Philippine resistance against Japan
Paglaban ng Pilipinas sa mga Hapon
Part of the Pacific Theater of World War II

Propaganda poster depicting the Philippine resistance movement
DateDecember 8, 1941 – September 2, 1945
(3 years, 8 months, 3 weeks and 4 days)
Philippines (Southeast Asia)
Result Allied victory
Allied forces successfully liberated the Philippines.

 Empire of Japan

United States United States

Philippine Communist Party
Moro people[b]
Commanders and leaders
Units involved

 Empire of Japan

 Republic of the Philippines

Recognized Guerrillas

and others...

Moro-Bolo Battalion
Maranao Militia
and others...
Unknown Japanese
30,000 Constabulary[4]
6,000 Makapili[5]
30,000 guerrillas in ten sectors (spring 1944)[6]
~260,000 formally recognized members of the pro-US resistance following the war[7]
~30,000 Hukbalahap fighters[7]
~30,000 Moro Juramentados[7]
Casualties and losses
8,000–10,000 dead (before the Allied invasion in October 1944)[7][8] 8,000 dead (1942-1945)[9]
Around 530,000[10] to 1,000,000[9][11] Filipinos died during the Japanese occupation.

During the Japanese occupation of the islands in World War II, there was an extensive Philippine resistance movement (Filipino: Kilusan ng Paglaban sa Pilipinas), which opposed the Japanese and their collaborators with active underground and guerrilla activity that increased over the years. Fighting the guerrillas – apart from the Japanese regular forces – were a Japanese-formed Bureau of Constabulary (later taking the name of the old Philippine Constabulary during the Second Republic),[12][13] the Kenpeitai (the Japanese military police),[12] and the Makapili (Filipinos fighting for the Japanese).[14] Postwar studies estimate that around 260,000 people were organized under guerrilla groups and that members of anti-Japanese underground organizations were more numerous.[15][16] Such was their effectiveness that by the end of World War II, Japan controlled only twelve of the forty-eight provinces.

Select units of the resistance would go on to be reorganized and equipped as units of the Philippine Army and Constabulary.[17] The United States Government officially granted payments and benefits to various ethnicities who have fought with the Allies by the war's end. However, only the Filipinos were excluded from such benefits, and since then these veterans have made efforts in finally being acknowledged by the United States. Some 277 separate guerrilla units made up of 260,715 individuals were officially recognized as having fought in the resistance movement.[18]


Further information: Japanese occupation of the Philippines and Military history of the Philippines during World War II

The attack on Pearl Harbor (called Hawaii Operation or Operation AI[19][20] by the Japanese Imperial General Headquarters) was a surprise military strike conducted by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on the morning of December 7, 1941 (December 8 in Japan and the Philippines).[21][22] The attack was intended as a preventive action in order to keep the U.S. Pacific Fleet from interfering with military actions Japan was planning in Southeast Asia against the overseas territories of the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands.[23]

Immediately after the attack on Pearl Harbor, the Japanese operations to invade the Commonwealth of the Philippines began. Twenty-five twin engine planes bombed Tuguegarao and Baguio in the first preemptive strike in Luzon. The Japanese forces then quickly conducted a landing at Batan Island, and by December 17, General Masaharu Homma gave his estimate that the main component of the United States Air Force in the archipelago was destroyed. By January 2, Manila was under Japanese control and by January 9, Homma had cornered the remaining forces in Bataan. By April 9, the remaining of the combined American-Filipino force was forced to retire from Bataan to Corregidor. Meanwhile, Japanese invasions of Cebu (April 19) and Panay (April 20) were successful. By May 7, after the last of the Japanese attacks on Corregidor, General Jonathan M. Wainwright announced through a radio broadcast in Manila the surrender of the Philippines. Following Wainwright was General William F. Sharp, who surrendered Visayas and Mindanao on May 10.[24]

Afterwards came the Bataan Death March, which was the forcible transfer, by the Imperial Japanese Army, of 60,000 Filipino and 15,000 American prisoners of war after the three-month Battle of Bataan in the Philippines during World War II.[25] The death toll of the march is difficult to assess as thousands of captives were able to escape from their guards (although many were killed during their escapes), and it is not known how many died in the fighting that was taking place concurrently. All told, approximately 2,500–10,000 Filipino and 300–650 American prisoners of war died before they could reach Camp O'Donnell.[26]

Resistance in Luzon

USAFFE and American sponsored guerrillas

Further information: Raid at Cabanatuan, Raid at Los Baños, and List of American guerrillas in the Philippines

Three men, wearing uniforms and hats are standing and looking to the right. They are armed with grenades, guns, and have pouches. Other men can be seen in the background.
Captain Pajota's guerrillas at Cabanatuan
Painting of a guerrilla armed with a bolo knife disarming a Japanese sentry of his rifle during the raid at Los Baños

After Bataan and Corregidor, many who escaped the Japanese reorganized in the mountains as guerrillas still loyal to the U.S. Army Forces Far East (USAFFE). One example would be the unit of Ramon Magsaysay in Zambales, which first served as a supply and intelligence unit. After the surrender in May 1942, Magsaysay and his unit formed a guerrilla force which grew to a 10,000-man force by the end of the war.[27] Another was the Hunters ROTC which operated in the Southern Luzon area, mainly near Manila. It was created upon dissolution of the Philippine Military Academy in the beginning days of the war. Cadet Terry Adivoso refused to simply go home as cadets were ordered to do, and began recruiting fighters willing to undertake guerrilla action against the Japanese.[28][29] This force would later be instrumental, providing intelligence to the liberating forces led by General Douglas MacArthur, and took an active role in numerous battles, such as the Raid at Los Baños. When war broke out in the Philippines, some 300 Philippine Military Academy and ROTC cadets, unable to join the USAFFE units because of their youth, banded together in a common desire to contribute to the war effort throughout the Bataan campaign. The Hunters originally conducted operations with another guerrilla group known as the Marking Guerrillas, with whom they went about liquidating Japanese spies. Led by Miguel Ver, a PMA cadet, the Hunters raided the enemy-occupied Union College in Manila and seized 130 Enfield rifles.[30]

Also, before being proven false in 1985 by the United States Military, Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos claimed that he had commanded a 9,000-strong guerrilla force known as the Maharlika Unit.[31] Marcos also used maharlika as his personal pseudonym; depicting himself as a bemedalled anti-Japanese Filipino guerrilla fighter during World War II.[32][33] Marcos told exaggerated tales and exploits of himself fighting the Japanese in his self-published autobiography Marcos of the Philippines which was proven to be fiction.[34] His father, Mariano Marcos, did however collaborate with the Japanese and was executed by Filipino guerillas in April 1945 under the command of Colonel George Barnett, and Ferdinand himself was accused of being a collaborator as well.[35][36]

In July 1942, South West Pacific Area (SWPA) became aware of the resistance movements forming in occupied Philippines through attempted radio communications to Allies outside of the Philippines; by late 1942, couriers had made it to Australia confirming the existence of the resistance.[37] By December 1942, SWPA sent Captain Jesús A. Villamor to the Philippines to make contact with guerrilla organizations, eventually developing extensive intelligence networks including contacts within the Second Republic Government.[37][38][c] A few months later SWPA sent Lieutenant Commander Chick Parsons, who returned to the Philippines in early 1943, vetting guerrilla leaders and established communications and supply for them with SWPA.[2][39] Through the Allied Intelligence Bureau's Philippine Regional Section, SWPA sent operatives and equipment into the Philippines to supply and assist guerrilla organizations, often by submarine.[37][40] The large cruiser submarines USS Narwhal and USS Nautilus, with a high capacity for personnel and supplies, proved especially useful in supporting the guerrillas.[41] Beginning in mid-1943, the assistance to the guerrillas in the Philippines became more organized, with the formation of the 5217th Reconnaissance Battalion, which was largely composed of volunteer Filipino Americans from the 1st and 2nd Filipino Infantry Regiments, which were established and organized in California.[42]

In Nueva Ecija, guerrillas led by Juan Pajota and Eduardo Joson protected the U.S. Army Rangers and Alamo Scouts who were conducting a rescue mission of Allied POWs from a counterattack by Japanese reinforcements.[43] Pajota and the Filipino guerrillas received Bronze Stars for their role in the raid.[44] Among the guerrilla units, the Blue Eagles were a specialized unit established for landmine and sniper detection, as well as in hunting Japanese spies who had blended in with the civilian population.[45]

Nonetheless, Japanese crackdowns on these guerrillas in Luzon were widespread and brutal. The Imperial Japanese Army, Kenpeitai and Filipino collaborators hunted down resistance fighters and anyone associated with them.[46] One example happened to resistance leader Wenceslao Vinzons, leader of the successful guerilla movement in Bicol.[47][48] After being betrayed to the Japanese by a Japanese collaborator, Vinzons was tortured to give up information on his resistance movement. Vinzons however refused to cooperate, and he and his family, consisting of his father Gabino, his wife Liwayway, sister Milagros and children Aurora and Alexander, were bayoneted to death.

