Anwar Sadat
أنور السادات
Sadat in 1980
3rd President of Egypt
In office
15 October 1970 – 6 October 1981
Acting: 28 September – 15 October 1970
Prime Minister
See list
Vice President
See list
Preceded byGamal Abdel Nasser
Succeeded bySufi Abu Taleb (acting)
Hosni Mubarak
37th Prime Minister of Egypt
In office
15 May 1980 – 6 October 1981
Preceded byMustafa Khalil
Succeeded byHosni Mubarak
In office
26 March 1973 – 25 September 1974
Preceded byAziz Sedki
Succeeded byAbdel Aziz Mohamed Hegazy
Vice President of Egypt
In office
19 December 1969 – 14 October 1970
PresidentGamal Abdel Nasser
Preceded byHussein el-Shafei
Succeeded byAli Sabri
In office
17 February 1964 – 26 March 1964
PresidentGamal Abdel Nasser
Preceded byHussein el-Shafei
Succeeded byZakaria Mohieddin
Speaker of the National Assembly of Egypt
In office
21 July 1960 – 20 January 1969
PresidentGamal Abdel Nasser
Preceded byAbdel Latif Boghdadi
Succeeded byMohamed Labib Skokeir
Personal details
Muhammad Anwar es-Sadat
محمد أنور السادات

(1918-12-25)25 December 1918
Monufia, Sultanate of Egypt
Died6 October 1981(1981-10-06) (aged 62)
Cairo, Egypt
Manner of deathAssassination
Resting placeUnknown Soldier Memorial
Political partyNational Democratic Party
Other political
Arab Socialist Union
  • Eqbal Afifi[1]
  • (m. 1949)
Alma materUniversity of Alexandria
Military service
Branch/serviceKingdom of Egypt Royal Egyptian Army
Egypt Egyptian Army
Years of service1938–1952
Rank Colonel (active)
Field Marshal (honorary)

Muhammad Anwar es-Sadat[a] (25 December 1918 – 6 October 1981) was an Egyptian politician and military officer who served as the third president of Egypt, from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981. Sadat was a senior member of the Free Officers who overthrew King Farouk I in the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, and a close confidant of President Gamal Abdel Nasser, under whom he served as Vice President twice and whom he succeeded as president in 1970. In 1978, Sadat and Menachem Begin, Prime Minister of Israel, signed a peace treaty in cooperation with United States President Jimmy Carter, for which they were recognized with the Nobel Peace Prize.

In his 11 years as president, he changed Egypt's trajectory, departing from many political and economic tenets of Nasserism, reinstituting a multi-party system, and launching the Infitah economic policy. As President, he led Egypt in the Yom Kippur War of 1973 to regain Egypt's Sinai Peninsula, which Israel had occupied since the Six-Day War of 1967, making him a hero in Egypt and, for a time, the wider Arab World. Afterwards, he engaged in negotiations with Israel, culminating in the Camp David Accords and the Egypt–Israel peace treaty; this won him and Menachem Begin the Nobel Peace Prize, making Sadat the first Muslim Nobel laureate. Although reaction to the treaty—which resulted in the return of Sinai to Egypt—was generally favorable among Egyptians,[6] it was rejected by the country's Muslim Brotherhood and the left, which felt Sadat had abandoned efforts to ensure a State of Palestine.[6] With the exception of Sudan, the Arab world and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) strongly opposed Sadat's efforts to make a separate peace with Israel without prior consultations with the Arab states.[6] His refusal to reconcile with them over the Palestinian issue resulted in Egypt being suspended from the Arab League from 1979 to 1989.[7][8][9] The peace treaty was also one of the primary factors that led to his assassination; on 6 October 1981, militants led by Khalid Islambouli opened fire on Sadat with automatic rifles during the 6 October parade in Cairo, killing him.

Early life and revolutionary activities

Sadat graduating from the military college in 1938

Anwar Sadat was born on 25 December 1918 in Mit Abu El Kom, part of Monufia Governorate in what was then the Sultanate of Egypt, to a poor family, and he had 14 siblings.[10] One of his brothers, Atef Sadat, later became a pilot and was killed in action in 1973 during the Yom Kippur War.[11] His father, Anwar Mohammed El Sadat, was an Upper Egyptian, and his mother, Sit Al-Berain, was born to an Egyptian mother and a Sudanese father.[12][13]

