Qutbism (Arabic: ٱلْقُطْبِيَّةِ‎, romanizedal-Quṭbīyah, also Kotebism, Qutbiyya or Qutbiyyah) is an Islamist ideology developed by Sayyid Qutb, a leading member of the Muslim Brotherhood who was executed by the Egyptian government.[1] It has been described as advancing the extremist jihadist ideology of propagating "offensive jihad" – waging jihad in conquest[2] – "armed jihad in the advance of Islam",[3] and simply "Islamic-based terrorism".[4]

Qutbism has gained widespread attention because it is widely believed to have influenced Islamist extremists and terrorists such as Osama bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri. Muslim extremists “cite Sayyid Qutb repeatedly and consider themselves his intellectual descendants.”[3]

There exists a general consensus that the ideology of Islamic State was founded upon the principles set forth by Qutb, particularly based on his treatises Milestones and In the Shade of the Qur'an.[5]

Terminology

Qutbism has gained widespread attention due to its perceived influence on Islamic extremists, and terrorists such as Osama bin-Laden. Muslim extremists “cite Sayyid Qutb repeatedly and consider themselves his intellectual descendants.”[3]

While referred to as Qutbists or Qutbiyyun, (singular Qutbee or Qutbi), this group of Muslims rarely call themselves by such; the name originated from and is used by the sect's opponents. (Qutbism is used not as an endonym by followers of Qutbism to describes themselves, but as an exonym.)[6]

Tenets

Sayyid Qutb

The main tenet of Qutbist ideology is that the Muslim community are not followers of "true Islam", which "has been extinct for a few centuries",[7] having reverted to Godless ignorance (Jahiliyya) and must be reestablished by Qutb's followers.[8]

Qutb outlined his ideas in his book Ma'alim fi-l-Tariq (aka Milestones). Important principles of Qutbism include:[citation needed]

Takfirism

The most controversial aspect of Qutbism is takfir, whereby Qutb has declared Islam "extinct," so that those who call themselves Muslims — with the exception of Qutb's Islamic vanguard — are not actually Muslim. Takfir was intended to shock Muslims into religious re-armament. When taken literally, takfir also had the effect of causing non-Qutbists who claimed to be Muslim to be in violation of Sharia law, a law that Qutb very much supported. Violating this law could potentially be considered apostasy from Islam: a crime punishable by death according to Islamic law.[12]

Because of these serious consequences, Muslims have traditionally been reluctant to practice takfir, that is, to pronounce professed Muslims as unbelievers (even Muslims in violation of Islamic law).[13] This prospect of fitna, or internal strife, between Qutbists and "takfir-ed" mainstream Muslims, was put to Qutb by prosecutors in the trial that led to his execution,[14] and is still made by his Muslim detractors.[15][16]

Qutb died before he could clear up the issue of whether jahiliyyah referred to the whole "Muslim world," or to only Muslim governments[17] but a serious campaign of terror – or "physical power and jihad" against "the organizations and authorities" of "jahili" Egypt – by insurgents observers believed to be influenced by Qutb followed in the 1980s and 1990s.[18] Victims included Egyptian President Anwar Sadat, head of the counter-terrorism police Major General Raouf Khayrat, parliamentary speaker Rifaat el-Mahgoub, dozens of European tourists and Egyptian bystanders, and over one hundred Egyptian police officers.[19] Other factors (such as economic dislocation/stagnation and rage over President Sadat's policy of reconciliation with Israel) played a part in instigating the violence,[20] but Qutb's takfir against jahiliyyah (or jahili) society, and his passionate belief that jahiliyyah government was irredeemably evil, played a key role.[21]

History

Spread of Qutb's ideas

Qutb's message was spread through his writing, his followers and especially through his brother, Muhammad Qutb, who moved to Saudi Arabia following his release from prison in Egypt and became a professor of Islamic Studies and edited, published and promoted his brother Sayyid's work.[22][23]

Ayman al-Zawahiri

Ayman Al-Zawahiri, who went on to become a member of the Egyptian Islamic Jihad, was one of Muhammad Qutb's students [24] and later a mentor of Osama bin Laden and a leading member of al-Qaeda.[25] and had been first introduced to Sayyad Qutb by his uncle, Mafouz Azzam, who had been very close to Sayyad Qutb throughout his life and impressed on al-Zawahiri "the purity of Qutb's character and the torment he had endured in prison."[26] Zawahiri paid homage to Qutb in his work Knights under the Prophet's Banner.[27]

Qutbism was considered propagated by Abdullah Azzam during the war between the Soviet and Afghan mujahideens. In the scene of the war, Qutbism had merged with Salafism and Wahhabism, culminating in the formation of Salafi jihadism.[28] Abdullah Azzam was a mentor of bin Laden as well.