Luis Taruc, Filipino Hukbalahap guerrilla leader

Hukbalahap resistance

Main article: Hukbalahap

As originally constituted in March 1942, the Hukbalahap was to be part of a broad united front resistance to the Japanese occupation of the Philippines.[49] This original intent is reflected in its name: "Hukbong Bayan Laban sa mga Hapon", which was "People's Army Against the Japanese" when translated into English. The adopted slogan was "Anti-Japanese Above All".[50] The Huk Military Committee was at the apex of Huk structure and was charged to direct the guerrilla campaign and to lead the revolution that would seize power after the war.[50] Luis Taruc, a communist leader and peasant-organizer from a barrio in Pampanga, was elected as head of the committee and became the first Huk commander called "El Supremo".[50] Casto Alejandrino became his second-in-command.

The Huks began their anti-Japanese campaign as five 100-man units. They obtained needed arms and ammunition from Philippine army stragglers, who were escapees from the Battle of Bataan and deserters from the Philippine Constabulary, in exchange of civilian clothes. The Huk recruitment campaign progressed more slowly than Taruc had expected, due to competition with U.S. Army Forces Far East (USAFFE) guerrilla units in enlisting new soldiers. The U.S. units already had recognition among the islands, had trained military leaders, and an organized command and logistical system.[50] Despite being restrained by the American sponsored guerrilla units, the Huks nevertheless took to the battlefield with only 500 men and much fewer weapons. Several setbacks at the hands of the Japanese and with less than enthusiastic support from USAFFE units did not hinder the Huks growth in size and efficiency throughout the war, developing into a well-trained, highly organized force with some 15,000 armed fighters by war's end.[50] The Huks attacked both the Japanese and other non-Huk guerrillas.[1] One estimate alleges that the Huks killed 20,000 non-Japanese during the occupation.[51]

Ethnic Chinese resistance

Unique to other guerrillas in the Philippines were the Wha-Chi; a resistance unit composed of Filipino-Chinese and Chinese immigrants.[52] They were established from the Chinese General Labour Union of the Philippines and the Philippine branch of the Chinese Communist Party and reached a strength of 700 men.[3] The movement served under the Huks until around 1943, when they started operating independently. They were also aided by the American guerrilla forces.[53][54]

Resistance in Visayas

Captain Nieves Fernandez, a Filipina school teacher who led the resistance in Tacloban, Leyte, Philippines with her husband in a photograph from 1944[55]

Various guerrilla groups also sprang out throughout the central islands of Visayas. Like those in Luzon, many of these Filipino guerrillas were trained by the Americans to fight in case the Japanese set their sights on the Visayas. These soldiers continued to fight even as the Americans surrendered the islands to the Japanese.[56]

One significant achievement for the resistance in Visayas was the capture of the "Koga Papers" by Cebuano guerrillas led by Lt. Col. James M. Cushing on April 1, 1944.[57][58] Named after Admiral Mineichi Koga, these papers contained vital battle plans and defensive strategies of the Japanese Navy (code-named the "Z Plan"), information on the overall strength of the Japanese fleet and naval air units, and most importantly the fact that the Japanese had already deduced MacArthur's initial plans to invade the Philippines through Mindanao. These papers came into Filipino possession when Koga's seaplane, en route to Davao, crashed on the Cebu coast at San Fernando in the early hours of April 1, killing him and others. Koga's body (and many surviving Japanese) washing ashore, the guerrillas captured 12 high-ranking officers, including Vice Admiral Shigeru Fukodome, Chief of Staff of the Combined Fleet.[57][58] On April 3,[59] Cebuano fishermen found the papers inside a floating briefcase, then handed them over to the guerrillas, whereupon the Japanese ruthlessly hunted down both the documents and their captured officers, burning villages and detaining civilians in the process. They ultimately forced the guerrillas to release their captives in order to stop the aggression, but Cushing managed to summon a submarine which transported the documents to Allied headquarters in Australia. The contents of the papers were a factor in MacArthur's decision to move his planned invasion site from Mindanao to Leyte, and also aided the Allies in the Battle of the Philippine Sea.[58]

American Colonel Wendell Fertig, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and commander of the 10th Military District, Island of Mindanao, Philippines and the resistance forces with his well-known red goatee, which he wore during the war, photo taken by unknown U.S. military photographer, circa 1942-1945

Waray guerrillas under a former school teacher named Nieves Fernandez fought the Japanese in Tacloban.[55] Nieves extensively trained her men in combat skills and making of improvised weaponry, as well as leading her men in the front. With only 110 men, Nieves managed to take out over 200 Japanese soldiers during the occupation. The Imperial Japanese Army posted a 10,000 pesos reward on her head in the hopes of capturing her but to no avail. The main commander of the resistance movement in the Island of Leyte was Ruperto Kangleon, a former Filipino soldier turned resistance fighter and leader. After the fall of the country, he successfully escaped capture by the Japanese and established a united guerrilla front in Leyte. He and his men, the Black Army, were successful in pushing the Japanese from the mainland province and further into the coastlands of Southern Leyte. Kangleon's guerrillas provided intelligence for the American guerrilla leaders such as Wendell Fertig, and assisted in the subsequent Leyte Landing and the Battle of Leyte soon after.[60] The guerrillas in Leyte were also instrumental not only in the opposition against Japanese rule, but also in the safety and aid of the civilians living in the island. The book The Hidden Battle of Leyte: The Picture Diary of a Girl taken by the Japanese Military by Remedios Felias, a former comfort woman, revealed how the Filipino guerrillas saved the lives of many young girls raped or at risk of rape by the Japanese. In her vivid account of the Battle of Burauen, she recounts how the guerrillas managed to wipe out entire Japanese platoons in the various villages in the municipality, eventually saving the lives of many.[61]

Besides their guerrilla activities, these groups also participated in many pivotal battles during the liberation of the islands. In Cebu, guerrillas and irregulars under Lieutenant James M. Cushing and Basilio J. Valdes aided in the Battle for Cebu City.[62] They also captured Maj. Gen. Takeo Manjom and his 2,000 soldiers and munitions. Panay guerrillas under Col. Macario Peralta helped in the seizing of the Tiring Landing Field and Mandurriao district airfield during the Battle of the Visayas.[63] Major Ingeniero commanded the guerrilla forces in Bohol,[64] in which they were credited in the liberation of the island from Japanese outposts at a cost of only seven men.

Filipino guerrillas under the command of Captain Jesus Olmedo come out to meet Major General A.V. Arnold at U.S. Army 7th Division headquarters for a conference in 1944.

Moro resistance in Mindanao

Main article: Moros during World War II

While Moro rebels were still unsuccessfully at war with the United States, the Japanese invasion became the new perceived threat to their religion and culture.[65] Some of those who opposed the occupation and fought for Moro nationalism, were Sultan Jainal Abirin II of Sulu, the Sulu Sultanate of the Tausug, and the Maranao Moros living around Lake Lanao and ruled by the Confederation of sultanates in Lanao led by Salipada Pendatun. Another anti-Japanese Moro unit, the Moro-Bolo Battalion led by Datu Gumbay Piang, consisted of about 20,000 fighting men made up of both Muslims and Christians. As their name suggests, these fighters were known visibly by their large bolos and kris.[66] The Japanese Major Hiramatsu, a propaganda officer, tried convincing Datu Busran Kalaw of Maranao to join their side as "brother Orientals". Kalaw sent a response which goaded Major Hiramatsu into sending a force of Japanese soldiers to attack him, whom Kalaw butchered completely with no survivors.[67][68] The juramentados brigands, who were veterans in fighting the Filipinos, Spanish and the Americans, now focused their assaults on the Japanese, using their traditional hit and run as well as suicide charges.[69] The Japanese were anxious of being attacked by the resistance, and they fought back by murdering innocent civilians and destroying properties.[70]

During these times, the Moros had no allegiance with the Filipinos and the Americans, and they were largely unwelcoming of their assistance. In many cases, they would even indiscriminately attack them as well, especially following the fall of Corregidor, and establishment of a truce with the Moros by Wendell Fertig in mid 1943.[2]: 11–15  The Moros also performed various cruelties during the war, such as thoughtlessly assaulting Japanese immigrants already living in Mindanao before the war.[71] The warlord Datu Busran Kalaw was known for boasting that he "fought both the Americans, Filipinos and the Japanese", which took the lives of both American and Filipino agents and the Japanese occupiers.[72] Nonetheless, the Americans respected the success of the Moros during the war. American POW Herbert Zincke recalled in his secret diary that the Japanese guarding him and other prisoners were scared of the Moro warriors and tried to keep as far away from them as possible to avoid getting attacked.[73] The American Captain Edward Kraus recommended Moro fighters for a suggested plan to capture an airbase in Lake Lanao before eventually driving the Japanese occupiers out of the Philippines. The Moro Datu Pino sliced the ears off Japanese and cashed them in with the American guerrilla leader Colonel Fertig at the exchange rate of a pair of ears for one bullet and 20 centavos.[74]