He graduated from the Royal Military Academy in Cairo, the capital of what was then the Kingdom of Egypt, in 1938[14] and was appointed to the Signal Corps. He entered the army as a second lieutenant and was posted to the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (the Sudan being a condominium under joint British and Egyptian rule at the time). There, he met Gamal Abdel Nasser, and along with several other junior officers they formed the Free Officers, an organization committed to overthrowing British rule in Egypt and eliminating state corruption.[15]

Sadat with Mohamed Naguib, 1952

During World War II, Sadat collaborated with spies of Nazi Germany in Egypt as part of Operation Salam. Once this was discovered by the British authorities he was arrested and imprisoned for much of the war. By the end of the conflict, he had already met with the secret society that decided to assassinate Amin Osman, Minister of Finance in the Wafd Party government, and the head of the Egyptian-British Friendship Society, due to his strong sympathies towards the British. Osman was assassinated in January 1946. Following the assassination of Amin Osman, Sadat returned again and finally to prison.

In Qarmidan prison, he faced the most difficult ordeals of imprisonment by being held in solitary confinement, but the first accused in the Hussein Tawfiq case, escaped, and after there is no criminality evidence all the charges fall and the suspected went free. Salah Zulfikar, then young police officer, at that time was the officer in charge in the prison. He believed in his heart of Sadat's heroism and that he played a patriotic role towards his country and that he was convicted and imprisoned because of his love for his country. Zulfikar brought with him food, newspapers and cigarettes and helped his family a lot in obtaining visitor permits to check on him. Anwar Sadat was active in many political movements, including the Muslim Brotherhood, the fascist Young Egypt, the pro-palace Iron Guard of Egypt, and the secret military group called the Free Officers.[16] Along with his fellow Free Officers, Sadat participated in the military coup that launched the Egyptian Revolution of 1952, which overthrew King Farouk I on 23 July of that year. Sadat gave the first statement of the revolution over the radio to the Egyptian people.[17]

Reportedly, after the end of the Second World War, Sadat wrote to Al-Musawar weekly a letter that praised Adolf Hitler's legacy.[18]

During Nasser's presidency

With Nasser in the National Assembly, May 1964
Top Egyptian leaders of the Arab Socialist Union in Alexandria. From left to right: President Gamal Abdel Nasser, Sadat, ASU head Ali Sabri, and Vice President Hussein el-Shafei, August 1968

During the presidency of Gamal Abdel Nasser, Sadat was appointed minister of State in 1954. He was also appointed editor of the newly founded daily Al Gomhuria.[19] In 1959, he assumed the position of Secretary to the National Union. Sadat was the President of the National Assembly (1960–1968) and then Vice President of Egypt and member of the presidential council in 1964. He was reappointed as vice president again in December 1969.


Further information: History of Egypt under Anwar Sadat

Sadat addressing the Arab Socialist Union in 1971

Some of the major events of Sadat's presidency were his "Corrective Revolution" to consolidate power, the break with Egypt's long-time ally and aid-giver the USSR, the 1973 October War with Israel, the Camp David Accords and the Egypt–Israel peace treaty, the "opening up" (or Infitah) of Egypt's economy, and lastly his assassination in 1981.

Sadat succeeded Nasser as president after the latter's death in October 1970.[20] Sadat's presidency was widely expected to be short-lived.[21] Viewing him as having been little more than a puppet of the former president, Nasser's supporters in government settled on Sadat as someone they could manipulate easily. Sadat surprised everyone with a series of astute political moves by which he was able to retain the presidency and emerge as a leader in his own right.[22]

Sadat (sitting on the left side), Hafiz al-Assad (sitting on the right side) and Muammar Gaddafi (sitting in the centre) signing the Federation of Arab Republics in Benghazi, Libya, on April 18, 1971

On 15 May 1971,[23] Sadat announced his Corrective Revolution, purging the government, political and security establishments of the most ardent Nasserists. Sadat encouraged the emergence of an Islamist movement, which had been suppressed by Nasser. Believing Islamists to be socially conservative he gave them "considerable cultural and ideological autonomy" in exchange for political support.[24]

In 1971, as part of the Jarring Mission, three years into the War of Attrition in the Suez Canal zone, Sadat endorsed in a letter the peace proposals of UN negotiator Gunnar Jarring, which seemed to lead to a full peace with Israel on the basis of Israel's withdrawal to its pre-war borders. This peace initiative failed as neither Israel nor the United States of America accepted the terms as discussed then.[25][26]

Corrective Revolution

Main article: Corrective Revolution (Egypt)

