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Battle of Northern Burma and Western Yunnan
Part of the Second Sino-Japanese War of the Pacific War

Chinese soldiers fight along the Salween River in Burma
DateOctober 1943 – March 1945
Location
Northern Burma and Western Yunnan
22°50′N 97°08′E / 22.83°N 97.14°E / 22.83; 97.14
Result Allied victory
Belligerents
 China
United Kingdom United Kingdom
 United States
 Japan
Thailand
Commanders and leaders
Republic of China (1912–1949) Wei Li-huang
Republic of China (1912–1949) Song Xilian
Republic of China (1912–1949) Sun Li-jen
Empire of Japan Masakazu Kawabe
Empire of Japan Heitarō Kimura
Strength
400,000 150,000
Casualties and losses
107,000 108,000( At least 30,000 Japanese soldiers dead)

Battle of Northern Burma and Western Yunnan (Chinese: 滇西緬北戰役 October 1943 – March 1945) was the name of the Chinese campaign with their allies in the 1943–45 Burma Campaign. The campaign ended in an Allied victory.

It is one of the large-scale battles of the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression, located in the border area between Yunnan Province, China and northern Myanmar, starting at the beginning of December 1943. The purpose of the battle is to open up the China-India Highway. At the end of March 1945, the Chinese Expeditionary Force, the British Army, and the Merrill's Marauders joined forces in Muse, Burma (Myanmar), while the Japanese Army lost the North Burma Stronghold.

The Allied Forces were jointly formed by the troops of China, the United States and the United Kingdom. Among them, the Chinese participating forces included the Chinese Army in India and the Chinese Expeditionary Force. The commander-in-chief of the campaign was General Wei Lihuang of the Chinese National Army, and the deputy commander of the campaign was General Joseph Stilwell of the US Army. The main force of the Japanese army was the Japanese Burmese front. The commander of the battle was Masakazu Kawabe, then Heitaro Kimura, later Shinichi Tanaka and others. The total strength was more than 400,000 for Allied and 150,000 for Japan..

The Battle of Northern Myanmar and Western Yunnan lasted one and a half years. At the cost of 31,443 people killed and 35,948 wounded, the Allies killed more than 30,000 Japanese soldiers,[1] reopened southwest China to the Burma Road, and recovered all the lost land on the west bank of the Salween River in western Yunnan.

The Battle of Western Yunnan and Northern Burma was the largest counteroffensive of the Chinese army against the Japanese army since the Second Sino-Japanese War. And the offensives that killed the most Japanese, and the battles that captured the most Japanese. As well as western Yunnan and northern Myanmar are the witness of China's strategic counterattack of Anti-Japanese War. Among them, the Battle of Matsuyama and the Battle of Tengyue were the only two jade crushing operations of the Japanese army in the Asian mainland. According to the statistics of the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare, a total of 14,052 Japanese soldiers were killed in the battle of Western Yunnan. The 56th division of the Japanese Burmese Front was the most destroyed by the Chinese. At least 70% of the division was wiped out by the Chinese army in the Burmese battlefield, more than a thousand men of the 56th Division died during the Japanese occupation of Western Yunnan in 1942-44, as well as hundreds of Imaoka Allied troops died in northern Burma and dozens in Myitkyina, and the 56th Division suffered devastating blows in western Yunnan, China. 1. During the counterattack of the Yunnan Expeditionary Force (April 29 to July 5, 1944)

The total number of men fighting under the command of the 56th Division was approximately 11,000. During the two months of fighting, 1,719 people were killed and 1,257 wounded. About 200 people died from war illnesses and about 4,500 suffered war illnesses. [3]

2. The first phase of the "Broken" operation (July 6 to October 5, 1944)

The 56th Division (with a total strength of about 11,000 men) suffered 4,868 battle deaths, 1,430 battle wounds, and 386 battle sickness deaths.

