A Khanaqah (prayer house) of Naqshbandi in Saqqez's bazaar in Iran.

The Naqshbandi order (Arabic: الطريقة النقشبندية, romanizedal-Ṭarīqat al-Naqshbandiyya) is a Sufi order of Sunni Islam named after Baha al-Din Naqshband. They trace their silsila (chain) to Prophet Muhammad through the first caliph Abu Bakr (r. 632–634) by the way of Ja'far al-Sadiq. The Naqshbandi Sufi Order is distinguished from other Sunni schools by their adherence to the sharia highlighted by major Naqshbandi scholars including Sirhindi and Dahlawi.[1][2]

History

The order is also known as the "convergence of the two oceans" or "Sufi Order of Jafar al Sadiq".[3][4][5][6][7][8] The Naqshbandi order owes many insights to Yusuf Hamadani and Abdul Khaliq Ghijduwani in the 12th century, the latter of whom is regarded as the organizer of the practices and is responsible for placing stress upon the purely silent invocation.[9] It was later associated with Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari in the 14th century, hence the name of the order. Afterward, a branch or sub-order name was added. From 'Ubeydullah Ahrar to Imam Rabbani, the way was called "Naqshbandiyya-Ahrariyya"; from Imam Rabbani to Shamsuddin Mazhar "Naqshbandiyya-Mujaddadiyya"; from Shamsuddin Mazhar to Khalid al-Baghdadi "Naqshbandiyya-Mazhariyya"; from Mawlana Khalid onwards "Naqshbandiyya-Khalidiyya"; "Naqshbandiyya-Mustafvi" (Khalidi) and so on.[10]

South Asia

Tomb of Ahmad Sirhindī (1564–1624) was a prominent member of the Naqshbandī Sufi order.

The Naqshbandiyya order became an influential factor in Indo-Muslim life and for two centuries it was the principal spiritual order in the Indian subcontinent. Baqi Billah Berang, who was born in Kabul and brought up and educated in Kabul and Samarkand, is credited for bringing the order to India during the end of the 16th century. He tried to spread his knowledge about the order but died three years later. His disciple Ahmad Sirhindi took over after his death, and it was through him that the order gained popularity within a short period of time. Shah Waliullah Dehlawi was an 18th-century member of the order.[11]

Syria

The Naqshbandiyya order was introduced into Syria at the end of the 17th century by Murad Ali al-Bukhari, who established himself in Damascus and traveled throughout Arabia. His branch became known as the Muradiyya and was led by his descendants. In 1820, Khalid Shahrazuri rose as a prominent Naqshbandi leader in the Ottoman world and his order became known as the Khalidiyya which spread for at least two decades. In Syria and Lebanon, the leaders of every active Naqshbandiyya group acknowledged its spiritual lineage. Later, a strife between Khalid's khalifas led to disruption of the order and it divide. The Farmadiyya branch, which practices silent and vocal invocation, is still present in Lebanon and is named after Ali-Farmadi. The pre-Mujaddidi line of the Naqshbandiyya in Greater Syria came to an end when political leader Musa Bukhar died in 1973. The only branch to have survived till recently is the one based in the khanqah al-Uzbakiyya in Jerusalem.[12]

Egypt

The Naqshbandi order rose to prominence in Egypt during the 19th century. A major khanqah was constructed in 1851 by Abbas I as a favor to the Naqshbandi sheikh Ahmad Ashiq, who led the order until his death in 1883. Ahmad Ashiq practiced the Diya'iyya branch of the Khalidiyya. Two other versions of Naqshbandiyya spread in Egypt in the last decades of the 19th century: the Judiyya, led by sheikh Juda Ibrahim, and the Khalidiyya, led by Sudanese al-Sharif Isma'il al-Sinnari and his successors. These branches continued to grow and are still active today. None of the early orders survived far into the 20th century however, and all khanqahs in Egypt were closed in 1954 when the buildings were either assigned a different function or demolished.[12]

Southeast Asia

Tomb of Abdurrahman Batuhampar, a Naqshbandi sheikh in Sumatra and grandfather of Mohammad Hatta

The first known Naqshbandi murshid in Malay Archipelago was Yusuf al-Makassari, a 17th century Islamic scholar who also introduced Khalwatiyya to the region. However, the order quickly disappeared before being introduced again in the 19th century. There are two well known branches of Naqshbandiyya ini Southeast Asia. The first one is Khalidiyya, introduced by Ismail al-Minankabawi, a disciple of Khalid al-Baghdadi and Abdullah al-Arzinjani in Mecca, and spread across Sumatra, Java, and Malay Peninsula. PERTI, an Indonesian Islamic organization from Minangkabau Highlands, was founded by Sulaiman ar-Rasuli and other Khalidi clerics. The other branch is Mazhariyya, named after Shamsuddin Mazhar, a Naqshbandi branch through Abu Said al-Ahmadi, one of Abdullah Dehlawi's khalifas. Mazhariyya is the main Naqshbandi branch in Madura, brought by Kiai Abdul Azim after studying in Mecca. Another related order is Qadiriyya wa Naqshbandiyya, a fusion of Qadiriyya and Naqshbandiyya, whose sheikhs in Banten and Lombok led rebellions against the Dutch East Indies at the end of 19th century.[13]

China

Ma Laichi's mausoleum (Hua Si Gongbei) in Linxia City, is the earliest and most important Naqshbandi monument in China.