1972 Echo newsreel about the early Sadat years

Shortly after taking office, Sadat shocked many Egyptians by dismissing and imprisoning two of the most powerful figures in the regime, Vice President Ali Sabri, who had close ties with Soviet officials, and Sharawy Gomaa, the Interior Minister, who controlled the secret police.[21]

Sadat's rising popularity would accelerate after he cut back the powers of the hated secret police,[21] expelled Soviet military from the country[27] and reformed the Egyptian army for a renewed confrontation with Israel.[21]

Yom Kippur War

Main article: Yom Kippur War

Egyptian vehicles crossing the Suez Canal on October 7, 1973, during the Yom Kippur War

On 6 October 1973, in conjunction with Hafez al-Assad of Syria, Sadat launched the October War, also known as the Yom Kippur War (and less commonly as the Ramadan War), a surprise attack against the Israeli forces occupying the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula,[28] and the Syrian Golan Heights in an attempt to retake these respective Egyptian and Syrian territories that had been occupied by Israel since the Six Day War six years earlier. The Egyptian and Syrian performance in the initial stages of the war astonished both Israel, and the Arab World. The most striking achievement (Operation Badr, also known as The Crossing) was the Egyptian military's advance approximately 15 km into the occupied Sinai Peninsula after penetrating and largely destroying the Bar Lev Line. This line was popularly thought to have been an impregnable defensive chain.

Sadat and Ahmad Ismail Ali attending the re-opening ceremony of Suez Canal after Yom Kippur war, June 5, 1975

As the war progressed, three divisions of the Israeli army led by General Ariel Sharon had crossed the Suez Canal, trying to encircle first the Egyptian Second Army. Although this failed, prompted by an agreement between the United States of America and the Soviet Union, the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 338 on 22 October 1973, calling for an immediate ceasefire.[29] Although agreed upon, the ceasefire was immediately broken.[30] Alexei Kosygin, the Chairman of the USSR Council of Ministers, cancelled an official meeting with Danish Prime Minister Anker Jørgensen to travel to Egypt where he tried to persuade Sadat to sign a peace treaty. During Kosygin's two-day long stay it is unknown if he and Sadat ever met in person.[31]

The Israeli military then continued their drive to encircle the Egyptian army. The encirclement was completed on 24 October, three days after the ceasefire was broken. This development prompted superpower tension, but a second ceasefire was imposed cooperatively on 25 October to end the war. At the conclusion of hostilities, Israeli forces were 40 kilometres (25 mi) from Damascus and 101 kilometres (63 mi) from Cairo.[32]

Peace with Israel

Main articles: Egypt–Israel peace treaty and Anwar Sadat's visit to Israel, 1977

External audio
audio icon National Press Club Luncheon Speakers Anwar Sadat, 6 February 1978, National Press Club. Speech begins at 7:31[33]
President Jimmy Carter shaking hands with Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin at the signing of the Egyptian–Israeli Peace Treaty on the grounds of the White House, 1979

The initial Egyptian and Syrian victories in the war restored popular morale throughout Egypt and the Arab World and, for many years after, Sadat was known as the "Hero of the Crossing". Israel recognized Egypt as a formidable foe, and Egypt's renewed political significance eventually led to regaining and reopening the Suez Canal through the peace process. His new peace policy led to the conclusion of two agreements on disengagement of forces with the Israeli government. The first of these agreements was signed on 18 January 1974, and the second on 4 September 1975.

One major aspect of Sadat's peace policy was to gain some religious support for his efforts. Already during his visit to the US in October–November 1975, he invited Evangelical pastor Billy Graham for an official visit, which was held a few days after Sadat's visit.[34] In addition to cultivating relations with Evangelical Christians in the US, he also built some cooperation with the Vatican. On 8 April 1976, he visited the Vatican for the first time, and got a message of support from Pope Paul VI regarding achieving peace with Israel, to include a just solution to the Palestinian issue.[35] Sadat, on his part, extended to the Pope a public invitation to visit Cairo.[36][failed verification]

Sadat also used the media to promote his purposes. In an interview he gave to the Lebanese magazine Al Hawadeth in early February 1976, he claimed he had secret commitment from the US government to put pressure on the Israeli government for a major withdrawal in Sinai and the Golan Heights.[37] This statement caused some concern to the Israeli government, but Kissinger denied such a promise was ever made.[38]