Osama bin Laden is reported to have regularly attended weekly public lectures by Muhammad Qutb, at King Abdulaziz University, and to have read and been deeply influenced by Sayyid Qutb.[29]

Late Yemeni Al Qaeda leader Anwar al-Awlaki has also spoken of Qutb's great influence and of being "so immersed with the author I would feel Sayyid was with me... speaking to me directly.”[30]

Based on interviews with "Islamic terrorists in several countries", Fawaz A. Gerges states,[31] “Qutb showed them the way forward and . . . they referred to [him] as a shadhid, or martyr. ... “jihadis look up to Qutb as a founding spiritual father, if not the mufti, or theoretician of their contemporary movement.”[32] Ayman al-Zawahiri, leader of al-Qaeda since June 2011, asserts the execution of Qutb lit "the jihadist fire",[31] and his writings "dramatically altered the direction of the Islamist movement by forcefully driving the idea of 'the urgent need to attack the near enemy' (rulers and secular governments in Muslim countries)".[32]

Backlash

Following Qutb's death Qutbist ideas spread throughout Egypt and other parts of the Arab and Muslim world, prompting a backlash by more traditionalist and conservative Muslims, such as the book Du'ah, la Qudah (Preachers, not Judges) (1969). The book, written by MB Supreme Guide Hassan al-Hudaybi, attacked the idea of Takfir of other Muslims (but was ostensibly targeted not at Qutb but at Mawdudi, as al-Hudaybi had been a friend and supporter of Qutb).[33]

Views

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Science and learning

On the importance of science and learning, the key to the power of his bête noire, western civilization, Qutb was ambivalent. He wrote that

Muslims have drifted away from their religion and their way of life, and have forgotten that Islam appointed them as representatives of God and made them responsible for learning all the sciences and developing various capabilities to fulfill this high position which God has granted them.[34]

... and encouraged Muslims to seek knowledge.

A Muslim can go to a Muslim or to a non-Muslim to learn abstract sciences such as chemistry, physics, biology, astronomy, medicine, industry, agriculture, administration (limited to its technical aspects), technology, military arts and similar sciences and arts; although the fundamental principle is that when the Muslim community comes into existence it should provide experts in all these fields in abundance, as all these sciences and arts are a sufficient obligation (Fard al-Kifayah) on Muslims (that is to say, there ought to be a sufficient number of people who specialize in these various sciences and arts to satisfy the needs of the community).[35]

On the other hand, Qutb believed some learning was forbidden to Muslims and should not be studied, including:

principles of economics and political affairs and interpretation of historical processes... origin of the universe, the origin of the life of man... philosophy, comparative religion... sociology (excluding statistics and observations)... Darwinist biology ([which] goes beyond the scope of its observations, without any rhyme or reason and only for the sake of expressing an opinion...).[36]

and that the era of scientific discovery (that non-Muslim Westerners were so famous for) was now over:

The period of resurgence of science has also come to an end. This period, which began with the Renaissance in the sixteenth century after Christ and reached its zenith in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, does not possess a reviving spirit.[37]

However important scientific discovery was, or is, an important tool to achieve it (and to do everything else) is to follow Sharia law under which

blessings fall on all mankind, [and] leads in an easy manner to the knowledge of the secrets of nature, its hidden forces and the treasures concealed in the expanses of the universe.[38]

Sharia and governance

Qutbism maintains that in a sharia-based society, wonders of justice, prosperity, peace and harmony—both individually and societally—are "not postponed for the next life [i.e. heaven] but are operative even in this world".[39]

The harmony and perfection is such that the use of offensive jihad to spread sharia-Islam throughout the non-Muslim world will not be aggression but "a movement... to introduce true freedom to mankind." Mankind is freed from servitude to other men because the divine nature of Sharia means no human authorities are necessary to judge or enforce its law.[38] But in other works Qutb does describe the ruler of the Islamic state, as a man (never a woman) who "derives his legitimacy from his being elected by the community and from his submission to God. He has no privileges over other Muslims, and is only obeyed as long as he himself adheres to the shari‘a".[40]

Conspiracy

Qutbism emphasizes what it sees as evil designs of Westerners and Jews against Islam, and the importance of Muslims not trusting or imitating them.