50 Moros were vivisected by a Japanese unit, the 33rd coast guard squad in Zamboanga in Mindanao in which Akira Makino served in. Moro guerillas armed with spears were the main enemies of the Japanese in the area.[75][76][77]

Both Americans and Japanese committed massacres against Moro Maranaos. 400 Maranaos were massacred by US artillery bombardment by Captain John S. Pershing in 1903. Japan invaded Mindanao in 1942 and issued orders for Maranao to surrender bladed implements so that every 2 households would share one blade and give up all their guns, killing anyone who didn't obey the order. The Japanese executions of Maranos who kept their firearms led to Maranao revenge attacks against the Japanese. Manalao Mindalano was one of the Maranao insurgents fighting the Japanese. The Japanese at Dansalan massacred and bayoneted 24 Maranao men and women civilians in Watu village while searching for Manalao Mindalano even though they had no relations to his guerilla group. The Maranaos then destroyed a Japanese convoy by shooting at their tires and drivers causing them to crash off bridges and roads. Maranao houses were then burned by the Japanese. A Japanese infantry company was slaughtered by Maranao villages with bladed weapons in September 1942 in the battle of Tamparan. The battle started on the 1st day of Ramadan on 12 September when the Japanese, searching for a Maranao guerilla leader in Tamapran sent 90 Japanese infantrymen there. The  Japanese used mortars to fire on the Maranaos after they defied the Japanese patrol. Maranaos around and in Tamparan came with bladed weapons and rifles to attack the Japanese as they heard the mortar shells. Most of the Maranaos only had blades and charged the Japanese directly through their mortar and bullet fire while Maranos with rifles attacked the Japanese from the rear while crawling in the grass. The Japanese were pinned down from three directions and an out of ammunition and tried to escape to boast on Lake Lanao but were stuck in the marsh. The Japanese were stuck in the mud by their boots while trying to use their bayonets as the Moros who went barefoot hacked at them. Japanese tried to surrender as they were defeated by the Maranao refused to accept surrender. Some Japanese soldiers under 1st Lieutenant Atsuo Takeuchi tried to escape to a boat on the pier but the forced labour on the boats already escaped into the lake and the Japanese were stuck. Takeuchi tried to surrender and threw away his sword but a Maranao hacked him to death and mocked him, saying "No surrender Tekeuchi!" as he recalled that Tekuchi boasted before that Japanese never surrendered. 85 Japanese were hacked to death on the lake near Tamparan. The Maranaos hacked and mutilated the Japanese corpses. The Japanese responded to the battle by bombarding Maranao  villages including Tamparan  from air and artillery for 25 days, massacring civilian children and women Maranaos. 80 Maranao civilian children, women and men were killed in a mosque by a Japanese bomb. Maranaos then blocked culverts, cut down trees and razed the road to block Japanese movement as the felled trees and blocked culverts would cause the rain to destroy what was left of the roads. At Ganassi a Japanese garrison was besieged by Maranao. At Lake Lanao the Maranao severed communications and contact between 3  Japanese garrisons in total by the conclusion  of 1942. Before US guerillas even started their insurgency against Japan, Lanao Plateau was liberated by Maranao from Japanese control. Moros in other places like Datu Udtug Matalam fought the Japanese in upper Cotabato Valley and Bukdnon. Japanese avoided Datu Udtug since 1942 because he constantly attacked their garrisons. Udtug Matalam's brother in law Salipada Pendatun fought the Japanese in Bukidnon, expelling them from Malaybalay, the provincial capital, Del Monte airfield and garrisons in Bukidnon in a period of six months in 1942-1943 and winning a battle at a POW camp.[78]

97% of the Japanese soldiers occupying Jolo were slaughtered by Moro Muslim Tausug guerillas according to Japanese soldier Fujioka Akiyoshi, who was one of the few who remained alive by the end of the war.[79][80] Fujioka described the Moros as brutal and recalled how the Moros sliced the livers and gold teeth off Japanaese soldiers who in one month slaughtered 1,000 Japanese after they came to the island.[81][82] Fujioka and his fellow Japanese soldiers were overjoyed when they finally reached an American base to surrender to since they knew their only other fate was being butchered by Moro Muslims or starvation.[83][84] Injured Japanese were slaughtered by Moros with their kris daggers as the Moros constantly attacked and charged and butchered Japanese soldiers.[85][86] Fujioka Akiyoshi (藤岡 明義) wrote a published diary of his war experiences on Jolo called (Haisen no ki ~ gyokusai chi Horo tō no kiroku )(敗戦の記~玉砕地ホロ島の記録 or 敗残の記: 玉砕地ホロ島の記錄) and a private account "Uijin no ki" (初陣の記).[87][84] His diary mentioned the majority of Japanese on Jolo were slaughtered, succumbing to malaria and to Moro attacks. Japanese corpses littered the ground, decaying, infested with maggots and smelling horrendous. Fukao and other Japanese survivors surrendered to the Americans to avoid being slaughtered by the Moro Muslims and after they were in American custody a group of Moros grasping their daggers saw them and wanted to slaughter them. One Moro mentioned how his 12 year old son was eaten by Japanese soldiers at a mountain and he was slaughtering all Japanese soldiers from that area and Fujioka saw he was wearing the wristwatch of Japanese Sergeant Fukao.[88][89][90][91][92]

Many Japanese and Okinawan settlers, who were loyal to the Japanese emperor, moved to Mindanao to assist American colonization on the island in the 1920s and they despised and looked down upon the Muslim Moros who they did not interact with.[93][94][95][96][97][98][99][100][101][102][103][104][105][106][107][108][109][110][111][112][113][114][115][116][117][118][119][120] The Okinawan settlers married local Lumad women.[121][122][123][124] The Japanese tortured and killed Lebanese and Syrians as well as raping Russian, Italians and Spanish women in the Bayview hotel of Manila.[125][126][127][128][129][130]


The 10 Military Districts recognized by the US Army.

See also: Filipino American § World War II veteran benefits

"Give me ten thousand Filipinos and I shall conquer the world!"

Gen. Douglas MacArthur during his liberation of the Philippines, highly impressed with the Filipinos who fought with him[131][132]

The Filipino guerrillas were successful in their resistance against the Japanese occupation. Of the 48 provinces in the Philippines, only 12 were in firm control of the Japanese.[133] Many provinces in Mindanao were already liberated by the Moros well before the Americans came, as well as major islands in the Visayas such as Cebu, Panay and Negros. During the occupation, many Filipino soldiers and guerrillas never lost hope of the United States.[7] Their objective was to both continue the fight against the Japanese and prepare for the return of the Americans. They were instrumental in helping the United States liberate the rest of the islands from the Japanese.

After the war, the American and Philippines governments officially recognized some of the units and individuals who had fought against the Japanese, which led to benefits for the veterans, but not all claims were upheld. There were 277 recognized guerrilla units out of over 1,000 claimed, and 260,715 individuals were recognized from nearly 1.3 million claims.[134] These benefits are only available to the guerrillas and veterans who have served for the Commonwealth, and don't include the brigand groups of the Huks and the Moros.[135] Resistance leaders Wendell Fertig, Russell W. Volckmann and Donald Blackburn would incorporate what they learned fighting with the Filipino guerrillas in establishing what would become the U.S. Special Forces.[136][137][138]

In 1944, only Filipino soldiers were denied from being given benefits by the GI Bill of Rights, which was supposed to give welfare to all those who have served in the United States Military irrespective of race, color or nationality. Over 66 countries were inducted into the bill but only the Philippines was left out, describing the Filipino soldiers as mere "Second Class Veterans".[139] Then in 1946, the Rescission Act was enacted to mandate some aid to Filipino veterans, but only to those who had disabilities or serious injuries.[140] The only benefit the United States could give at that time was the Immigrant Act, which made it easier for Filipinos who served in World War II to get American citizenship. It was not until 1996 that the veterans started seeking recognition from the United States. Representative Colleen Hanabusa submitted legislation to award Filipino Veterans with a Congressional Gold Medal, which became known as the Filipino Veterans of World War II Congressional Gold Medal Act.[141] The Act was referred to the Committee on Financial Services and the Committee on House Administration.[142] The Philippine government has also enacted laws concerning the benefits of Filipino guerrillas.[143]