In January 1977, a series of 'Bread Riots' protested Sadat's economic liberalization and specifically a government decree lifting price controls on basic necessities like bread. The riots lasted for two days and included hundreds of thousands in Cairo. 120 buses and hundreds of buildings were destroyed in Cairo alone.[39] The riots ended with the deployment of the army and the re-institution of the subsidies/price controls.[40][41] During this time, Sadat was also taking a new approach towards improving relations with the West.[21]

The United States and the Soviet Union agreed on 1 October 1977, on principles to govern a Geneva conference on the Middle East.[21] Syria continued to resist such a conference.[21] Not wanting either Syria or the Soviet Union to influence the peace process, Sadat decided to take more progressive stance towards building a comprehensive peace agreement with Israel.[21]

The 1977 visit by Anwar Sadat to Israel was the first time an Arab leader officially visited Israel. Sadat met with Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin, and spoke before the Knesset in Jerusalem about his views on how to achieve a comprehensive peace to the Arab–Israeli conflict, which included the full implementation of UN Resolutions 242 and 338.[42][43][44]

The Peace treaty was finally signed by Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin in Washington, D.C., United States, on 26 March 1979, following the Camp David Accords, a series of meetings between Egypt and Israel facilitated by US President Jimmy Carter. Both Sadat and Begin were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for creating the treaty. In his acceptance speech, Sadat referred to the long-awaited peace desired by both Arabs and Israelis.[45]

The main features of the agreement were the mutual recognition of each country by the other, the cessation of the state of war that had existed since the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, and the complete withdrawal by Israel of its armed forces and civilians from the rest of the Sinai Peninsula, which Israel had captured during the 1967 Six-Day War.

The agreement also provided for the free passage of Israeli ships through the Suez Canal and recognition of the Strait of Tiran and the Gulf of Aqaba as international waterways. The agreement notably made Egypt the first Arab country to officially recognize Israel. The peace agreement between Egypt and Israel has remained in effect since the treaty was signed.

Sadat in 1978

The treaty was extremely unpopular in most of the Arab World and the wider Muslim World.[46] His predecessor Nasser had made Egypt an icon of Arab nationalism, an ideology that appeared to be sidelined by an Egyptian orientation following the 1973 war (see National identity of Egyptians). The neighboring Arab countries believed that in signing the accords, Sadat had put Egypt's interests ahead of Arab unity, betraying Nasser's pan-Arabism, and destroyed the vision of a united "Arab front" for the support of the Palestinians against the "Zionist Entity". However, Sadat decided early on that peace was the solution.[21][47] Sadat's shift towards a strategic relationship with the US was also seen as a betrayal by many Arabs. In the United States his peace moves gained him popularity among some Evangelical circles. He was awarded the Prince of Peace Award by Pat Robertson.[48]

In 1979, the Arab League suspended Egypt in the wake of the Egyptian–Israel peace agreement, and the League moved its headquarters from Cairo to Tunis. Arab League member states believed in the elimination of the "Zionist Entity" and Israel at that time. It was not until 1989 that the League re-admitted Egypt as a member, and returned its headquarters to Cairo. As part of the peace deal, Israel withdrew from the Sinai Peninsula in phases, completing its withdrawal from the entire territory except the town of Taba by 25 April 1982 (withdrawal from which did not occur until 1989).[21] The improved relations Egypt gained with the West through the Camp David Accords soon gave the country resilient economic growth.[21] By 1980, however, Egypt's strained relations with the Arab World would result in a period of rapid inflation.[21]

Relationship with Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi of Iran

Queen Farah Diba, President Anwar Sadat and Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi in Tehran in 1975

The relationship between Iran and Egypt had fallen into open hostility during Gamal Abdel Nasser's presidency. Following his death in 1970, President Sadat turned this around quickly into an open and close friendship.[49]

In 1971, Sadat addressed the Iranian parliament in Tehran in fluent Persian, describing the 2,500-year-old historic connection between the two lands.[49]

Overnight, the Egyptian and Iranian governments were turned from bitter enemies into fast friends. The relationship between Cairo and Tehran became so friendly that the Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, called Sadat his "dear brother".[49]

After the 1973 war with Israel, Iran assumed a leading role in cleaning up and reactivating the blocked Suez Canal with heavy investment. The country also facilitated the withdrawal of Israel from the occupied Sinai Peninsula by promising to substitute the loss of the oil to the Israelis with free Iranian oil if they withdrew from the Egyptian oil wells in western Sinai.[49]

All these added more to the personal friendship between Sadat and the Shah of Iran. (The Shah's first wife was Princess Fawzia of Egypt. She was the eldest daughter of Sultan Fuad I of Egypt and Sudan (later King Fuad I) and his second wife Nazli Sabri.)[49]