Non-Muslims

Other elements of Qutbism deal with non-Muslims, particularly Westerners, and have drawn attention and controversy from their subjects, particularly after the September 11, 2001 attacks. Though their terminology, issues and arguments are different from those of the Islamic traditionalists, Westerners also have criticism to make.

One scholar (A. B. Soage) quotes Qutb expressing his "extremely negative image" of non-Muslims:

"The people of the Book [Christians and Jews] were hostile to Muslims at the time of the prophet – Peace be Upon Him – and are hostile to the vanguard of Islamic renaissance [jihadi movement Qutb hoped to inspire] now simply because they are Muslims who believe in God[41] [and] in what was revealed to them in the Qur’an. […] They oppose the Muslims simply for being Muslims,[42] and [also] because they are depraved and have falsified [the books] that God revealed to them.[43]

Qutb believed (like medieval author Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyya) the realm outside of Muslim lands was "Dar al-Harb (the Abode of War)", and had to be subjugated by Muslims. Subjugation would actually be "liberation" however,[44] because it "would free men from all authority except that of God",[45] but at the same time, the liberated non-Muslim would "not be free to ‘deify their caprices’ (hawa-hum) or choose to be the servants of [other] servants’,[46] i.e. in the words of A.B. Soage, "they would not be allowed to legislate for themselves or choose representatives to do it for them. Obeying the social, moral, economic and international norms of the Islamist state would be non-negotiable."[47] (How/why non-Muslims would obey the laws of a religion they do not believe in without authorities to compel them is not explained.)

The West

In Qutb's view, for example, Western Imperialism is not, as Westerners would have Muslims believe, only an economic exploitation of weak peoples by the strong and greedy.[48] Nor were the medieval Crusades, as some historians claim, merely an attempt by Christians to reconquer the formerly Christian-ruled, Christian holy land.

Both were different expressions of the West's "pronounced... enmity" towards Islam, including plans to "demolish the structure of Muslim society." [49] Imperialism is "a mask for the crusading spirit." [50]

Qutb spent two years in the U.S. in the late 1940s and disliked it immensely.[51] Examples of Western malevolence Qutb personally experienced and related to his readers include an attempt by a "drunken, semi-naked... American agent" to seduce him on his voyage to America, and the (alleged) celebration of American hospital employees upon hearing of the assassination of Egyptian Ikhwan Supreme Guide Hassan al-Banna.[52]

Qutb's Western critics have questioned whether Qutb was likely to arouse interest of American intelligence agents (as he was not a member of the Egyptian government or any political organization at that time), or whether many Americans, let alone hospital employees, knew who Hassan al-Banna or the Muslim Brotherhood were in 1948.[53]

Western corruption

Further information: Sex segregation and Islam

Qutbism emphasizes a claimed Islamic moral superiority over the West, according to Islamist values. One example of "the filth" and "rubbish heap of the West" [54] was the "animal-like" "mixing of the sexes." The "primitive" Jazz music "that the Negroes invented to satisfy their primitive inclinations".[55] Qutb states that while he was in America a young woman told him

The issue of sexual relations is purely a biological matter. You ... complicate this matter by imposing the ethical element on it. The horse and mare, the bull and the cow ... do not think about this ethical matter ... and, therefore, live a comfortable, simple, and easy life.[56]

Critics (Maajid Nawaz) protest Qutb's complaint about both American racism and the "primitive inclinations" of the "Negro" are contradictory and hypocritical.[55] There is also doubt as to whether the sentiment that "sexual relations" has no "ethical element" would have been representative of American public opinion at the height of the sexual revolution 30 years later, let alone at the time of Qutb's visit to America in the late 1940s.[Note 1] The place Qutb spent most of his time in was the small city of Greeley, Colorado, dominated by cattle feedlots and an "unpretentious university", originally founded as "a sober, godly, cooperative community".[58]