The World War II guerrilla movement in the Philippines has also garnered attention in Hollywood films such as Back to Bataan, Back Door to Hell, American Guerrilla in the Philippines, Cry of Battle and the more contemporary John Dahl film The Great Raid.[144][145][146] Filipino and Japanese films have also paid homage to the valor of the Filipino guerrillas during the occupation, such as Yamashita: The Tiger's Treasure, In the Bosom of the Enemy, Aishite Imasu 1941: Mahal Kita and the critically acclaimed Japanese film Fires on the Plain.[147][148][149] There have been various memorials and monuments erected to commemorate the actions of the Filipino guerrillas. Among such are the Filipino Heroes Memorial in Corregidor,[150] the Luis Taruc Memorial in San Luis, Pampanga, the bronze statue of a Filipino guerrilla in Corregidor, Balantang National Shrine in Jaro, Iloilo City to commemorate the 6th Military District that liberated the provinces of Panay, Romblon, and Guimaras,[151] and the NL Military Shrine and Park in La Union.[152] The Libingan ng mga Bayani (translated to Cemetery of the Heroes), which contains many Filipino national heroes, erected a special monument to pay respect to the numerous unnamed Filipino guerrillas who fought in the occupation.[153]


  1. ^ Also attacked non-Huk guerrillas[1]
  2. ^ Also attacked American & Christian Filipino guerrillas[2]
  3. ^ Villamor departed the Philippines in October 1943, due to illness.[1]