After his overthrow, the deposed Shah spent the last months of his life in exile in Egypt. When the Shah died, Sadat ordered that he be given a state funeral and be interred at the Al-Rifa'i Mosque in Cairo, the resting place of Egyptian Khedive Isma'il Pasha, his mother Khushyar Hanim, and numerous other members of the royal family of Egypt and Sudan.[50]


Main article: Assassination of Anwar Sadat

The last months of Sadat's presidency were marked by internal uprising.[21] Sadat dismissed allegations that the rioting was incited by domestic issues, believing that the Soviet Union was recruiting its regional allies in Libya and Syria to incite an uprising that would eventually force him out of power.[21] Following a failed military coup in June 1981, Sadat ordered a major crackdown that resulted in the arrest of numerous opposition figures.[21] Although Sadat still maintained high levels of popularity in Egypt,[21] it has been said that he was assassinated "at the peak" of his unpopularity.[51]

Earlier in his presidency, Islamists had benefited from the 'rectification revolution' and the release from prison of activists jailed under Nasser.[23] But Sadat's Sinai treaty with Israel enraged Islamists, particularly the radical Egyptian Islamic Jihad. According to interviews and information gathered by journalist Lawrence Wright, the group was recruiting military officers and accumulating weapons, waiting for the right moment to launch "a complete overthrow of the existing order" in Egypt. Chief strategist of El-Jihad was Abbud al-Zumar, a colonel in the military intelligence whose "plan was to kill the main leaders of the country, capture the headquarters of the army and State Security, the telephone exchange building, and of course the radio and television building, where news of the Islamic revolution would then be broadcast, unleashing—he expected—a popular uprising against secular authority all over the country".[52]

In February 1981, Egyptian authorities were alerted to El-Jihad's plan by the arrest of an operative carrying crucial information. In September, Sadat ordered a highly unpopular roundup of more than 1,500 people, including many Jihad members, but also the Coptic Pope and other Coptic clergy, intellectuals and activists of all ideological stripes.[53] All non-government press was banned as well.[54] The roundup missed a Jihad cell in the military led by Lieutenant Khalid Islambouli, who would succeed in assassinating Anwar Sadat that October.[55]

According to Tala'at Qasim, ex-head of the Gama'a Islamiyya interviewed in Middle East Report, it was not Islamic Jihad but his organization, known in English as the "Islamic Group", that organized the assassination and recruited the assassin (Islambouli). Members of the Group's 'Majlis el-Shura' ('Consultative Council') – headed by the famed 'blind shaykh' – were arrested two weeks before the killing, but they did not disclose the existing plans and Islambouli succeeded in assassinating Sadat.[56]

On 6 October 1981, Sadat was assassinated during the annual victory parade held in Cairo to celebrate Egypt's crossing of the Suez Canal.[57] Islambouli emptied his assault rifle into Sadat's body while in the front of the grandstand, mortally wounding the President. In addition to Sadat, eleven others were killed, including the Cuban ambassador, an Omani general, a Coptic Orthodox bishop and Samir Helmy, the head of Egypt's Central Auditing Agency (CAA).[58][59] Twenty-eight were wounded, including Vice President Hosni Mubarak, Irish Defence Minister James Tully, and four US military liaison officers.

The assassination squad was led by Lieutenant Khalid Islambouli after a fatwā approving the assassination had been obtained from Omar Abdel-Rahman.[60] Islambouli was tried, found guilty, sentenced to death, and executed by firing squad in April 1982.


Sadat was succeeded by his vice president Hosni Mubarak, whose hand was injured during the attack. Sadat's funeral was attended by a record number of dignitaries from around the world, including a rare simultaneous attendance by three former US presidents: Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter and Richard Nixon. Sudan's President Gaafar Nimeiry was the only Arab head of state to attend the funeral. Only 3 of 24 states in the Arab League—Oman, Somalia and Sudan—sent representatives at all.[61] Israel's prime minister, Menachem Begin, considered Sadat a personal friend and insisted on attending the funeral, walking throughout the funeral procession so as not to desecrate the Sabbath.[62] Sadat was buried in the unknown soldier memorial in Cairo, across the street from the stand where he was assassinated.