Jews

The other anti-Islamic conspirator group, according to Qutb, is "World Jewry," which he believes is engaged in tricks to eliminate "faith and religion", and trying to divert "the wealth of mankind" into "Jewish financial institutions" by charging interest on loans.[59] Jewish designs are so pernicious, according to Qutb's logic, that "anyone who leads this [Islamic] community away from its religion and its Quran can only be [a] Jewish agent", causing one critic to claim that the statement apparently means that "any source of division, anyone who undermines the relationship between Muslims and their faith is by definition a Jew".[60]

Criticism

By Muslims

While Ma'alim fi-l-Tariq [Arabic: معالم في الطريق] (Milestones) was Qutb's manifesto, other elements of Qutbism are found in his works Al-'adala al-Ijtima'iyya fi-l-Islam [Arabic: العدالة الاجتماعية في الاسلام] (Social Justice in Islam), and his Quranic commentary Fi Zilal al-Qur'an [Arabic: في ظلال القرآن] (In the shade of the Qur'an). Ideas in (or alleged to be in) those works also have come under attack from (at least some) traditionalist/conservative Muslims. They include:

Many contemporary Islamic scholars, however, do share the view that slavery is not allowed in Islam in modern times. Salafist critics maintain "Islaam has affirmed slavery ... And it will continue so long as Jihaad in the path of Allah exists." (Shaikh Salih al-Fawzaan)[62]

Qutb may now be facing criticism representing his idea's success or Qutbism's logical conclusion as much as his idea's failure to persuade some critics. Writing before the Islamic revival was in full bloom, Qutb sought Islamically-correct alternatives to European ideas like Marxism and socialism and proposed Islamic means to achieve the ends of social justice and equality, redistribution of private property, political revolution. But according to Olivier Roy, contemporary "neofundamentalist refuse to express their views in modern terms borrowed from the West. They consider indulging in politics, even for a good cause, will by definition lead to bid'a and shirk (the giving of priority to worldly considerations over religious values.)"[67]

There are, however, some commentators who display an ambivalence towards him, and Roy notes that "his books are found everywhere and mentioned on most neo-fundamentalist websites, and arguing his "mystical approach", "radical contempt and hatred for the West", and "pessimistic views on the modern world" have resonated with these Muslims.[68]

Relation to Muslim Brotherhood

Controversy over Qutbism is in part an expression of the disagreement of two of the main tendencies of the Islamic revival: the more quiest Salafi Muslims, and the more politically active Muslim groups associated with the Muslim Brotherhood,[69] the group Qutb was a member of for about the last decade and a half of his life.

Although Sayyid Qutb was never head (or "Supreme Guide") of the Muslim Brotherhood,[70] he was the Brotherhood's "leading intellectual," [71] editor of its weekly periodical, and a member of the highest branch in the Brotherhood, the Working Committee and of the Guidance Council.[72]

Hassan al-Hudaybi, the leader of the Muslim Brotherhood, argued against takfir and adopted a tolerant attitude. In response, some Qutbists concluded that the Muslim Brotherhood had "abandoned the ideas of Sayyid Qutb".[73] Ayman al-Zawahiri, a prominent Qutbist, also attacked the Muslim Brotherhood.[73]

After the publication of Ma'alim fi-l-Tariq (Milestones), opinion in the Brotherhood split over his ideas, though many in Egypt (including extremists outside the Brotherhood) and most of the Muslim Brotherhood members in other countries are said to have shared his analysis "to one degree or another."[74] However, the leadership of the Brotherhood, led by Hassan al-Hudaybi, remained moderate and interested in political negotiation and activism. By the 1970s, the Brotherhood had renounced violence as a means of achieving its goals.[75] In recent years his ideas have been embraced by Islamic extremist groups,[76] while the Muslim Brotherhood has tended to serve as the official voice of Moderate Islamism.