  1. ^ a b c Sinclair, II, Major Peter T. (December 1, 2011), "Men of Destiny: The American and Filipino Guerillas During the Japanese Occupation of the Philippines" (PDF),, School of Advanced Military Studies, United States Army Command and General Staff College, archived (PDF) from the original on September 3, 2014, retrieved September 2, 2014
  2. ^ a b c Nypaver, Thomas R. (May 25, 2017). Command and Control of Guerrilla Groups in the Philippines, 1941-1945 (PDF) (Monograph). Command and General Staff College. Docket School of Advanced Military Studies. Archived (PDF) from the original on July 27, 2019. Retrieved July 27, 2019.
  3. ^ a b c Tan, Chee-Beng (2012). Routledge Handbook of the Chinese Diaspora. Routledge. pp. 335–336.
  4. ^ Hunt, Ray C.; Bernard Norling (2000). Behind Japanese Lines: An American Guerrilla in the Philippines. University Press of Kentucky. p. 107. ISBN 978-0-8131-0986-2. Retrieved February 24, 2011.
  5. ^ Stein Ugelvik Larsen, Fascism Outside Europe, Columbia University Press, 2001, p. 785
  6. ^ MacArthur, Douglas (1966). Reports of General MacArthur: Japanese Operations in the Southwest Pacific Area Volume 2, Part 1. JAPANESE DEMOBILIZATION BUREAUX RECORDS. p. 311. Retrieved January 25, 2020.
  7. ^ a b c d e Gordon L. Rottman (2002). World War 2 Pacific Island Guide. Greenwood Publishing Group. pp. 287–289. ISBN 978-0-313-31395-0.
  8. ^ Clodfelter, Micheal (2002). Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500–2000. McFarland & Company. p. 566. ISBN 9780786412044.
  9. ^ a b Clodfelter, Micheal (May 9, 2017). Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1492-2015, 4th ed. McFarland. p. 512. ISBN 978-0-7864-7470-7.
  10. ^ Werner Gruhl, Imperial Japan's World War Two, 1931–1945 Transaction 2007 ISBN 978-0-7658-0352-8 p. 143-144
  11. ^ Anne Sharp Wells (September 28, 2009). The A to Z of World War II: The War Against Japan. Scarecrow Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-8108-7026-0.
    "Research Starters: Worldwide Deaths in World War II". New Orleans, United States: The National WWII Museum. Retrieved July 23, 2019.
    "AJR-27 War crimes: Japanese military during World War II". California Legislative Information. State of California. August 26, 1999. Retrieved July 23, 2019. WHEREAS, At the February 1945 "Battle of Manila," 100,000 men, women, and children were killed by Japanese armed forces in inhumane ways, adding to a total death toll that may have exceeded one million Filipinos during the Japanese occupation of the Philippines, which began in December 1941 and ended in August 1945;
  12. ^ a b "The Guerrilla War". American Experience. PBS. Retrieved February 24, 2011.
  13. ^ Jubair, Salah. "The Japanese Invasion". Maranao.Com. Archived from the original on July 27, 2010. Retrieved February 23, 2011.
  14. ^ "Have a bolo will travel". Asian Journal. Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved February 24, 2011.
  15. ^ "People & Events: Filipinos and the War". WGBH. 1999. Archived from the original on August 23, 2020. Retrieved September 2, 2014.
    Rottman, Gordon (August 20, 2013). US Special Warfare Units in the Pacific Theater 1941–45. Osprey Publishing. p. 43. ISBN 978-1472805249. Retrieved September 2, 2014.
  16. ^ Lapham, Robert; Norling, Bernard (1996). Lapham's Raiders: Guerrillas in the Philippines, 1942–1945. University Press of Kentucky. p. 225. ISBN 978-0813126661. Retrieved September 2, 2014.
  17. ^ Rottman, Godron L. (2002). World War 2 Pacific island guide. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 318. ISBN 978-0-313-31395-0. Retrieved May 7, 2011.
  18. ^ Schmidt, Larry S. (1982). American Involvement in the Filipino Resistance Movement on Mindanao During the Japanese Occupation, 1942–1945 (PDF) (Master of Military Art and Science thesis). U.S. Army Command and General Staff College. p. 2. Archived (PDF) from the original on November 11, 2011. Retrieved August 5, 2011.
  19. ^ Prange, Gordon W., Goldstein, Donald, & Dillon, Katherine. The Pearl Harbor Papers (Brassey's, 2000), p.17ff; Google Books entry on Prange et al.
  20. ^ For the Japanese designator of Oahu. Wilford, Timothy. "Decoding Pearl Harbor", in The Northern Mariner, XII, #1 (January 2002), p.32fn81.
  21. ^ Fukudome, Shigeru, "Hawaii Operation". United States Naval Institute, Proceedings, 81 (December 1955), pp.1315–1331
  22. ^ Morison, Samuel Eliot The Liberation of the Philippines: Luzon, Mindanao, the Visayas 1944–1945 (History of United States Naval Operations in World War II) Castle Books (2001). pp. 101, 120, 250. ISBN 978-0785813149
  23. ^ Fukudome, Shigeru. Shikan: Shinjuwan Kogeki (Tokyo, 1955), p. 150.
  24. ^ "Chapter VI: Conquest of the Philippines". Reports of General MacArthur: Japanese Operations in the Southwest Pacific Area. Vol. II – Part I. Department of the Army. 1994 [1950]. LCCN 66060007. Archived from the original on May 23, 2011. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
  25. ^ Bataan Death March. Britannica Encyclopedia Online
  26. ^ Lansford, Tom (2001). "Bataan Death March". In Sandler, Stanley (ed.). World War II in the Pacific: An Encyclopedia. Taylor & Francis. pp. 157–158. ISBN 978-0-8153-1883-5.
  27. ^ Manahan, Manuel P. (1987). Reader's Digest November 1987 issue: Biographical Tribute to Ramon Magsaysay. pp. 17–23.
  28. ^ "Philippine Resistance: Refusal to Surrender". Asia at War. October 17, 2009. History Channel Asia.
  29. ^ Mojica, Proculo (1960). Terry's Hunters: The True Story of the Hunters ROTC Guerillas.
  30. ^ "Remember Los Banos 1945". Los Banos Liberation Memorial Scholarship Foundation, Inc. 2008. Retrieved October 17, 2009.
  31. ^ McCoy, Alfred W. (1999). Closer than brothers: manhood at the Philippine Military Academy. Yale University Press. pp. 167–170. ISBN 978-0-300-07765-0.
  32. ^ Paul Morrow (January 16, 2009). "Maharlika and the ancient class system". Pilipino Express. Retrieved July 18, 2012.
  33. ^ Quimpo, Nathan Gilbert. Filipino nationalism is a contradiction in terms, Colonial Name, Colonial Mentality and Ethnocentrism, Part One of Four, "Kasama" Vol. 17 No. 3 / July–August–September 2003 / Solidarity Philippines Australia Network,
  34. ^ Robles, Raissa (May 17, 2011). "Eminent Filipino war historian slams Marcos burial as a "hero"". Raissa Robles: Inside Politics and Beyond. ((cite web)): Missing or empty |url= (help)
  35. ^ Joseph A. Reaves (September 29, 1989). "Marcos Was More Than Just Another Deposed Dictator". Chicago Tribune."US Department of Defense official database of Distinguished Service Cross recipients".
  36. ^ Robert Lapham, Bernard Norling (April 23, 2014). Lapham's Raiders: Guerrillas in the Philippines, 1942–1945. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 9780813145709.
  37. ^ a b c Hogan, David W. Jr. (1992). "Chapter 4: Special Operations in the Pacific". U.S. Army Special Operations in World War II. Washington, D.C.: Department of the Army. pp. 64–96. ISBN 9781410216908. OCLC 316829618. Archived from the original on August 23, 2020. Retrieved September 27, 2014.
  38. ^ Cannon, M. Hamlin (1954). War in the Pacific: Leyte, Return to the Philippines. Government Printing Office. p. 19. ASIN B000JL8WEG. Retrieved September 27, 2014.
  39. ^ Eisner, Peter (September 2017). "Without Chick Parsons, General MacArthur May Never Have Made His Famed Return to the Philippines". Smithsonian Magazine. Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved July 27, 2019.
  40. ^ "Guerrillas in the Philippines". West-Point.Org. Retrieved September 27, 2014. In May 1943 The Philippine Regional Section (PRS) was created as part of AIB and given the task of coordinating all activities in the Philippines
    Bigelow, Michael E. (July 26, 2016). "Allied Intelligence Bureau plays role in World War II". United States Army. Retrieved July 26, 2019.
  41. ^ "Narwhal II (SC-1)". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Navy Department, Naval History and Heritage Command.
    "Nautilus III (SS-168)". Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships. Navy Department, Naval History and Heritage Command.
  42. ^ Gordon L. Rottman (August 20, 2013). US Special Warfare Units in the Pacific Theater 1941–45: Scouts, Raiders, Rangers and Reconnaissance Units. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 39–43. ISBN 978-1-4728-0546-1.
    Fabros, Alex S. Jr., ed. (October 5, 1998). "Bahalan Na News Letter 1st Reconnaissance Battalion" (PDF). The Filipino American Experience Research Project. Retrieved July 26, 2019 – via Salinas Public Library.
    Bielakowski, Alexander M. (2013). Ethnic and Racial Minorities in the U.S. Military: A-L. ABC-CLIO. pp. 209–210. ISBN 978-1-59884-427-6.
  43. ^ Sides, Hampton (2001). Ghost Soldiers: The Forgotten Epic Story of World War II's Most Dramatic Mission. pp. 291–293. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-49564-1
  44. ^ Hunt, Ray C.; Norling, Bernard (2000). Behind Japanese Lines: An American Guerrilla in the Philippines. University of Kentucky Press. p. 199. ISBN 978-0813127552. Retrieved June 11, 2013.
  45. ^ Ceniza, Christian. "10 Chilling Photos That Show The Atrocities Of War In The Philippines". Ten Minutes. February 2, 2015
  46. ^ "WORLD WAR II AND HUK EXPANSION". History.Army. Archived from the original on September 25, 2012. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
  47. ^ Vaflor, Marc (September 10, 2015). "This Unsung WWII Hero Will Inspire You To Be A Better Filipino". Filipiknow.
  48. ^ Mari-An C., Santos. "REVIEW: "Bintao" recalls the struggles of revolutionary leader Wenceslao Vinzons". PEP. February 15, 2008