Over three hundred Islamic radicals were indicted in the trial of assassin Khalid Islambouli, including future al-Qaeda leader Ayman al-Zawahiri, Omar Abdel-Rahman, and Abd al-Hamid Kishk. The trial was covered by the international press and Zawahiri's knowledge of English made him the de facto spokesman for the defendants. Zawahiri was released from prison in 1984. Abboud al-Zomor and Tareq al-Zomor, two Islamic Jihad leaders imprisoned in connection with the assassination, were released on 11 March 2011.[63]

Despite these facts, the nephew of the late president, Talaat Sadat, claimed that the assassination was an international conspiracy. On 31 October 2006, he was sentenced to a year in prison for defaming Egypt's armed forces, less than a month after he gave the interview accusing Egyptian generals of masterminding his uncle's assassination. In an interview with a Saudi television channel, he also claimed both the United States and Israel were involved noting that no one from the special personal protection group of Sadat fired a single shot during the killing, and not one of them has been put on trial.[64]

Media portrayals of Anwar Sadat

Yuri Gagarin with Sadat and Gamal Abdel Nasser in Cairo, 1962

In 1983, Sadat, a miniseries based on the life of Anwar Sadat, aired on US television with Oscar-winning actor Louis Gossett Jr. in the title role. The film was promptly banned by the Egyptian government, as were all other movies produced and distributed by Columbia Pictures, over allegations of historical inaccuracies. A civil lawsuit was brought by Egypt's artists' and film unions against Columbia Pictures and the film's directors, producers and scriptwriters before a court in Cairo, but was dismissed, since the alleged slanders, having taken place outside the country, fell outside the Egyptian courts' jurisdiction.[65]

The film was critically acclaimed in North America, but was unpopular among Egyptians and in the Egyptian press. Western authors attributed the film's poor reception in Egypt to racism – Gossett being African-American – in the Egyptian government or Egypt in general.[66] Either way, one Western source wrote that Sadat's portrayal by Gossett "bothered race-conscious Egyptians and wouldn't have pleased [the deceased] Sadat," who identified as Egyptian and Northeast African, not black.[67] The two-part series earned Gossett an Emmy nomination in the United States.

He was portrayed by Robert Loggia in the 1982 television movie A Woman Called Golda, opposite Ingrid Bergman as Golda Meir.

The first Egyptian depiction of Sadat's life came in 2001, when Ayyam El Sadat (English: The Days of Sadat) was released in Egyptian cinemas. The movie was a major success in Egypt, and was hailed as Ahmed Zaki's greatest performance to date.[68]

Sadat was a recurring character on Saturday Night Live, played by Garrett Morris, who bore a resemblance to Sadat.

Honours awarded




See also


  1. ^ /səˈdæt/ sə-DAT, UK also /sæˈdæt/ sa-DAT, US also /səˈdɑːt/ sə-DAHT;[3] (US) and [4][5] Arabic: محمد أنور السادات, romanizedMuḥammad ʾAnwar as-Sādāt, Egyptian Arabic: [mæˈħæmmæd ˈʔɑnwɑɾ essæˈdæːt].


