Cursed soldiers
Żołnierze wyklęci
'Cursed soldiers' of the anti-communist underground. Left to right (June 1947):
  • Henryk Wybranowski - Nickname "Tarzan" (killed Nov. 1948)
  • Edward Taraszkiewicz - "Żelazny" (killed Oct. 1951)
  • Mieczysław Małecki - "Sokół" (killed Nov. 1947)
  • Stanisław Pakuła - "Krzewina"
Active1944–1947
Country Poland
AllegiancePoland (Polish Government-in-Exile)
RoleArmed forces of the Polish Underground State and the Polish Government-in-Exile
SizeVaried, c. 150,000-200,000 at peak.[1]
After amnesty of 1947, 200-400 people remained in active, armed conspiracy.[2]

The "cursed soldiers"[3] (also known as "doomed soldiers",[4] "accursed soldiers", or "damned soldiers"; Polish: żołnierze wyklęci) or "indomitable soldiers"[5] (Polish: żołnierze niezłomni) were a heterogeneous array of anti-Soviet-imperialist and anti-communist Polish resistance movements formed in the later stages of World War II and in its aftermath by members of the Polish Underground State. The above terms, introduced in the early 1990s,[6] reflect the stance of many of the diehard soldiers.

These clandestine organisations continued their armed struggle against Poland's communist regime waged guerrilla warfare well into the 1950s, including attacks against prisons and state security offices, detention facilities for political prisoners, and the concentration camps that had been set up across the country. Most Polish anti-communist groups ceased to exist in the late 1950s, as they were hunted down by agents of the Ministry of Public Security and the Soviet NKVD.[7] The last known "cursed soldier", Józef Franczak, was killed in a 1963 ambush.[8][9]

The best-known Polish anti-communist resistance organisations operating in Stalinist era Poland included Freedom and Independence (Wolność i Niezawisłość, WIN), the National Armed Forces (Narodowe Siły Zbrojne, NSZ), the National Military Union (Narodowe Zjednoczenie Wojskowe, NZW), the Underground Polish Army (Konspiracyjne Wojsko Polskie, KWP), the Home Army Resistance (Ruch Oporu Armii Krajowej, ROAK), the Citizens' Home Army (Armia Krajowa Obywatelska, AKO), NO (NIE, short for Niepodległość), the Armed Forces Delegation for Poland (Delegatura Sił Zbrojnych na Kraj), and Freedom and Justice (Wolność i Sprawiedliwość, WiS).[9]

Similar anti-communist insurgencies occurred in other Central European countries.

The "cursed soldiers" have prompted controversy over the degree to which individual fighters or their units were involved in war crimes against Jews or other ethnic minorities on Polish soil or against civilians generally. Common responses to such accusations have included that the accusations were partly or completely fabricated as communist propaganda to discredit the soldiers, or that any genuine victims were killed because of their involvement in, or cooperation with, communist authorities and that their ethnicity had little if any bearing on their demise.[10][11]

Historical background

Monument to the Armia Krajowa in Sopot, Poland

In the summer of 1944, as Soviet forces [ advanced into Poland, the USSR set up a provisional puppet regime called the Polish Committee of National Liberation. The new regime was aware that the Polish Resistance (whose chief component was the Armia Krajowa or Home Army) and Underground State loyal to the Polish government-in-exile would have to be destroyed before they could gain complete control over Poland.[12] Władysław Gomułka, future General Secretary of the Polish United Workers' Party, said that "Soldiers of the Armia Krajowa (AK) are a hostile element which must be removed without mercy". Another prominent communist, Roman Zambrowski, said that the AK had to be "exterminated".[13]

The Armia Krajowa officially disbanded on 19 January 1945 to prevent a slide into armed conflict with the Red Army and the increasing threat of civil war over Poland's sovereignty. However, many resistance cells decided to continue their struggle for Polish independence, and regarded Soviet forces as merely the new occupiers. Soviet partisans in Poland had already been ordered by Moscow on 22 June 1943 to engage Polish partisans in combat.[14]

According to Marek Jan Chodakiewicz's review of Bogdan Musial's book Sowjetische Partisanen, "Musial’s study suggests that the Soviets seldom attacked German military and police targets. They preferred to assault the poorly-armed and poorly-trained Belarusan and Polish self-defense forces. Soviet guerrillas torched and leveled Polish landed estates much more frequently than they blew up military transports and assaulted other hard targets."[12] The main forces of the Red Army (the Northern Group of Forces) and the NKVD began conducting operations against the Home Army (Armia Krajowa, A.K.) during and directly after the launch of Operation Tempest, the Polish resistance's effort to seize control of cities and areas occupied by the Germans while the latter were preparing their defenses against the advancing Soviets.[13] Soviet leader Joseph Stalin planned to ensure that an independent Poland would never reemerge in the postwar period.[15]

Formation of the anti-communist underground

Uniform of a Polish anti-communist fighter, with breast badge displaying image of the Black Madonna of Częstochowa

The first AK structure designed primarily to deal with the Soviet threat was NIE (short for niepodległość "independence", and also meaning "no"), formed in mid-1943. NIE's goal was to observe and spy while the Polish government-in-exile decided how to deal with the Soviets, rather than to engage in combat. At that time, the exiled government still believed that negotiations could result in a solution leading to Poland's post-war independence.