See also

References

Notes

  1. ^ sex out of wedlock, let alone "animal-like" promiscuity, was rare, with the overwhelming number of Americans married as virgins or that only had premarital sex with their future spouse. For example, over 80% of the women surveyed who were born between 1933 and 1942 either had no premarital intercourse or premarital intercourse only with their future husband, according to the National Health and Social Life Survey.[57][original research?]
  2. ^ An example of the conflict between government-approved orthodox Islamic clerics in agreement with Qutb that slavery "is now illegal under Islam", and traditionalists who disagree, was a report of a televised "ceremony" of contemporary “melk al-yameen” [slavery] marriage in July 2012, where "a Muslim cleric, who gave his name as 'Abdul Raouf Aun'", married a woman who "voluntarily gave ownership of herself to" Aun, who also conducted the "marriage". Aun explained that "this form of marriage [does] not requiring witnesses or official confirmation". The marriage was condemned by the al-Azhar Islamic Research Centre as an example of “apostasy and a return to jahiliyyah", and by Egypt’s Grand Mufti, Dr. Ali Gomaa as religiously impermissible and akin to “adultery.” [61]

Citations

  1. ^ Qutbism Earthlysojourner.com
  2. ^ DouglasFarah.com, Qutbism and the Muslim Brotherhood by Douglas Farah
  3. ^ a b c William McCants of the US Military Academy’s Combating Terrorism Center, quoted in Qutbism: An Ideology of Islamic-Fascism by Dale C. Eikmeier. From Parameters, Spring 2007, pp. 85–98.
  4. ^ Hess, James (8 April 2018). "PERSPECTIVE: A Dual Strategy to Empower Intelligence to Confront Ideology-Based Terror". Homeland Security Today. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
  5. ^ Manne, Robert (3 November 2016). "The mind of Islamic State: more coherent and consistent than Nazism". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 28 January 2017. There exists a more or less general consensus that the ideology of the Islamic State is founded upon the prison writings of the revolutionary Egyptian Muslim Brother Sayyid Qutb, in particular some sections of his commentary In the Shade of the Qur’an, but most importantly his late visionary work Milestones, published in 1964.
  6. ^ Pioneers of Islamic revival by ʻAlī Rāhnamā, p. 175
  7. ^ Qutb, Sayyid, Milestones, The Mother Mosque Foundation, 1981, p. 9
  8. ^ Muslim extremism in Egypt: the prophet and pharaoh by Gilles Kepel, p. 46
  9. ^ Kepel, Gilles; Kepel, Professor Gilles (January 1985). Muslim Extremism in Egypt. ISBN 9780520056879. Retrieved 26 February 2015.
  10. ^ Muslim extremism in Egypt: the prophet and pharaoh by Gilles Kepel, pp. 55–6
  11. ^ SOAGE, ANA BELÉN (June 2009). "Islamism and Modernity: The Political Thought of Sayyid Qutb". Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions. 10 (2): 192. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
  12. ^ Eikmeier, DC (Spring 2007). Qutbism: An Ideology of Islamic-Fascism. 37. Parameters, US Army War College Quarterly. p. 89. In addition to offensive jihad Sayyid Qutb used the Islamic concept of “takfir” or excommunication of apostates. Declaring someone takfir provided a legal loophole around the prohibition of killing another Muslim and in fact made it a religious obligation to execute the apostate. The obvious use of this concept was to declare secular rulers, officials or organizations, or any Muslims that opposed the Islamist agenda a takfir thereby justifying assassinations and attacks against them. Sheikh Omar Abdel Rahman, who was later convicted in the 1993 World Trade Center attack, invoked Qutb’s takfirist writings during his trial for the assassination of President Anwar Sadat. The takfir concept along with “offensive jihad” became a blank check for any Islamic extremist to justify attacks against anyone.
  13. ^ Kepel, Jihad, p. 31
  14. ^ Sivan, Radical Islam, (1985), p. 93
  15. ^ "Hakikat Kitabevi". Retrieved 26 February 2015.