The 2nd Division (with a total strength of about 6,000 men) suffered about 800 killed and 800 wounded. [4]

3. During the second phase of the "Broken" operation (October 5, 1944 to January 26, 1945)

The 56th Division (with a total strength of approximately 8,000 men) suffered 1,803 battle deaths, 3,194 battle wounds, and 27 deaths from battle illnesses. [5]

About 9,000 people from the 56th Division (including those who died from war illnesses) died in the 1944-45 counterattack in Western Yunnan.

 The Japanese 18th Division also suffered heavy losses in the joint operations between the Chinese, American and British armies. According to the most authoritative Japanese war history about the northern Burma campaign, the two war histories "The Chrysanthemum Soldiers - Furuhi no War" written by the former 18th Division staff officer Ushiyama Saitaro. , "The Chrysanthemum Soldiers--"The Battle of the Chrysanthemums" (these two battle histories are actually the quasi-official battle histories of the 18th Division. Ushiyama wrote them clearly and in high quality. At the end of the Battle of the Chrysanthemum Corps Hu Kang, Ushiyama Saitaro pointed out that as a result, After the fall of Myitkyina, "the heroic spirit reached ten thousand and thousands of pillars". In the book "Burma Vertical Operation", Ushiyama Saitaro believed that until the India-Burma Highway was opened, the Japanese army died in the battle in the direction of Hu Kang (i.e., northern Burma), About 20,000 people died from the disease, and about 10,000 people died from the disease in Yunnan. These 30,000 people include those who died from the disease and were lost in battles with the British and Indian troops.[2] However, after the India-Burma Highway was opened, the Chinese army still had some battles with the Japanese army. 18 The troop histories of the three infantry regiments of the division record the losses in combat with the expeditionary force (actually the army stationed in India, but they still call the army stationed in India the expeditionary force). More than seven or eight thousand people were killed in battle.The 114th Regiment, the main force of the Special Myitkyina Garrison, according to its resume, recorded 2,979 dead, 1,821 casualties, and 107 prisoners during its Myitkyina defense operations (May–August 44). This was almost the Japanese infantry regiment that suffered the worst in the fourteen-year history of the Anti-Japanese War. After the counterattack against Yunnan and Burma, Sun Liren, commander of the New First Army, was awarded the Medal of Blue Sky and White Sun.


In addition, the Thai army, with the support of the Japanese army, fought with the 93rd Division of the Chinese Army in Xishuangbanna, southern Yunnan, from 1942 to 1943.

Background

At the turn of spring and summer in 1942, the Japanese army captured Burma and immediately prepared to attack west Yunnan. They were expected to fight along Burma Road, conquer Yunnan and threaten Chongqing. On May 4, 1942, the Japanese army invaded Longling County, and at the same time dispatched 54 aircraft to carry out a violent bombing of Baoshan, Yunnan, the Millennium Ancient City; on the 10th, the Japanese army invaded the border city of Tengchong. At this point, a large area west of the Salween River (Nu River) fell into the hands of the Japanese army. The 71st Army of the Chinese Expeditionary Force set up defenses on the east bank of the Nu River, repeatedly frustrated the Japanese army’s attempt to move eastward, and thus stabilized the war situation, and confronted it across the river for two years.

At that time, after the Burma Road, which was once the only land international transportation artery, was cut off, a large amount of military supplies to China could only be transported by the US Air Force through "The Hump" with much difficulty and no security. In order to regain control of the Burma Road, the six divisions of the Chinese Expeditionary Forces in India and the British and Indian forces jointly launched a counterattack against the Japanese army in northern Myanmar in late October 1943, and achieved initial results. On April 17, the following year, the Chinese Expeditionary Force carried out a counter-attack plan for crossing the river.

Battles in Battle of Northern Burma and Western Yunnan

References

  1. ^ . 《ああ菊兵団―フーコン作戦》、《ああ菊兵団―ビルマ縦断作戦》. ((cite book)): Missing or empty |title= (help)CS1 maint: others (link)
  2. ^ "あああああ". Nature Digest. 1 January 2022. doi:10.1038/ndigest.2020.testb. ISSN 2189-7778. S2CID 254340842.

See also