  49. ^ Saulo, Alfredo B., Communism in the Philippines: an Introduction, Enlarged Ed., Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1990, p. 31
  50. ^ a b c d e Greenberg, Major Lawrence M. (1986). "Chapter 2: World War II and Huk Expansion". The Hukbalahap Insurrection. U.S. Government Printing Office. LCCN 86600597. Archived from the original on September 25, 2012. Retrieved August 30, 2012.
  51. ^ Lembke, Andrew E. (2013). Lansdale, Magsaysay, America, and the Philippines: A Case Study of Limited Intervention Counterinsurgency (PDF). Fort Leavenworth, Kansas: Combat Studies Institute Press. p. 13. ISBN 9780988583764. The Huks are alleged to have killed 25,000 people in the Philippines during the occupation; of that number only 5,000 were Japanese.
  52. ^ "How Chinese guerrillas fought for Philippine freedom". ABS-CBN Corporation. February 19, 2015. Archived from the original on August 20, 2022.
  53. ^ "World War II".
  54. ^ "How Chinese guerrillas fought for Philippine freedom". ABS-CBN News. February 2, 2015
  55. ^ a b The Lewiston Daily Sun – Nov 3, 1944
  56. ^ "Philippine Resistance: Refusal to Surrender". Tivarati Entertainment. Archived from the original on December 29, 2021. October 13, 2009
  57. ^ a b Augusto V. de Viana. "THE CAPTURE OF THE KOGA PAPERS AND ITS EFFECT ON THE PLAN TO RETAKE THE PHILIPPINES IN 1944" (PDF). Micronesian: Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences. Retrieved January 13, 2016.
  58. ^ a b c "How Cebuano Fishermen Helped Defeat the Japanese in World War II". Filipiknow. September 23, 2015. Retrieved January 13, 2016.
  59. ^ The "Z Plan" Story Japan's 1944 Naval Battle Strategy Drifts into U.S. Hands, Greg Bradsher, Prologue Magazine, Fall 2005, Vol. 37, No. 3
  60. ^ Prefer, N.N., 2012, Leyte 1944, Havertown: Casemate Publishers. p. 12. ISBN 9781612001555
  61. ^ Felias, Remedios, The Hidden Battle of Leyte – the Picture Diary of a Girl Taken By the Japanese Military, Bucong Bucong (1999), pp. 12–18. Asin: B000JL8WEG
  62. ^ Lofgren, Stephen (1996). Southern Philippines. The U.S. Army Campaigns of World War II. Washington, DC: U.S. Army Center of Military History. ISBN 978-0160481406. p. 98
  63. ^ "Tiring Landing Field, located in Cabatuan, Iloilo". Center for Cabatuan Studies,
  64. ^ Barreveld, Dick J. (2015). Cushing's Coup: The True Story of How Lt. Col. James Cushing and his Filipino Guerrillas Captured Japan's Plan Z. Philadelphia: Casemate. ISBN 978-1-612-00308-5.
  65. ^ Gross, p. 178.
  66. ^ Arnold 2011, p. 271.
  67. ^ Keats 1990, pp. 354–355.
  68. ^ Schmidt (1982), p. 165.
  69. ^ "Terror in Jolo". Time Magazine. December 1, 1941. Archived from the original on November 22, 2007. Retrieved May 29, 2011.
  70. ^ "Maniacal Moros". Black Belt. 26 (12). Active Interest Media Inc.: 56 December 1988. ISSN 0277-3066.
  71. ^ "80 Japanese Troop Ships Are Sighted Off Luzon" 1941, p. 7.
  72. ^ First National Scientific Workshop on Muslim Autonomy, January 14–18, 1987, p. 19.
  73. ^ Zincke & Mills 2002, p. 47.
  74. ^ A. P. 1942, p. 24.
  75. ^ ICHIMURA, ANRI (July 23, 2020). "In WWII, Japanese Soldiers Forced Filipinos to Dig Their Own Graves—Before Dissecting Them Alive". Esquire Philippines.
  76. ^ "Vivisection on Filipinos admitted". Japan Times. OSAKA (Kyodo). November 27, 2006.
  77. ^ Ozawa, Harumi (November 6, 2007). "Japanese war veteran speaks of atrocities in the Philippines". Taipei Times. AFP, OSAKA, JAPAN. p. 9.
  78. ^ McKenna, Thomas (May 4, 2022). "The Battle Of Tamparan And The Forgotten Moro Heroes Of World War II". Positively Filipino.
  79. ^ Omar, Ibrahim S. (2018). Diary of a Colonized Native: (Years of Hidden Colonial Slavery). Partridge Publishing Singapore. ISBN 978-1543743272.
  80. ^ Espaldon, Ernesto M. (1997). With the Bravest: The Untold Story of the Sulu Freedom Fighters of World War II. Espaldon-Virata Foundation. p. 181. ISBN 9719183314. More than 97 percent were lost on Jolo island, a death rate believed to be hardly equalled anywhere during the entire course of the war. The data were not unexpected, nor were they a surprise. Looking back into the history of the ...
  81. ^ Matthiessen, Sven (2015). Japanese Pan-Asianism and the Philippines from the Late Nineteenth Century to the End of World War II: Going to the Philippines Is Like Coming Home?. Brill's Japanese Studies Library. BRILL. p. 172. ISBN 978-9004305724.
  82. ^ Matthiessen, Sven (2016). "Chapter 4: The Occupation of the Philippines". Japanese Pan-Asianism and the Philippines from the Late Nineteenth Century to the End of World War II. Brill. pp. 78–183. doi:10.1163/9789004305724_005. ISBN 9789004305724 – via
  83. ^ Yoshimi, Yoshiaki (2015). Grassroots Fascism: The War Experience of the Japanese People. Weatherhead Books on Asia. Translated by Ethan Mark. Columbia University Press. pp. 196, 197, 198. ISBN 978-0231165686.
  84. ^ a b "Grassroots Fascism: The War Experience of the Japanese People; Translated and Annoted by Ethan Mark [PDF] [2kqjt81hmvs0]".
  85. ^ Jungleer, Volume 48. 41st Infantry Division Association. 1992. p. 2. Bahu past the death-silence of South Mt Daho where the Marine garrison had died. As was his Japanese soldier's right, Gen Suzuki chose to command. It was his final posi-tion of honor. 2. Middle Column was 150 men of 363 Inf Bn. Their march might be safer on the south side of the Jolo "mounts" like Mabusing and Datu. 3 Trekking north of that line of Jolo "mounts," the left Column comprised 150 men of 365 Inf Bn and 55 FA Bn. Skirting the north slopes of the Jolo "mounts," they might be most remote from Moro attacks. (Among FA men was Pvt Akiyoshi Fujioka who still remembers the wild fighting. Being against the war, Fujioka had refused his opportunity to become and officers.) Jap arms were superior to Moro carbines and Krises despite their mortar Pln. Japs had about 10 LMGs, a few HMGs, and 100 rifles and bayonets. Every man carried a grenade or two–for suicide. Some Moros had butchered dying men. And on 29 July, 3 die-hard colummns moved out for Mt Bahu– probably with first light. Behind them was the sharp crack of grenades where sick and wounded killed themselves. Air-line distances from Tumatangas to Bahu was just 8 miles, but the move lasted too many days. Left Column just 5 days, but Middle and Right columns took 5 days longer. Most of the 500 were killed. The march lasted too long because it could not be a direct march against the Moro multitudes before them. Per-haps the Japs had to retreat at times–or tried round Moro flanks–or marched at night to hide and rest in the day-time. In the Left Column, Fujioka still has hard memories of the march. Moros often tracked them closely and killed men. Jap Mgs helped pile up dead the fanatical rushes, but half those Mgs were lost to Moro charges. Sometimes the Japs used kirikome - an almost suicidal attack with rifle butts and bayonets. After one of these, a man wondered why he lived. Fujioka has poignant memories of fear and hunger and furious battle. One night, the starving Left Column found a field of camotes ( sweet potatoes ). When they were tiredly digging them — bare hands or bayonets - Moros surrounded them and struck down many men before they were beaten off. Next day, the Japs hoped to rest in a narrow valley. Again Moros surrounded them and attacked. Again, there was kirikome - hand to hand fighting, wounds, suffering, and death. Onward fought this Left Column. Skirting northern slopes of Mts Magusing, Agao, Pula, and Datu, they covered mostly in second growth woods. Yet by the time they reached Magusing, they had 70 casualties of their 150 men. After 5 days, 2 Apr. They were first to reach Mt Bahu. On the south side of the " mounts " where Left Column marched, the 150 - strong Middle Column of 563 Bn had a harder fight. Three days after starting, they were still just past Mt Tumatangas. Near Mt Kagangan, guerillas mortared them. They broke through the guerillas ' lines, but lost 50 of their 150. Two days later, they reunited with Suzuki's Right Column remnants. But Gen Suzuki was killed in action the day before the 2 columns were merged. His Middle Column had passed through Indanan Village and along the south slopes of Mt Daho. On the whole route, they endured attacks. Suzuki was killed on 1 August. Only 50 of the 150 still lived. On 2 Aug, Middle and Right Columns became one. On 7 Aug. 10 days after leaving Hill 785, the Jap " army " reunited on Mt Bahu — about 180 of 500 men who started. On Bahu, death closed down on those 180 diseased, starved, and ever - thirsty men. They lacked strength even to dig perimeter. They lacked a spring for water - just a few drops from a trickle through the grass between rocks. They must catch the slow drops in canteens by day, for they had no lights to get water at night. Moros lurked for them and struck them down. Suddenly a US plane fluttered leaflets among them. "War is over," they said. "If any soldiers live, please come under arms to Matanden, a small hill 2 kilometers NE of Bahu." New CO Maj Temmyo said, "Those are lies. If you believe in them, we'll killed you now!" But Fujioka believe in them, for they said "Come un-der arms." Without surrender, he knew that they would all die within 10 days—from starvation or Moro krises. So Pvt Fujioka signed to 5 men who slipped away with him. In 30 minutes, the 6 gathered, sad at leaving, but hop-ing to live. A Sgt who knew English opened a map, and reasoned that the rendezvous was not Matanden but Mt Tanbang. And at Tanbang, these 6 Japanese received their lives and Japan back again — from the black soldiers and white officers of 368 Inf, 92 Div. Back on Mt Bahu, Maj Temmyo's Japs also received back their lives. ... Maj Temmyo never gave official credit to Fujioka's men for saving his life. But Fujioka is alive and well in Tokyo. CREDIT: RR Smith's Return to the Philippines tells how 55 IMB was formed. Artilleryman Fujioka tells about voyage from Luzon, his gun on Jolo, the death - march, and surrender. Dates of his letters are 22 Oct 1986; 9 Jan, 1 Feb, 9 Mar, 30 June 1987; and 20 Jan, 26 Apr 1989. ( Fujioka partly quotes from his hardback book, The Memoir of a Survivor on Jolo written in Japanese script that I cannot read. ) Maj Tokichi Tenmyo's post - war interview with a US ofsicer provides statistics and dates of 3 columns ' fight to reach Mt Bahu, and the final surrender. ( Later name of Bahu is Mt Sinumaan which Fujioka finds in modern Filipino high school texts. ) Our Last ANZAC Day ANZAC is an acronym for the 22.
