A mujaddid (Arabic: مجدد), according to the popular Muslim tradition, refers to a person who appears at the turn of every century of the Islamic calendar to revive Islam, remove from it any extraneous elements, and restore it to its pristine purity.

The concept is based on the following hadith (Prophetic tradition): Abu Hurairah narrated that the Islamic prophet Muhammad said:

Allah shall raise for this Ummah at the head of every century a man who shall renew (or revive) for it its religion.

— Sunan Abu Dawood, Book 37: Kitab al-Malahim [Battles], Hadith Number 4278[1]

List of claimants and potential Mujaddids

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First Century (after the prophetic period) (August 3, 718)

Second Century (August 10, 815)

Third Century (August 17, 912)

Fourth Century (August 24, 1009)

Fifth Century (September 1, 1106)

Sixth Century (September 9, 1203)

Seventh Century (September 5, 1300)

Eighth Century (September 23, 1397)

Ninth Century (October 1, 1494)

Tenth Century (October 19, 1591)

Eleventh Century (October 26, 1688)

Twelfth Century (November 4, 1785)

Thirteenth Century (November 14, 1882)

Fourteenth Century (November 21, 1979)

References

  1. ^ Sunan Abu Dawood, 37:4278
  2. ^ a b c "Mujaddid Ulema". Living Islam.
  3. ^ Josef W. Meri, Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, (Routledge 1 Dec 2005), p 678. ISBN 0415966906.
  4. ^ a b c Waliullah, Shah. Izalatul Khafa'an Khilafatul Khulafa. p. 77, part 7. ((cite book)): Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coathors= (help)
  5. ^ Josef W. Meri, Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, (Routledge 1 Dec 2005), p 678. ISBN 0415966906.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i Nieuwenhuijze, C.A.O.van (1997). Paradise Lost: Reflections on the Struggle for Authenticity in the Middle East. p. 24. ISBN 90 04 10672 3. ((cite book)): Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coathors= (help) Cite error: The named reference "Paradise Lost" was defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  7. ^ Josef W. Meri, Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, (Routledge 1 Dec 2005), p 678. ISBN 0415966906
  8. ^ Josef W. Meri, Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, (Routledge 1 Dec 2005), p 678. ISBN 0415966906.
  9. ^ "Imam Ghazali: The Sun of the Fifth Century Hujjat al-Islam". The Pen. February 1, 2011. ((cite news)): Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |publisher= (help)
  10. ^ Jane I. Smith, Islam in America, p 36. ISBN 0231519990
  11. ^ Dhahabi, Siyar, 4.566
  12. ^ Willard Gurdon Oxtoby, Oxford University Press, 1996, p 421
  13. ^ Josef W. Meri, Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, (Routledge 1 Dec 2005), p 678. ISBN 0415966906.
  14. ^ "al-Razi, Fakhr al-Din (1149-1209)". Muslim Philosophy.
  15. ^ "Ibn Hajar Al-Asqalani". Hanafi.co.uk.
  16. ^ a b Azra, Azyumardi (2004). The Origins of Islamic Reformism in Southeast Asia part of the ASAA Southeast Asia Publications Series. University of Hawaii Press. p. 18. ISBN 9780824828486. ((cite book)): Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coathors= (help)
  17. ^ Glasse, Cyril (1997). The New Encyclopedia of Islam. AltaMira Press. p. 432. ISBN 90 04 10672 3. ((cite book)): Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coathors= (help)
  18. ^ Josef W. Meri, Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia, (Routledge 1 Dec 2005), p 678. ISBN 0415966906
  19. ^ "A Short Biographical Sketch of Mawlana al-Haddad". Iqra Islamic Publications.
  20. ^ "Gyarwee Sharif". al-mukhtar books.
  21. ^ O. Hunwick, John (1995). African And Islamic Revival in Sudanic Africa: A Journal of Historical Sources. p. 6. ((cite book)): Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coathors= (help)
  22. ^ a b Rippin, Andrew. Muslims: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. p. 282. ((cite book)): Cite has empty unknown parameter: |coathors= (help) Cite error: The named reference "Muslims: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices" was defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  23. ^ "Services As A Mujadid". Alahazrat Imam Ahmed Raza Khan.
  24. ^ "The Promised Messiah". Al Islam.
  25. ^ "Claims of Hadhrat Ahmad". Al Islam. Chapter Two
  26. ^ "British Government and Jihad" (PDF). Al Islam.
  27. ^ "Renewal Deeds". AlaHazrat.

Further reading