  1. ^ Finklestone, Joseph (2013), Anwar Sadat: Visionary Who Dared, Routledge, ISBN 978-1-135-19565-6, Significantly, Anwar Sadat did not mention aspects in his early life...It was in Mit Abul-Kum that Eqbal Afifi, the woman who was his wife for ten years and whom he left, was also born. Her family was of higher social standing than Anwar's, being of Turkish origin...
  2. ^ Serrieh, Joanne (9 July 2021). "Jehan Sadat, wife of late Anwar Sadat, dies after short battle with illness: Reports". Al Arabiya English. Retrieved 18 March 2024.
  3. ^ "Sadat". Collins English Dictionary. HarperCollins. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
  4. ^ "Sadat". Oxford Dictionaries UK English Dictionary. Oxford University Press.
  5. ^ "Sādāt". Dictionary. Retrieved 8 May 2019.
  6. ^ a b c "Peace with Israel". Country Studies.
  7. ^ Graham, Nick (21 August 2010). "Middle East Peace Talks: Israel, Palestinian Negotiations More Hopeless Than Ever". HuffPost.
  8. ^ Vatikiotis, P. J. (1992). The History of Modern Egypt (4th ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 443.
  9. ^ Gwertzman, Bernard (26 March 1979). "Egypt and Israel Sign Formal Treaty, Ending a State of War After 30 Years; Sadat and Begin Praise Carter's Role". The New York Times.
  10. ^ "Profile: Anwar Sadat The former Egyptian president believed a peace deal with Israel was vital to end wars". Al Jazeera. 25 January 2010.
  11. ^ "Sadat's Brother Reported Killed During October War". The New York Times. 6 January 1974. Retrieved 10 November 2020.
  12. ^ C. J. De Wet (2006). Development-induced Displacement: Problems, Policies, and People. Berghahn Books. p. 198. ISBN 978-1-84545-095-3. Retrieved 31 January 2013.
  13. ^ "Sadat's Wife autobiography" (in Arabic).
  14. ^ Alagna, Magdalena (2004). Anwar Sadat. The Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8239-4464-4.
  15. ^ Wagner, Heather Lehr (2007). Anwar Sadat and Menachem Begin: Negotiating Peace in the Middle East. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4381-0440-9.
  16. ^ Alterman, Jon B. (1 April 1998). "Sadat and His Legacy: Egypt and the World, 1977–1997". The Washington Institute for Near East Policy.
  17. ^ "Egyptian Revolution of 1952". Egypt Today. 19 February 2017.
  18. ^ "The expulsion that backfired: When Iraq kicked out its Jews". The Times of Israel. 31 May 2016.
  19. ^ Alterman, Jon B. (1 November 1998). "New Media New Politics?". The Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 May 2013.
  20. ^ "Big 'yes' for Anwar Sadat". Ottawa Citizen. Cairo. Associated Press. 16 October 1970. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Pace, Eric (7 October 1981). "Anwar el-Sadat, the Daring Arab Pioneer of Peace with Israel". The New York Times.
  22. ^ "Egypt Corrective Revolution 1971". Onwar. 16 December 2000. Archived from the original on 1 February 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
  23. ^ a b Le prophète et Pharaon by Kepel, p. 74
  24. ^ Kepel, Gilles (2002). Jihad: Expansion et Déclin de l"Islamisme [Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam]. trans. Anthony F. Roberts. Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. p. 83. ISBN 0-674-00877-4.
  25. ^ Gazit, Mordechai (January 1997). "Egypt and Israel - Was There a Peace Opportunity Missed in 1971?". Journal of Contemporary History – via JSTOR.
  26. ^ Podeh, Elie (2015). "Chapter ten. The Jarring Mission and the Sadat Initiative (1971)". University of Texas Press – via De Gruyter.
  27. ^ Hughes, Geraint (5 April 2020). "Courting Sadat: The Heath Government and Britain's Arms Sales to Egypt, 1970–1973". The International History Review. 43 (2): 317–332. doi:10.1080/07075332.2020.1745256. ISSN 0707-5332. S2CID 216279788.
  28. ^ Kordunsky, Anna; Lokesson, Michael (5 July 2013). "The Egyptian Military's Huge Historical Role". National Geographic. Archived from the original on 8 July 2013.
  29. ^ Mary Ann Fay (December 1990). "A Country Study". The Library of Congress. pp. Chapter 1, Egypt: The Aftermath of War: October 1973 War. Retrieved 13 February 2008.
  30. ^ "Situation report in the Middle East" (PDF). United States Department of State. Archived (PDF) from the original on 18 October 2003 – via George Washington University.
  31. ^ Golan, Galia (1990). Soviet Policies in the Middle East: From World War Two to Gorbachev. Cambridge University Press. p. 89. ISBN 978-0-521-35859-0.
  32. ^ Morris, Benny (2001). Righteous Victims: A History of the Zionist-Arab Conflict, 1881–1998. New York: 1999. ISBN 978-0-679-42120-7. Retrieved 6 October 2017.
  33. ^ "National Press Club Luncheon Speakers, Anwar Sadat, February 6, 1978". National Press Club via Library of Congress. 6 February 1978.
  34. ^ "Text of diplomatic cable regarding Graham's visit to Egypt (US government website)". Retrieved 2 February 2011.