  86. ^ Poyer, Lin (2022). War at the Margins: Indigenous Experiences in World War II. Sustainable History Monograph Pilot. University of Hawaii Press. p. 94. ISBN 978-0824891800. Fujioka Akiyoshi's field artillery company succumbed to a Moro surprise attack soon after landing on Jolo in the Philippines in October 1944: "Fujioka wrote that dead soldiers had their weapons, clothing, gold teeth, and raw livers ...
  87. ^ Yoshimi, Yoshiaki (2015). Grassroots Fascism: The War Experience of the Japanese Peopl. Weatherhead Books on Asia. Translated by Ethan Mark (reprint ed.). Columbia University Press. p. 312. ISBN 978-0231538596. Haisen no ki is a record written after the war in an American POW camp; from Fujioka's second call-up to his arrival at Jolo Island and from his surrender ...
  88. ^ 藤岡, 明義 (1991). 敗残の記: 玉砕地ホロ島の記錄. 中央公論社. pp. 258, 11, 155, 205, 155. ISBN 4122017904. Page 258 玉砕地ホロ島の記錄 藤岡明義. 選書)。藤岡氏はいわゆる対米協力者ではないが、あえていうなら「を多少加味した Q の」のタイプというところであろうか。ホロ島の場合は圧倒的な火器を有し、制空、制海権を握った米軍の攻撃で三分の一を失い、囲まれつつ ... Results 1-3 of 4 Page 11 この一篇を、ホ島のツマンタンガス並びにシロマンの山々に、今もなお知る人もなく散在し、ジャングルの腐土に埋まっている、六千名の白骨に捧ぐ。昭和五十三年十二月(注原文では、地名、人名等が略字になっている個処があるが、本書では、できる限り正名 ... Page 155 この野郎、処置なしだ、人のところへ来て死にやがって。心臓が弱いと、俺のところが死場所になってしまう」こんな会話を聞いても誰一人振り向きもしなかった。我々の周囲には、死体が点々と転がり、腫れ上り、蛆がわき、悪臭に嘔吐を催した。 Page 205 変転極まりなき人の世とは言え、この死の一つに加わるものと思い込んでいた自分が、転進の際残留した者が、そのままの場所で死んでいるものであった。小あばは膨れ上り、ある者は全身蛆に被われ、ある者は半ば白骨となり、甚だしきは土の中かうじ. Page 155 "「ああ、もう死にやがったな。この野郎、処置なしだ、人のところへ来て死にやがって。心臓が弱いと、俺のところが死場所になってしまう」こんな会話を聞いても誰一人振り向きもしなかった。我々の周囲には、死体が点々と転がり、腫れ上り、蛆がわき、悪臭に嘔吐を催した。" この一篇を、ホ島のツマンタンガス並びにシロマンの山々に、今もなお知る人もなく散在し、ジャングルの腐土に埋まっている、六千名の白骨に捧ぐ。昭和五十三年十二月(注原文では、地名、人名等が略字になっている個処があるが、本書では、できる限り正名 ... 変転極まりなき人の世とは言え、この死の一つに加わるものと思い込んでいた自分が、転進の際残留した者が、そのままの場所で死んでいるものであった。小あばは膨れ上り、ある者は全身蛆に被われ、ある者は半ば白骨となり、甚だしきは土の中かうじ.
  89. ^ [bare URL]
  90. ^ 早 瀬 Hayase, 晋 三 Shinzo (March 2021). "戦場体験者の戦記を糺す試み Tries to Rewrite War Memoirs as Ex-soldiers". 『アジア太平洋討究』 (41): 111–141. Archived from the original on July 23, 2022.
  91. ^ [bare URL]
  92. ^ "【長官】ここだけ太平洋戦争中のスレ18【死す】".
  93. ^ Kaneshiro, Edith Mitsuko (1999). "Our Home Will be the Five Continents": Okinawan Migration to Hawaii, California, and the Philippines, 1899-1941. University of California, Berkeley. p. 198. And similar to many Southeast Asian countries , a large Muslim population existed in Davao . According to Najeeb Saleeby , Islam had spread to Mindanao from Southeast Asia , primarily through Malay and 51 Chiyo Nakama , Oral History ...
  94. ^ Nakasone, Ronald Y. (2002). Okinawan Diaspora. University of Hawaii Press. p. 81. ISBN 0824844149. In many ways, Okinawan immigrants had successfully transplanted and adapted Okinawan village life to Davao ... "It was the Okinawans who tended to live most intimately with their neighbors, especially in the areas of Bagobo settlement" ...
  95. ^ Nakasone, Ronald Y. (February 28, 2002). Okinawan Diaspora. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-4414-1.
  96. ^ Flynn, Dennis O.; Giráldez, Arturo; Sobredo, James, eds. (2018). Studies in Pacific History: Economics, Politics, and Migration. Routledge Revivals. Routledge. ISBN 978-1351742481. The purpose of this paper is to re-examine the experiences of Okinawan immigrants beyond Hawaii and South America; it examines the migration and settlement patterns of Okinawan immigrants in southern California and in Davao, Mindanao, ...
  97. ^ Flynn, Dennis O.; Giráldez, Arturo; Sobredo, James (January 18, 2018). Studies in Pacific History: Economics, Politics, and Migration. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-351-74248-1.
  98. ^ Kerr, George H. (2011). Okinawa: The History of an Island People. Contributor Mitsugu Sakihara (revised ed.). Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 978-1462901845. To the layman's eye many current folkways suggest affiliations with other areas and strong surviving links with prehistoric settlement. In well-defined areas of northern Okinawa (and on some of the smaller out-lying islands) the women ...
  99. ^ Kerr, George H. (October 11, 2011). Okinawa: The History of an Island People. Tuttle. ISBN 978-1-4629-0184-5.
  100. ^ Suzuki, Taku (2003). Transnational Body: Racial Citizenship of Okinawan-Bolivians in Colonia Okinawa, Bolivia and in Yokohama, Japan. University of Minnesota. p. 65. Among Okinawan settlers in Bolivia were those returnees from the Micronesia Islands , the Philippines , and Manchuria ... growing Manila Cotton , the local people's lifestyles , deforestation of rich Mindanao Island , and so forth .
  101. ^
  102. ^ Moldenke, Harold Norman (1949). The Known Geographic Distribution of the Members of the Verbenaceae, Avicenniaceae, Stilbaceae, Symphoremaceae and Eriocaulaceae. By Author. p. 140. STRAITS SETTLEMENTS ( continued ) : Lantana Camara var . aculeata ( L. ) Moldenke Singapore ] Lantana Camara var . nivea ( Vent ... Eriocaulon Buergerianum Körn . [ Okinawa ] Eriocaulon cinereum R. Br . [ Ishigati & Okinawa ] Eriocaulon ...
  103. ^ Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan, Volume 6. Kodansha. 1983. p. 184. ISBN 0870116207. The settlement began in 1904 with about 100 Okinawan laborers brought to Davao by a few American hemp and coconut growers , and by 1941 there were well over 20,000 Japanese in the vicinity of Davao . Through extraordinary hard work ...
  104. ^ Kaneshiro, Edith Mitsuko (1999). "Our Home Will be the Five Continents": Okinawan Migration to Hawaii, California, and the Philippines, 1899-1941. University of California, Berkeley. pp. 185, 186, 198. Okinawan Migration to Hawaii, California, and the Philippines, 1899-1941 Edith Mitsuko Kaneshiro ... Thinking like entrepreneurs , the two men extended their labor recruiting efforts to include Mindanao . 9 Unlike the northern islands ...
  105. ^ American Historical Collection (1993). Bulletin, Volume 21. American Association of the Philippines. p. 87. After the Second World War , the properties of the Japanese in Davao were expropriated by the Philippine government . ... This was the first example of Japanese settlement growth by purchase of a developed plantation .
  106. ^ Niksch, Larry (2010). Abu Sayyaf: Target of Philippine-U. S. Anti-Terrorism Cooperation. DIANE Publishing. ISBN 978-1437927207. end of 2005, four U.S. Marines, stationed on Okinawa, were charged formally with raping a Filipino woman while they were ... The cease-fire between the MILF and the Philippine government has held, and negotiations for a settlement are ...
  107. ^ Niksch, Larry (October 2010). Abu Sayyaf: Target of Philippine-U. S. Anti-Terrorism Cooperation. DIANE. ISBN 978-1-4379-2720-7.
  108. ^ Ohno, Shun (2006). "5 The Intermarried issei and mestizo nesei in the Philippines Reflections on the origin of Philippine Nikkeijin problems". In Adachi, Nobuko (ed.). Japanese Diasporas: Unsung Pasts, Conflicting Presents and Uncertain Futures. Vol. 7 of Routledge Studies in Asia's Transformations (illustrated ed.). Routledge. p. 92. ISBN 1135987238. If we follow his view, pre-war Davao was also a plural society where indigenous non-Christian Filipinos, Christian Filipinos who migrated in from ... The living conditions of Okinawan settlers in Davao were much better than in Okinawa.
  109. ^ Nakasone, Ronald Y. (2002). Okinawan Diaspora. University of Hawaii Press. p. 174. ISBN 0824844149. Hayase ShinzC 1984a Tribes on the Davao frontier, 1899–1941. Philippine Studies 33, 139–150. 1984b Tribes, settlers, and administrators on a frontier: Economic development and social change in Davao, southeastern Mindanao, ...
  110. ^ Dusinberre, Martin (2017). "8 Overseas migration, 1868-1945". In Saaler, Sven; Szpilman, Christopher W. A. (eds.). Routledge Handbook of Modern Japanese History (illustrated ed.). Routledge. ISBN 978-1317599036. Between 1924 and 1938, more than 14,000 Okinawans crossed to the Philippines – the majority to Davao, ... Between these settlers from the Okinawan main island and Yaeyama residents, there existed a gulf not only in language but also.
  111. ^ Miyauchi, H. (2016). "2Formation and Development of an Okinawan Global Network Using an Island Hub". In Ishihara, Masahide; Hoshino, Eiichi; Fujita, Yoko (eds.). Self-determinable Development of Small Islands (illustrated ed.). Springer. p. 38. ISBN 978-9811001321. Thus, after 33 people migrated to Argentina in 1948, more people began to migrate from Okinawa primarily to countries in ... Davao Okinawa Kenjinkai in 1916 in Table 2.1 Development of Okinawan kenjinkais overseas Year Country/ region.
  112. ^ Flynn, Dennis O.; Giráldez, Arturo; Sobredo, James, eds. (2018). Studies in Pacific History: Economics, Politics, and Migration. Routledge Revivals. Routledge. ISBN 978-1351742481. Cody, Cecil E., "The Japanese Way of Life in Prewar Davao," Philippine Studies, Vol. 7, No. 2 (1959), pp. 172–186. ... Ethnic Studies Oral History Project (1981), Uchinanchu: A history of Okinawans in Hawaii. Figal, Gerald, "Okinawa's ...