  16. ^ "The Wahhabi Myth – Salafism, Wahhabism, Qutbism. Who was Sayyid Qutb? (part 2)". Retrieved 26 February 2015.
  17. ^ Kepel, Jihad, 2002, p. 31
  18. ^ Sayyid Qutb and the Origins of Radical Islamism by John Calvert, p. 285
  19. ^ Passion for Islam: Shaping the Modern Middle East: The Egyptian Experience by Caryle Murphy, p. 91
  20. ^ Kepel, Jihad, 2002, p. 31,
    Ruthven, Malise, Islam in the World, Penguin Books, 1984, pp. 314–15
  21. ^ Kepel, The Prophet and Pharaoh, pp. 65, 74–5, Understanding Jihad by David Cook, University of California Press, 2005, p. 139
  22. ^ Kepel, War for Muslim Minds, (2004) pp. 174–75
  23. ^ Kepel, Jihad, (2002), p. 51
  24. ^ Sageman, Marc, Understanding Terror Networks, University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004, p. 63
  25. ^ "How Did Sayyid Qutb Influence Osama bin Laden?". Retrieved 26 February 2015.
  26. ^ Wright, Looming Tower, 2006, p. 36
  27. ^ "Sayyid_Qutbs_Milestones". Retrieved 26 February 2015.
  28. ^ Hassan, Hassan. (June 13, 2016). The Sectarianism of the Islamic State: Ideological Roots and Political Context. Carnegie Endowment for Peace. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  29. ^ Wright, Looming Tower, 2006, p. 79
  30. ^ Scott Shane; Souad Mekhennet & Robert F. Worth (8 May 2010). "Imam's Path From Condemning Terror to Preaching Jihad". The New York Times. Retrieved 13 May 2010.
  31. ^ a b Eikmeier, Dale (Spring 2007). "Qutbism: An Ideology of Islamic-fascism". Parameters: U.S. Army War College Journal: 89. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
  32. ^ a b Fawaz A. Gerges, The Far Enemy: Why Jihad Went Global, (Bronxville, N.Y.: Sarah Lawrence College) 2005, prologue, http://www.cambridge.org/us/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=9780521791403
  33. ^ Sayyid Qutb and the Origins of Radical Islamism by John Calvert, p. 274
  34. ^ Qutb, Milestones p. 112
  35. ^ (Qutb, Milestones p. 109)
  36. ^ (Qutb, Milestones pp. 108–10)
  37. ^ [Qutb, Milestones p. 8]
  38. ^ a b [Qutb, Milestones p. 90]
  39. ^ [Qutb, Milestones p. 91]
  40. ^ Qutb, Al-‘adala al-ijtima‘iyya fi’l-Islam, pp.102–6; Ma‘rikat al-Islam wa’l-ra’smaliyya, p.74; quote by A.B. SOAGE and cited in SOAGE, ANA BELÉN (June 2009). "Islamism and Modernity: The Political Thought of Sayyid Qutb". Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions. 10 (2): 197. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
  41. ^ Reference to the Qur’anic verse: ‘And the Jews will not be pleased with thee, nor will the Christians, till thou follow their creed’ (2:120); cited in SOAGE, ANA BELÉN (June 2009). "Islamism and Modernity: The Political Thought of Sayyid Qutb". Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions. 10 (2): 198. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
  42. ^ Reference to the Qur’anic verse: ‘And the Jews will not be pleased with thee, nor will the Christians, till thou follow their creed’ (2:120). cited in SOAGE, ANA BELÉN (June 2009). "Islamism and Modernity: The Political Thought of Sayyid Qutb". Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions. 10 (2): 198. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
  43. ^ Qutb, Fi zilal al-Qur’an, p.924. Muslims Islamic scholars "explain the contradictions between the Qur’an and the Bible by saying that the Jews and the Christians deliberately distorted God’s message to hide references to the advent of prophet Muhammad"; cited in SOAGE, ANA BELÉN (June 2009). "Islamism and Modernity: The Political Thought of Sayyid Qutb". Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions. 10 (2): 198. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
  44. ^ Qutb, Ma‘alim fi’l-tariq, pp.78–9, 88–9, 110–1; Fi zilal al-Qur’an, pp.1435–6; cited in SOAGE, ANA BELÉN (June 2009). "Islamism and Modernity: The Political Thought of Sayyid Qutb". Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions. 10 (2): 197. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