Ma Laichi brought the Naqshbandi (نقشبندية) 納克什班迪 order to China, creating the Khufiyya (خفيه) 虎夫耶 Hua Si Sufi 华寺; ("Multicolored Mosque") menhuan. Ma Mingxin, also brought the Naqshbandi order, creating the Jahriyya (جهرية) 哲赫林耶 menhuan. These two menhuan were rivals, and fought against each other which led to the Jahriyya Rebellion, Dungan revolt, and Dungan Revolt (1895).[14]

Prominent figures

Principal teachings

Main article: Eleven Naqshbandi principles

The Naqshbandi order has eleven principle teachings known as the Eleven Naqshbandi principles. The first eight were formulated by Abdul Khaliq Gajadwani, and the last three were added by Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari.[9]

References

Notes

Citations

  1. ^ Dahlawi in Maqalaat al Waziyah fi Naseehat al-Wasiyah, page 7 (Lucknow)
  2. ^ Sirhindi in Maktubat, Volume 9:173#123
  3. ^ Ziad, Waleed (2018). "From Yarkand to Sindh via Kabul: The Rise of Naqshbandi-Mujaddidi Sufi Networks in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries". The Persianate World: Rethinking a Shared Sphere. p. 165. doi:10.1163/9789004387287_007. ISBN 9789004387287. S2CID 197951160. ((cite book)): |work= ignored (help)
  4. ^ Milani, M.; Possamai, A.; Wajdi, F. (2017). "Branding of Spiritual Authenticity and Nationalism in Transnational Sufism". In Michel, P.; Possamai, A.; Turner, B. (eds.). Religions, Nations, and Transnationalism in Multiple Modernities. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 197–220. doi:10.1057/978-1-137-58011-5_10. ISBN 978-1-137-59238-5.
  5. ^ Reimer, D. (1913). Die Welt des Islams Zeitschrift der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Islamkunde. p. 191. Archived from the original on 23 January 2023. Retrieved 4 August 2022. ((cite book)): |work= ignored (help)
  6. ^ Zelkina, Anna (2000). Quest for God and Freedom: Sufi Responses to the Russian Advance in the North Caucasus. Hurst & Company. p. 77. ISBN 9781850653844. Archived from the original on 23 January 2023. Retrieved 4 August 2022. Excerpt from note 11: "There are some Naqshbandi branches which trace their silsila through Ali ibn Abi Taleb." See Algar, 1972, pp. 191-3; al-Khani, 1308. pg 6 ((cite book)): |work= ignored (help)
  7. ^ Kugle, Scott Alan (2007). Sufis & saints' bodies: Mysticism, Corporeality and Sacred Power in Islam. University of North Carolina Press. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-8078-5789-2. Archived from the original on 3 December 2016. Retrieved 12 August 2015.
  8. ^ Kabbani, Muhammad Hisham (2004). Classical Islam and the Naqshbandi Sufi Tradition. Islamic Supreme Council of America. p. 557. ISBN 1-930409-23-0. Archived from the original on 23 January 2023. Retrieved 4 August 2022.
  9. ^ a b Trimingham, J. Spencer (1998). "The Chief Tariqa Lines". The Sufi Orders in Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 31. ISBN 9780198028239. Archived from the original on 23 January 2023. Retrieved 4 August 2022.
  10. ^ Eraydın, Selçuk (2001). Tasavvuf ve Tarikatlar (in Turkish). Marmara Üniversitesi Ilahiyat Vakfi Yayinlari. p. 434. ISBN 9789755480503.
  11. ^ Haq, Muhammad M. (1985). Some Aspects of the Principle Sufi Orders in India. Bangladesh. p. 20. Archived from the original on 23 January 2023. Retrieved 4 August 2022. ((cite book)): |work= ignored (help)CS1 maint: location missing publisher (link)
  12. ^ a b De Jong, Frederick (2000). Sufi Orders in Ottoman and Post-Ottoman Egypt and the Middle East: Collected Studies. Vol. 48, Analecta Isisiana. Isis Press. ISBN 9789754281781. Archived from the original on 23 January 2023. Retrieved 4 August 2022.
  13. ^ van Bruinessen, Martin (1994). Tarekat Naqsyabandiyah di Indonesia (in Indonesian). Bandung: Mizan. ISBN 979-433-000-0.
  14. ^ Kees Versteegh; Mushira Eid (2005). Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics: A-Ed. Brill. p. 380]. ISBN 978-90-04-14473-6. Archived from the original on 3 December 2016. Retrieved 24 January 2016.
  15. ^ van Bruinessen, Martin (15 August 1986). The Naqshbandi Order as a Vehicle of Political Protest among the Kurds (With Some Comparative Notes on Indonesia). New Approaches in Islamic Studies. Jakarta: Indonesian Institute of Sciences. pp. 1–3 – via Academia.edu.

Further reading