  113. ^ Davao Historical Society (Philippines) (1993). Proceedings and Position Papers of the Regional Conference on Local and National History, Terraza Milesa, Anda Street, Davao City, September 17-18, 1993: Theme, Davao in Relation to National History. Davao Historical Society. p. 17. The Japanese Davao Association the Japanese settlers to Davao was done at a slow pace in was the nerve center of ... in Japan and Okinawa better living conditions for all its members and families ; 2 ) areas least favored by nature .
  114. ^ Matsuda, Hiroko (2018). Liminality of the Japanese Empire: Border Crossings from Okinawa to Colonial Taiwan. Perspectives on the Global Past (illustrated ed.). University of Hawaii Press. p. 30. ISBN 978-0824877071. Kōzō's recruitment efforts, the number of Okinawan immigrants rapidly increased during the 1920s, from 1,260, approximately 22 percent of the total Japanese population, in 1920, to 4,447, more than a half of Davao's total Japanese ...
  115. ^ Huck, Christian (2012). Huck, Christian; Bauernschmidt, Stefan (eds.). Travelling Goods, Travelling Moods: Varieties of Cultural Appropriation (1850-1950) (illustrated ed.). Campus Verlag. p. 218. ISBN 978-3593397627. This narrative of the creation of the hagotan reveals the immersion of the multinational settlers of Davao in a very American ... prefectures of Okinawa and Fukushima, were also quick to adjust to Davao's mechanized abaca industry, ...
  116. ^ Goodman, Grant Kohn (1967). Davao: a Case Study in Japanese-Philippine Relations. Vol. 1 di International studies / Center for East Asian Studies, University of Kansas: East Asian series research publication (1 of Center for East Asian Studies, University of Kansas. International studies, East Asian series research publication, no. 1 ed.). Center for East Asian Studies, University of Kansas. p. 2. ISBN 0818801549.
  117. ^ Appleman, Roy Edgar (1948). Okinawa: the Last Battle. Vol. 2, Part 1. Historical Division, Department of the Army. ISBN 978-0-7924-5859-3.
  118. ^ Matsuda, Hiroko (2019). Liminality of the Japanese Empire: Border Crossings from Okinawa to Colonial Taiwan. Perspectives on the Global Past (reprint ed.). University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0824867577. Through archival research and first-hand oral histories, Hiroko Matsuda uncovers the stories of common people's move from Okinawa to colonial Taiwan and describes experiences of Okinawans who had made their careers in colonial Taiwan.
  119. ^ Heads, Michael (2014). Biogeography of Australasia: A Molecular Analysis (illustrated ed.). Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-107-04102-8. A fascinating analysis of the main patterns of distribution and evolution of the Australasian biota.
  120. ^ Lukacs, John D. (2011). Escape From Davao: The Forgotten Story of the Most Daring Prison Break of the Pacific War. Penguin Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0451234100. A product of years of in-depth research, John D. Lukacs's gripping description of the escape brings this remarkable tale to life.
  121. ^
  122. ^ Tiu, Macario D. (2005). Davao: Reconstructing History from Text and Memory. Ateneo de Davao University, Research and Publication Office for the Mindanao Coalition of Development NGOs. p. 120. ISBN 9710392050. Davao , but some of them remained and intermarried with local women . Their descendants have largely blended with the local population . With the influx of American settlers who claimed the traditional lands of the natives , unrest ...
  123. ^ Tiu, Macario D. (March 2, 2024). Davao: Reconstructing History from Text and Memory. Ateneo de Davao University, Research and Publication Office for the Mindanao Coalition of Development NGOs. ISBN 978-971-0392-05-6.
  124. ^ Trade Promotion Series, Issues 43-52. Contributor United States. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 1926. p. 118. ... and a considerable number of Japanese dry - goods stores have also been established , chiefly in Manila . Unlike the Chinese , the Japanese seldom intermarry with the Filipinos . HINDUS , SYRIANS , AND TURKS The Hindus are for the ...((cite book)): CS1 maint: others (link)
  125. ^ Irene, Patricia (January 2018). ABACA: The socio-economic and cultural transformation of frontier Davao, 1898-1941 (PDF) (This thesis is presented for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Murdoch University). p. 1-396.
  126. ^ Clarence-Smith, William Gervase (2004). "Middle Eastern Migrants in the Philippines: Entrepreneurs and Cultural Brokers". Asian Journal of Social Science. 32 (3): 425–57. doi:10.1163/1568531043584827. JSTOR 23654532.
  127. ^ Marr, Timothy (2014). "Diasporic Intelligences in the American Philippine Empire: The Transnational Career of Dr. Najeeb Mitry Saleeby". Mashriq & Mahjar. 2 (1). doi:10.24847/22i2014.27.
  128. ^ Gruhl, Werner (2017). Imperial Japan's World War Two: 1931-1945. Routledge. ISBN 978-1351513241. Peoples from other nations caught in the tragedy, such as Syrians and Russians, were shot. Men were often murdered before the eyes of surviving family members. A wounded Filipino mother sitting on a curb tried to nurse her baby, ...
  129. ^ Min, Pyong Gap (2021). Korean "Comfort Women": Military Brothels, Brutality, and the Redress Movement. Genocide, Political Violence, Human Rights. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-1978814981. ... Russian, and Italian nationalities in the Bayview Hotel, where they were repeatedly raped (Hayashi 2015, 90). Australian nurses were also taken prisoner in Sumatra to be "comfort women" for Japanese soldiers (Tanaka 1998, 88–92).
  130. ^ Gruenzner, Norman (1979). Postal History of American POWs: World War II, Korea, Vietnam. APS handbook series (illustrated ed.). American Philatelic Society. p. 61. ISBN 0933580002. After the fall of Manila , the Japanese Military Police used it as an interrogation center . Its facilities could contain approximately one hundred prisoners at a time . Americans , British , Filipinos , Chinese , Spanish , Syrians ...
  131. ^ Vaflor, Marc. "The 10 Most Fearsome One-Man Armies in Philippine History". Filipiknow. Retrieved July 26, 2015.
  132. ^ MacArthur, Douglas (1964). Reminiscences of General of the Army Douglas MacArthur. Annapolis: Bluejacket Books. ISBN 1-55750-483-0. p.103
  133. ^ Caraccilo, Dominic J. (2005). Surviving Bataan And Beyond: Colonel Irvin Alexander's Odyssey As a Japanese Prisoner Of War. Stackpole Books. pp. 287. ISBN 978-0-8117-3248-2.
  134. ^ Schmidt (1984) p. 5.
  135. ^ Schmidt (1984) p.6
  136. ^ Keats, John. (1965). They Fought Alone. Pocket Books, Inc. OCLC 251563972 p.445
  137. ^ Bernay A. (2002). "Shuttle Camp Wendell Fertig [permanent dead link]." (PDF). In The Tribble Times. page 14. Retrieved September 7, 2009. (An interview with Fertig's daughter: Patricia Hudson, of Coeur D Alene, Idaho.) p.14
  138. ^ "The History of PsyWar after WWII and Its Relationship to Special Forces". Timyoho. Retrieved November 21, 2007.
  139. ^ Nakano, Satoshi (June 2004). "The Filipino World War II veterans equity movement and the Filipino American community" (PDF). Seventh Annual International Philippine Studies. Center for Pacific And American Studies: 53–81. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 22, 2011. Retrieved January 2, 2015. Alt URL
  140. ^ Tiongson, Antonio T.; Gutierrez, Edgardo V.; Gutierrez, Ricardo V. (2006). Positively No Filipinos Allowed: Building Communities and Discourse. Temple University Press. ISBN 978-1-592-13123-5.
  141. ^ Richard Simon (January 30, 2013). "Philippine vets still fighting their battle over WWII". Stars and Stripes. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 10, 2013.
  142. ^ "Committees: H.R.111 [113th]". Library of Congress. January 3, 2013. Retrieved February 10, 2013.
  143. ^ "Philippine government pensions for war veterans". Official Gazette. Archived from the original on November 3, 2014. Retrieved July 26, 2015.
  144. ^ Richard Jewell and Vernon Harbin, The RKO Story. New Rochelle, New York: Arlington House, 1982. p. 204
  145. ^ Barber, Mike (August 25, 2005). "Leader of WWII's "Great Raid" looks back on real-life POW rescue". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Archived from the original on October 5, 2012. Retrieved March 15, 2010.
  146. ^ Bulkley, Robert J.; Kennedy, John F.; Eller, Ernest MacNeill (2003). At Close Quarters: PT Boats in the United States Navy, Naval Institute Press, p. 24.
  147. ^ "51 Countries In Race For Oscar". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. November 19, 2001. Archived from the original on July 4, 2008.
  148. ^ Yamashita: The Tiger's Treasure 2001 directed by Chito S. Rono, retrieved March 19, 2012
  149. ^ "JAPANESE FILM CITED; ' Nobi,' War Movie, Wins First Prize at Locarno Festival". The New York Times. July 31, 1961. Retrieved May 2, 2010.
  150. ^ Gonzalez, Vernadette V. (2013). Securing Paradise: Tourism and Militarism in Hawai'i and the Philippines. Duke University Press. ISBN 978-0-822-39594-2.
  151. ^ Villalón, Augusti (2007). Living Landscapes and Cultural Landmarks: World Heritage Sites in the Philippines. ArtPost Asia Books. ISBN 978-9-7193-1708-1.
  152. ^ Fllipino government (2007). "Memorials for Fllipino veterans". Official Gazette. 95 (32). Fllipino national Press: 1981. ISSN 0115-0421.
  153. ^ Laputt, Juny. "Republic Memorial Cemetery at Fort McKinley". Corregidor Island. Retrieved July 26, 2015.

Further reading