On 7 May 1945, NIE was disbanded and transformed into the Delegatura Sił Zbrojnych na Kraj ("Armed Forces Delegation for Homeland"). This organization lasted only until August 8, 1945, when the decision was made[who?] to disband it and cease partisan resistance on Polish territory.[13]

In March 1945 a staged trial of 16 leaders of the Polish Underground State, captured and imprisoned by the Soviet Union, took place in Moscow (Trial of the Sixteen).[16][17][18][19] The Government Delegate, together with most members of the Council of National Unity and the Commander-in-Chief of the Armia Krajowa, were invited by Soviet general Ivan Serov, with the agreement of Joseph Stalin, to a conference on their eventual entry into the Soviet-backed Provisional Government. They were presented with a warrant of safety, but the NKVD arrested them in Pruszków on 27 and 28 March.[20][21] Leopold Okulicki, Jan Stanisław Jankowski, and Kazimierz Pużak were arrested on 27 March, and 12 more the following day. Alexander Zwierzynski had already been detained earlier. They were all taken to the Lubyanka prison in Moscow for interrogation before trial.[22][23][24] After several months of brutal interrogation and torture,[25] they were falsely charged with "collaboration with Nazi Germany" and "planning a military alliance with Nazi Germany".[26][27]

The Polish Committee of National Liberation declined jurisdiction over former AK soldiers. Consequently, for more than a year, Soviet agencies such as the NKVD dealt with the AK. By the end of the war, approximately 60,000 AK soldiers had been arrested, and 50,000 of them were deported to the Soviet Union's prisons and prison camps. Most had been captured by the Soviets during or in the aftermath of Operation Tempest when many AK units tried to cooperate with the Red Army during their nationwide uprising against the Germans.

Other veterans were arrested when they approached the communist authorities after being promised amnesty. In 1947, the regime of the People's Republic of Poland proclaimed an amnesty for most wartime resistance fighters. The authorities expected around 12,000 people to give up their arms, but the total number of partisans to come out of the forests eventually reached 53,000. Many of them were arrested despite the promises. After repeated broken promises in the first few years of communist rule, former AK members refused to trust the government.[13]

After the Delegatura Sił Zbrojnych na Kraj ("Armed Forces Delegation for Homeland") was disbanded, another post-AK resistance organisation was formed, called Wolność i Niezawisłość ("Freedom and Sovereignty"). Wolność i Niezawisłość (WiN) was most concerned with helping former AK soldiers transition from life as partisans to that of civilians. Continued secrecy and conspiracy were necessary in light of the increasing persecution of AK veterans by the communist regime. WiN was, however, much in need of funds to pay for false documents and to provide resources for the partisans, many of whom had lost their homes and entire life-savings in the war. Viewed as enemies of the state, starved of resources, and with a vocal faction advocating armed resistance against the Soviets and their Polish proxies, WiN was far from efficient. A significant victory for the NKVD and the newly created Polish secret police, Urząd Bezpieczeństwa (UB), came in the second half of 1945 when they convinced several leaders of WiN that they truly wanted to offer amnesty to AK members. Within a few months, intelligence gathered by the authorities led to thousands more arrests.[13] The primary period of WiN activity lasted until 1947. The organisation finally disbanded in 1952.[28]

Persecution

"The Giant and the Reactionary Spittle-Covered Dwarf". A postwar Polish communist propaganda poster showing a soldier of the Polish People's Army striding over a partisan of the Armia Krajowa (Home Army).

The NKVD and UB used brute force and deception to eliminate the underground opposition. In the autumn of 1946, a group of 100–200 "cursed soldiers" of the Narodowe Siły Zbrojne (National Armed Forces, NSZ) were lured into a trap and massacred. In 1947, Colonel Julia ("Bloody Luna") Brystiger of the Polish Ministry of Public Security proclaimed at a security briefing that: "[t]he terrorist and political underground" had ceased to be a threatening force for the UB, although the "class enemy" at universities, offices and factories still had to be "found out and neutralised."[13]

The persecution of AK members was only one aspect of the reign of Stalinist terror in postwar Poland. In the period from 1944 to 1956, at least 300,000 Polish civilians were arrested.[29] Some sources claim that up to two million were arrested.[13] Approximately 6,000 death sentences were issued, and the majority of them were carried out.[29] It is probable that more than 20,000 people died in communist prisons. including those executed "in the majesty of the law", such as Witold Pilecki, a hero of Auschwitz.[13]