  35. ^ "Text of Pope's message to Sadat". Vatican. 1976. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
  36. ^ "John Anthony Volpe (US Ambassador to Italy), cable describing Sadat's visit to the Vatican". Retrieved 2 February 2011.
  37. ^ "Sadat interview to El Hawadeth" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 January 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
  38. ^ "Telephone conversation between Kissinger and Rabin, February 5, 1976" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 August 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
  39. ^ Mary Ann Weaver, Portrait of Egypt, p. 25
  40. ^ Olivier, Roy (1994). Failure of Political Islam. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. p. 56. ISBN 978-0-674-29140-9.
  41. ^ Weaver, Mary Ann (1999). Portrait of Egypt. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-374-23542-0.
  42. ^ REGEV, MARK (24 November 2022). "Looking back at Egypt's Anwar Sadat's historic Jerusalem visit, 45 years ago - opinion". The Jerusalem Post.
  43. ^ "Egyptian President Sadat's Speech in Jerusalem (1977)". Economic Cooperation Foundation.
  44. ^ Berenji, Shahin (1 July 2020). "Sadat and the Road to Jerusalem: Bold Gestures and Risk Acceptance in the Search for Peace". International Security.
  45. ^ "Anwar Al-Sadat". Archived from the original on 9 February 2009. Retrieved 22 January 2009.
  46. ^ Vatikiotis, P.J. (1992). The History of Modern Egypt (Fourth ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University. p. 443. ISBN 978-0-8018-4214-6.
  47. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 1978 – Presentation Speech". Nobel prize. 1978. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
  48. ^ "Teaching". Pat Robertson. Archived from the original on 21 December 2010. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
  49. ^ a b c d e Zephyr, Alexander (13 November 2014). Psalm 83: A New Discovery. iUniverse. ISBN 978-1-4917-5074-2.
  50. ^ An Ideology of Martyrdom – Time
  51. ^ Le prophète et Pharaon by Kepel, p. 192
  52. ^ Wright, 2006, p. 49
  53. ^ 'Cracking Down', Time, 14 September 1981
  54. ^ Le prophète et Pharaon by Kepel, pp. 103–4
  55. ^ Wright, 2006, p. 50
  56. ^ For an account that uses this version of events, look at Middle East Report's January–March 1996 issue, specifically Hisham Mubarak's interview with ? On pages 42–43 Qasim deals specifically with rumors of Jihad Group involvement in the assassination, and denies them entirely.
  57. ^ "1981 Year in Review". United Press International. 1981.
  58. ^ "Taher Helmi: Feats of circumstance". Al Ahram Weekly. 23 March 2005. Archived from the original on 23 February 2013. Retrieved 23 February 2013.((cite news)): CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  59. ^ Taher Helmy's Speech at the AUC Commencement Ceremony 2008. Archived from the original on 30 October 2021 – via YouTube.
  60. ^ J. Tyler Dickovick (9 August 2012). Africa 2012. Stryker Post. pp. 41–. ISBN 978-1-61048-882-2. Retrieved 22 December 2012.
  61. ^ KIROLOS, W. G. (9 October 1981). "Sadat goes to hero's grave in pyramid". United Press International.
  62. ^ Avner, Yehuda (24 July 2010). The Prime Ministers (p. 575). The Toby Press, LLC. Kindle Edition.
  63. ^ Stack, Liam (17 March 2011). "Egypt Releases Brother of Al Qaeda's No. 2". The New York Times.
  64. ^ "Sadat nephew in court appearance". BBC News. 18 October 2006.
  65. ^ "Suit Over Film 'Sadat' Is Dismissed in Cairo". The New York Times. Reuters. 28 March 1984.
  66. ^ Benjamin P. Bowser, Racism and Anti-Racism in World Perspective (Sage Series on Race and Ethnic Relations, Volume 13), (Sage Publications, Inc: 1995), p. 108
    Upset by 'Sadat,' Egypt Bars Columbia Films
  67. ^ Walter M. Ulloth, Dana Brasch, The Press and the State: Sociohistorical and Contemporary Studies, (University Press of America: 1987), p. 483
  68. ^ Marie, Mustafa (25 December 2018). "ET presents most prominent works portraying late President Sadat". Egypt Today.
  69. ^ "Senarai Penuh Penerima Darjah Kebesaran, Bintang dan Pingat Persekutuan Tahun 1965" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 September 2018. Retrieved 15 June 2016.
  70. ^ "Trump signs law honoring Anwar Sadat". 14 December 2018.
  71. ^ "Одликувања" (PDF). Službeni list SFRJ (in Macedonian). XXXIII (45): 1764. 1764.

Further reading

Political offices Preceded byAbdul Latif El-Bughadi President of the People's Assembly of Egypt 1960–1968 Succeeded byDr. Mohamed Labib Skokeir Preceded byGamal Abdel Nasser President of Egypt 1970–1981 Succeeded bySufi Abu Taleb acting Preceded byAziz Sedki Prime Minister of Egypt 1973–1974 Succeeded byAbdelaziz Muhammad Hejazi Preceded byMustafa Khalil Prime Minister of Egypt 1980–1981 Succeeded byHosni Mubarak Party political offices Preceded byNone Chairman of the National Democratic Party 1978–1981 Succeeded byHosni Mubarak