  45. ^ Qutb, Fi zilal al-Qur’an, pp.294–5; Ma‘alim fi’l-tariq, p.83; SOAGE, ANA BELÉN (June 2009). "Islamism and Modernity: The Political Thought of Sayyid Qutb". Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions. 10 (2): 197. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
  46. ^ Qutb, Ma‘alim fi’l-tariq, pp.87, 101–2.; cited in SOAGE, ANA BELÉN (June 2009). "Islamism and Modernity: The Political Thought of Sayyid Qutb". Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions. 10 (2): 198. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
  47. ^ Qutb, Fi zilal al-Qur’an, p.295; cited in SOAGE, ANA BELÉN (June 2009). "Islamism and Modernity: The Political Thought of Sayyid Qutb". Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions. 10 (2): 198. Retrieved 9 March 2021.
  48. ^ Qutb, Milestones, Chapter 12
  49. ^ Qutb, Milestones, p. 116
  50. ^ Qutb, Milestones, pp. 159–60
  51. ^ Hagler, Aaron M. "The America That I Have Seen", The Effect of Sayyid Quṭb's Colorado Sojourn on the Political Islamist Worldview". Academia. ACM/ Andrew W. Mellon Postdoctoral Teacher/Scholar FellowDepartment of HistoryCornell College, Mt. Vernon, IA. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
  52. ^ Wright, The Looming Tower, 2006
  53. ^ Soufan Ali, The Black Banners, October 2008
  54. ^ (Qutb, Milestones, p. 139)
  55. ^ a b Nawaz, Maajid (2016). Radical: My Journey out of Islamist Extremism. Rowman & Littlefield. p. xxi. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
  56. ^ from Amrika allati Ra'aytu, (America that I Saw), quoted in Radical Islamic Fundamentalism: the Ideological and Political Discourse of Sayyid Qutb by Ahmad S. Moussalli, American University of Beirut, 1992, p. 29
  57. ^ (Robert T. Michael, John H. Gagnon, Edward O. Laumann, Gina Kolata, Sex in America : A definitive Survey, Little Brown and Co., 1994, p. 97)
  58. ^ Von Drehle, David (February 2006). "A Lesson In Hate". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
  59. ^ The age of sacred terror, Daniel Benjamin, Steven Simon, p. 68
  60. ^ quote from David Zeidan, "The Islamic Fundamentalist View of Life as Perennial Battle," Middle East Review of International Affairs, v. 5, n. 4 (December 2001), criticism from The Age of Sacred Terror by Daniel Benjamin and Steven Simon, Random House, 2002, p. 68
  61. ^ "Egypt: "Slavery marriage" case sparks controversy". Asharq Al-Awsat. 16 July 2012. Archived from the original on 18 May 2017. Retrieved 10 March 2021.
  62. ^ see also: Shaikh Salih al-Fawzaan "affirmation of slavery" p. 24 of "Taming a Neo-Qutubite Fanatic Part 1 Archived 2009-03-19 at the Wayback Machine" when accessed on February 17, 2007
  63. ^ "Hakikat Kitabevi". Retrieved 26 February 2015.
  64. ^ "Hakikat Kitabevi". Retrieved 26 February 2015.
  65. ^ "Hakikat Kitabevi". Retrieved 26 February 2015.
  66. ^ "Hakikat Kitabevi". Retrieved 26 February 2015.
  67. ^ Roy, Globalized Islam, (2004), p. 247
  68. ^ Roy, Globalized Islam, (2004), p. 250
  69. ^ Kepel, Gilles, The War for Muslim Minds, 2004, pp. 253–266
  70. ^ Hasan al-Hudaybi was Supreme Guide during this period.
  71. ^ Ruthvan, Malise, Islam in the World, Penguin, 1984
  72. ^ Moussalli, Radical Islamic Fundamentalism, 1992, pp. 31–2
  73. ^ a b Leiken, Robert (2011). Europe's Angry Muslims: The Revolt of The Second Generation, p. 89
  74. ^ Hamid Algar from his introduction to Social Justice in Islam by Sayyid Qutb, translated by John Hardie, translation revised and introduction by Hamid Algar, Islamic Publications International, 2000, p.1, 9, 11
  75. ^ Kepel, Gilles, Jihad: the Trail of Political Islam, p. 83
  76. ^ William McCants, a Bahai consultant, quoted in Qutbism: An Ideology of Islamic-Fascism Archived 2007-06-09 at the Wayback Machine by Dale C. Eikmeier From Parameters, Spring 2007, pp. 85-98.

Bibliography

Further reading

Berman devotes several chapters of this work to discussing Qutb as the foundation of a unique strain of Islamist thought.