A further six million Polish citizens (i.e., one out of every three adult Poles) were classified as suspected members of a 'reactionary or criminal element' and subjected to investigation by state agencies. During the Polish October of 1956, a political amnesty freed 35,000 former AK soldiers from prisons. But some partisans remained in service, unwilling or simply unable to rejoin the civilian community. The cursed soldier Stanisław Marchewka "Ryba" ("The Fish") was killed in 1957, and the last AK partisan, Józef Franczak "Lalek" ("Doller"), was killed in 1963 — almost two decades after the Second World War ended. In 1967, long after the abolition of Stalinist terror, Adam Boryczka, the last member of the elite British-trained Cichociemny ("The Silent and Hidden") intelligence and support group, was finally released from prison. Until the end of the People's Republic of Poland. Former AK soldiers were under constant investigation by the secret police. It was only in 1989, after the fall of communism, that the convictions of AK soldiers were finally declared invalid and annulled by Polish law.[13]

Largest operations and actions

Main article: Anti-communist resistance in Poland (1944–1953)

The biggest battle in the history of the National Military Union (Narodowe Zjednoczenie Wojskowe, NZW) took place on 6–7 May 1945, in the village of Kuryłówka in southeastern Poland. In the Battle of Kuryłówka, the partisans fought against the Soviet 2nd Border Regiment of the NKVD, gaining a victory for the underground forces commanded by Major Franciszek Przysiężniak ("Marek"). The anti-communist fighters killed up to 70 Soviet agents. The NKVD troops retreated in haste, only to later return to the village and burn it to the ground in retaliation, destroying over 730 buildings.[30][31]

On 21 May 1945, a heavily armed AK unit led by Colonel Edward Wasilewski, attacked and destroyed the NKVD camp in Rembertów on the eastern outskirts of Warsaw. The Soviets had incarcerated hundreds of Polish citizens there,[32][33][34] including members of the Armia Krajowa.[35]

Pacification

One of the biggest anti-partisan operations by the communist authorities took place from 10 to 25 June 1945, in and around the Suwałki and Augustów regions of Poland. The "Augustów roundup" (Polish: Obława augustowska) was a joint operation of the Red Army, the Soviet NKVD, and SMERSH battalions, with assistance from Polish UB and LWP units, against Armia Krajowa resistance fighters. The operation extended into the territory of occupied Lithuania. More than 2,000 suspected anti-communist Polish fighters were captured and detained in Soviet internment camps. About 600 of the "Augustów Missing" are presumed to have died in Soviet custody, their bodies buried in unknown mass graves on the present territory of Russia. The Polish Institute of National Remembrance has declared the 1945 Augustów roundup to be "the largest crime committed by the Soviets on Polish lands after World War II."[36]

Anti-communist resistance organizations

Among the best-known Polish underground organizations,[9] engaged in guerrilla warfare were:

  1. Wolność i Niezawisłość ("Freedom and Independence", WIN) founded on September 2, 1945, active to 1952.
  2. Narodowe Siły Zbrojne ("National Armed Forces", NSZ) created on September 20, 1942, split in March 1944.
  3. Narodowe Zjednoczenie Wojskowe ("National Military Union", NZW) established in mid-to-late 1940s, active until mid-1950s.
  4. Konspiracyjne Wojsko Polskie ("Underground Polish Army", KWP) which existed from April 1945 to as late as 1954.
  5. Ruch Oporu Armii Krajowej ("Resistance of the Home Army", ROAK) formed in 1944 against UB collaborators.
  6. Armia Krajowa Obywatelska ("Citizens' Home Army", AKO) founded in February 1945, incorporated into Wolność i Niezawisłość in 1945.
  7. NIE ("NO") formed in 1943, active till 7 May 1945.
  8. Delegatura Sił Zbrojnych na Kraj ("Delegature of the Polish Forces at Home") formed on May 7, 1945, dissolved on August 8, 1945.
  9. Wolność i Sprawiedliwość ("Freedom and Justice", WIS) founded in early 1950s.

