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In Islamic terminology, something which is makruh or makrooh (Arabic: مكروه, transliterated: makrooh or makrūh) is a "disliked" (literally "detestable" or "abominable"[1]). This is one of the five categories (al-ahkam al-khamsa) in Islamic law – wajib/fard (obligatory), Mustahabb/mandub (recommended), mubah (neutral), makruh (disapproved), haram (forbidden).[2]

Though a makruh act is not haram (forbidden) or subject to punishment, a person who abstains from this act will be rewarded.[1] Muslims are encouraged to avoid such actions when or as possible. It is one of the degrees of approval (ahkam) in Islamic law.

Acts considered makruh can vary between different madhhabs due to differing scholarly interpretations of the Quran and Hadith, with Hanafi scholars in particular differing from the other madhhabs in regard to classification of makruh.[3]

Overview

Actions that are reprehensible and violate rules of Fiqh are considered to be makruh.[4]

Makruh is considered to be of two types:

The Hanafi school uses the makruh tahrimi classification on the basis that there is doubt (but not extremely significant) in the chain of narration and/or authenticity of a Hadith that provides evidence that a particular act is considered haram. All other madhhabs would consider classifying an act as haram in this case.[3]

Examples

The word makruh written in Arabic. Commonly seen in texts, both transliterated and translated, in order to provide a visual marker for actions that fall under this category in Fiqh.

Some of the examples of something considered makruh are the use of a great amount of water when performing ritual purifications known as the wudu (partial ablution, or abdest) and ghusl (full ablution) or the consumption of garlic before attending the mosque or socializing with others.[1][5]

An example of a food which is considered makruh for Muslims of the Hanafi school is prawns (but only for the Hanafi school).[6] There are, however, shared attitudes within the Hanafi school of whether shrimp are considered water game and are thereby halal. Hanafis believe in refraining from it and in eating something else if possible.[7]

An example in regards to clothing that is considered makruh is wearing garments below the ankle. However, debate among scholars, particularly of the Maliki school, has led to some considering it haram while others maintain it is makruh.[8]

While the wearing of silk garments and gold jewelry by men is considered haram in all other schools, the Hanafi school considers it makruh tahrimi due to doubt in the chain of narration and authenticity of the Hadith in which this evidence is sourced.[3]

Another example of makruh tahrimi is making an offer to buy something that has an offer already placed by another person. Similarly to the rule on men and silk garments, the Hanafi school considers it makruh tahrimi since the Hadith in which the evidence is found has some doubt to the chain of narration.[3]

Other examples of makruh acts in Islam include talking while taking ablutions for prayer and slaughtering an animal for food where other animals of its kind can see it.[4]

References

  1. ^ a b c al-Dīn, Mūʼil Yūsuf ʻIzz (2004). Islamic Law: From Historical Foundations to Contemporary Practice. Edinburgh University Press. p. 98. ISBN 9780748614592. Retrieved July 8, 2014.
  2. ^ Campo, Juan Eduardo (2009). Encyclopedia of Islam. infobase. p. 284. ISBN 9781438126968. Retrieved July 8, 2014.
  3. ^ a b c d e f Kamali, Mohammad Hashim (2005). Principles of Islamic Jurisprudence (PDF) (3rd ed.). Islamic Texts Society. pp. 285, 278, 287, 288. ISBN 978-0946621828.
  4. ^ a b c Desai, Shabbir Ahmed (2010). Ta'leemul Haq (PDF) (in Arabic and English). Adam Publishers IND. pp. 17, 18, 29, 148, 173. ISBN 978-8171015863.
  5. ^ Sonbol, Amira El Azhary, ed. (June 1996). Women, the Family, and Divorce Laws in Islamic History. Syracuse University Press. p. 265. ISBN 9780815603832. Retrieved July 8, 2014.
  6. ^ Lawful to you is the pursuit of water game and its use for food, for the benefit of yourselves and those who travel; ….[5:96].
  7. ^ Ruling on Shrimp, archived from the original on 2013-12-02
  8. ^ Al-Uthaymin, Muhammad bin Salah (2013). The Foundations Of The Knowledge Of Usool. 5 Pillars Publishing. p. 68. ASIN B00DTWKITE.