review of the most recent editions of the Apostolic Fathers and an overview of the current state of scholarship, see Timothy B. Sailors, "Bryn Mawr Classical Review: Review of The Apostolic Fathers: Greek Texts and English Translations". Retrieved 21 May 2023.
  3. ^ The translation was entitled The Genuine Epistles of the Apostolical Fathers, St. Barnabas, St. Clement, St. Ignatius, St. Polycarp, the Shepherd of Hermas, and the Martyrdoms of St. Ignatius and St. Polycarp written by Those who were Present at Their Sufferings.
  4. ^ Wake's 1693 translation is still available to this day, reprinted in a volume (first published in 1820) now being sold under the title The Lost Books of the Bible and the Forgotten Books of Eden, which is described at length in chapter 15 of Edgar J. Goodspeed, Modern Apocrypha (Boston: Beacon Press, 1956).
  5. ^ The Lightfoot translation of the First Epistle of Clement is 13,316 words; the Epistle to the Hebrews is only 7,300-400 words (depending on the translation).


  1. ^ a b c Public Domain Peterson, John Bertram (1913). "The Apostolic Fathers". In Herbermann, Charles (ed.). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
  2. ^ See H.J. de Jonge: On the origin of the term "Apostolic Fathers"; but note now D. Lincicum, "The Paratextual Invention of the Term 'Apostolic Fathers'," Journal of Theological Studies (2015)
  3. ^ The Apostolic Fathers. Vol. 24–25. Translated by Ehrman, Bart D. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. 2003. ISBN 0-674-99607-0. OCLC 56058333.
  4. ^ J.B. Lightfoot, The Apostolic Fathers, (1890, second ed., London, Macmillan & Co.) volume 1, page 3. See also, David Lincincum, The Paratextual Invention of the Term 'Apostolic Fathers', The Journal of Theological Studies, n.s. vol. 66, nr. 1 (April 2015) pages 139-148; H.J. de Jonge, On the Origin of the Term 'Apostolic Fathers', The Journal of Theological Studies, n.s. vol. 29, nr. 2 (Oct. 1978) pages 503-505.
  5. ^ "Apostolic Fathers, The". In Cross, F. L., and Livingstone, E.A., eds. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Oxford University Press (1974).
  6. ^ Smith, Preserved (1915). "The Disciples of John and the Odes of Solomon". The Monist. 25 (2): 161–199. doi:10.5840/monist191525235. JSTOR 27900527.
  7. ^ "The Apostolic Fathers with Justin Martyr and Irenaeus". Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Harry Plantinga. Retrieved 30 June 2016.
  8. ^ Cross, Frank Leslie; Livingstone, Elizabeth A. (2005). The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-280290-3.
  9. ^ a b c Chapman, Henry Palmer (1910). "Pope St. Clement I" . Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 9.
  10. ^ "Philip Schaff: History of the Christian Church, Volume II: Ante-Nicene Christianity. A.D. 100-325 - Christian Classics Ethereal Library". Retrieved 2021-09-04.
  11. ^ a b c d Durant, Will (1972). Caesar and Christ. New York: Simon & Schuster.
  12. ^ B. Metzger, Canon of the New Testament (Oxford University Press) 1987:43.
  13. ^ Louth 1987:20; preface to both epistles in William Jurgens The Faith of the Early Fathers, vol 1", pp 6 and 42 respectively.
  14. ^ Eusebius, Church History, Book 3, Chapter 16
  15. ^ Jerome, De Viris Illustribus, Chapter 15
  16. ^ See "Ignatius" in The Westminster Dictionary of Church History, ed. Jerald Brauer (Philadelphia:Westminster, 1971) and also David Hugh Farmer, "Ignatius of Antioch" in The Oxford Dictionary of the Saints (New York:Oxford University Press, 1987).
  17. ^ "Ignatius, St." Cross, F. L., ed. The Oxford dictionary of the Christian church. New York: Oxford University Press. 2005
  18. ^ "Saint Ignatius of Antioch" in the Encyclopædia Britannica.
  19. ^ Eph 6:1, Mag 2:1,6:1,7:1,13:2, Tr 3:1, Smy 8:1,9:1
  20. ^ Ignatius's Letter to the Magnesians 9: "Let us therefore no longer keep the Sabbath after the Jewish manner"
  21. ^ "Polycarp, Saint". Religion Past and Present. doi:10.1163/1877-5888_rpp_sim_024618. Retrieved 2022-10-26.
  22. ^ Adversus haereses, 3:3:4
  23. ^ Letter to Florinus, quoted in Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, Book V, chapter 20.
  24. ^ Lake (1912).
  25. ^ Andrews, Herbert Tom (1911). "Polycarp" . In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 22 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 20–22.
  26. ^ Iraeneus, Against Heresies, Book 5, Chapter 33
  27. ^ Eusebius, Church History, Book 3, Chapter 36
  28. ^ Huttner, Ulrich (2013-11-29). Early Christianity in the Lycus Valley. BRILL. p. 216. ISBN 978-90-04-26428-1.
  29. ^ Richard, Bauckham (2017). Jesus and the Eyewitnesses, 2d ed. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN 978-0-8028-7431-3.
  30. ^ Eusebius, Chronicon
  31. ^ Eusebius, Church History, Book 4, Chapter 23
  32. ^ Eusebius, Church History, Book IV, Chapter 3
  33. ^ Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert (1940). "διδαχή". A Greek–English Lexicon. Revised and augmented throughout by Sir Henry Stuart Jones, with the assistance of Roderick McKenzie. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  34. ^ Cross, edited by F.L. (2005). The Oxford dictionary of the Christian Church (3rd rev. ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 482. ISBN 978-0192802903. Retrieved 8 March 2016
  35. ^ Apostolic Constitutions "Canon 85" (approved at the Orthodox Synod of Trullo in 692); Rufinus, Commentary on Apostles Creed 37 (as Deuterocanonical) c. 380; John of Damascus Exact Exposition of Orthodox Faith 4.17; and the 81-book canon of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church which includes the Didascalia which is based on the Didache.
  36. ^ Athanasius, Festal Letter 39 (excludes them from the canon, but recommends them for reading) in 367; Rejected by 60 Books Canon and by Nicephorus in Stichometria
  37. ^ Robert Davidson & A.R.C. Leaney, Biblical Criticism: p. 230
  38. ^ "Hermas".
  39. ^ "Mathetes".
  40. ^ Richardson, Cyril C. (1953), Early Christian Fathers, pp. 206–10.