Events

Notable members

The following list (in most part), was taken from the book Not Only Katyń (Nie tylko Katyń) by Ireneusz Sewastianowicz and Stanisław Kulikowski (Białostockie Wydawn. Prasowe, 1990); Part 10: "The Augustow Missing," compiled by the Citizen Committee for Search of Suwałki Region Inhabitants who Disappeared in July 1945 (Obywatelski Komitet Poszukiwań Mieszkańców Suwalszczyzny Zaginionych w Lipcu 1945 r., in Polish).[37]

Cultural references

The "cursed soldiers" served as an inspiration for numerous films, documentaries, books, stage plays, and songs and, in Poland, they have become the ultimate symbol of patriotism and heroic fight for fatherland against all odds. Notable examples include:

Film

The "cursed soldiers" graphic design on patriotic apparel

Music

Theatre

Books

See also

References

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  2. ^ Sławomir Poleszak, Rafał Wnuk: Zarys dziejów polskiego podziemia niepodległościowego 1944–1956. W: Atlas polskiego podziemia niepodległościowego 1944–1956. Wyd. 1. Warszawa – Lublin: IPN, 2007, s. XXII–XXXVIII. ISBN 978-83-60464-45-8.
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  7. ^ Tennent H. Bagley (2007). Spy wars: moles, mysteries, and deadly games. Yale University Press. pp. 120. ISBN 978-0-300-12198-8. Retrieved May 24, 2011. puppet government they had set up formally disbanded the AK.
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  9. ^ a b c Agnieszka Adamiak, Oddziałowe Biuro Edukacji Publicznej (2001). "Żołnierze wyklęci. Antykomunistyczne podziemie na Rzeszowszczyźnie po1944 roku". Institute of National Remembrance. Archived from the original on February 7, 2012. Retrieved May 29, 2011.  (in Polish)
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    • Siegień, Paulina; Siegień, Wojciech (24 February 2020). "An unwanted march: Polish nationalists honour anti-communist partisans accused of war crimes". Notes from Poland. Retrieved 22 March 2023. "I very much appreciate the actions of Romuald 'Bury' Rajs," one participant in the march, Wiesław Bielawski, tells us. [...] "Bury was one of the greatest Polish heroes of the postwar period. He and his troops fought communists, managed to eliminate communist party cells, fought people collaborating with communists, executed traitors to the Polish nation." Asked if civilians killed in 1946 were traitors to the Polish nation, Bielawski and his friends argue that civilians died only because they did not obey the orders of Bury's soldiers. Why did Bury burn one of the villages? Because this property served traitors to the Polish nation.
  11. ^ Koschalka, Ben (2 March 2020). "Poles should be willing to die for their country like the "cursed soldiers", says PM". Notes from Poland. Retrieved 22 March 2023. But commemoration of the cursed soldiers also often stirs controversy, given that among the undisputed heroes, such as [Witold] Pilecki, are some figures who have been found responsible for the killing of civilians, including from ethnic minorities such as Jews and Belarusians.
    • Tilles, Daniel (3 March 2021). "Controversy over state commemoration of Polish anti-communist partisan accused of war crimes". Notes from Poland. Retrieved 22 March 2023. But many in Poland – particularly on the political right – regard [Zygmunt] Szendzielarz as a hero for his role in fighting the wartime German occupiers and postwar communist authorities, who executed him in 1951. They often argue that the reputation of the cursed soldiers was deliberately and falsely tarnished by the communists. "The communists considered Szendzielarz one of their greatest opponents," said Piotr Niwiński, a historian at the University of Gdańsk, quoted by the Polish Press Agency (PAP). "[So] they tried to annihilate him not only physically but also through propaganda, blaming him for many crimes."
    • Tilles, Daniel (9 February 2022). "Opposition MPs walk out as Polish parliament honours resistance fighter accused of war crime". Notes from Poland. Retrieved 22 March 2023.
    • Tilles, Daniel (22 March 2023). "Jewish leaders condemn Polish coin honouring WWII partisan accused of murdering Jews". Notes from Poland. Retrieved 22 March 2023. On its website, the Institute of National Remembrance (IPN) [...] defends [Józef] Kuraś's legacy. It argues he has been unfairly portrayed as a murderous antisemite due to the lasting effect of communist propaganda, which sought to sully the name of the cursed soldiers. The IPN admits that "Jews died at the hands of the [Polish] underground". However, this was not because they were Jews, but because "of their service in the [communist] organs of repression, Polish Workers' Party or cooperation with the Department of Security".
  12. ^ a b Review of Sowjetische Partisanen in Weißrußland, by Marek Jan Chodakiewicz, in Sarmatian Review, April 2006.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i Andrzej Kaczyński (2 October 2004), Wielkie polowanie: Prześladowania akowców w Polsce Ludowej [Great hunt: the persecutions of AK soldiers in the People's Republic of Poland], Rzeczpospolita, Nr 232, last accessed 21 March 2016 via Internet Archive.
  14. ^ Tadeusz Piotrowski, Poland's Holocaust, McFarland & Company, 1997, ISBN 0-7864-0371-3. Google Print, pp. 88, 89, 90.
  15. ^ Judith Olsak-Glass, Review of Piotrowski's Poland's Holocaust, in Sarmatian Review, January 1999.
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  38. ^ Photograph of Franciszek Andrulewicz at DoomedSoldiers.com
  39. ^ List of the Augustow Missing at DoomedSoldiers.com
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Further reading