Filipino Americans (Filipino: Mga Pilipinong Amerikano) are Americans of Filipino ancestry. Filipinos and other Asian ethnicities in North America were first documented in the 16th century as mariners and crew members on ships sailing to and from New Spain (Mexico) and a handful of inhabitants in other minute settlements during the time Louisiana was an administrative district of the Viceroyalty of New Spain (Mexico). Mass migration did not begin until the 20th century, when the Philippines was a U.S. territory.
The term Filipino American is sometimes shortened to Fil-Am or Pinoy. Another term which has been used is Philippine Americans. The earliest appearance of the term Pinoy (feminine Pinay), was in a 1926 issue of the Filipino Student Bulletin. Some Filipinos believe that the term Pinoy was coined by Filipinos who came to the United States to distinguish themselves from Filipinos living in the Philippines. Beginning in 2017, started by individuals who identify with the LGBT+ Filipino American population, there is an effort to adopt the term FilipinX; this new term has faced opposition within the broader overseas Filipino diaspora, within the Philippines, and in the United States, with some who are in opposition believing it is an attempt of a "colonial imposition".
As of 2015, the metropolitan areas with the largest Filipino populations were:
Los Angeles, California
San Francisco, California
New York, New York
San Diego, California
Las Vegas, Nevada
San Jose, California
A 2019 study conducted by Pew Research Center showed that Filipino Americans have a higher level of educational attainment and income than the national average. Filipino Americans show a higher rate of home ownership compared to the average for all Asian Americans. As of 2014, 18% of Filipino American households belonged to the top 10% household income distribution. As of 2018, Filipino Americans held the spot for the second highest median household income. Among all Asians, Filipino Americans show the lowest poverty rate at 7% after Indian Americans at 6%.
Around 47% of Filipino Americans hold management or professional jobs. A 1998 study of physicians and nurses in the U.S. indicated that Filipino American doctors were the second most numerous subgroup among Asian doctors -- there were 1,680 Filipino American doctors per 100,000 people. The study also showed that Filipino nurses, whether foreign or American-born, had the highest median income among any other ethnicity.
The history of native Filipino peoples, Chinese immigration waves, and Spanish and American rule, plus contact with merchants and traders from many areas culminated in a unique blend of cultures in the Philippines. Filipino American cultural identity has been described as fluid, adopting aspects from various cultures; that said, there has not been significant research into the culture of Filipino Americans.Fashion, dance, music, theater and arts have all had roles in building Filipino American cultural identities and communities.[page needed]
In areas with a sparse Filipino population, they often form loosely-knit social organizations aimed at maintaining a "sense of family," which is a key feature of Filipino culture. These organizations generally arrange social events, especially of a charitable nature, and keep members up-to-date with local events. Organizations are often organized into regional associations. The associations are a small part of Filipino American life. Filipino Americans formed close-knit neighborhoods, notably in California and Hawaii. A few communities have "Little Manilas," civic and business districts tailored for the Filipino American community. In a Filipino party, shoes should be left in front of the house and greet everyone with a hi or hello. When greeting the elderly, "po" and "opo" must be said in every sentence to show respect.
Some Filipinos have traditional Philippine surnames, such as Bacdayan or Macapagal, while others have surnames derived from Japanese, Indian, and Chinese and reflect centuries of trade with these merchants preceding European and American rule. Reflecting Spanish rule and the Claveria Decree of 1849, most Filipinos adopted Hispanic surnames, and celebrate fiestas, but the view that Filipinos may be Hispanic is not universally accepted. The Philippines experienced both Spanish and American colonial territorial status, with its population seen through each nation's racial constructs. In a 2017 Pew Research Survey, only 1% of immigrants from the Philippines identified as Hispanic. Many Filipinos choose to identify as Pacific Islander, while others identify as Asian Americans.
Due to history, the Philippines and the United States are connected culturally. In 2016, there was $16.5 billion worth of trade between the two countries, with the United States being the largest foreign investor in the Philippines, and more than 40% of remittances came from (or through) the United States. In 2004, the amount of remittances coming from the United States was $5 billion; this is an increase from the $1.16 billion sent in 1991 (then about 80% of total remittances being sent to the Philippines), and the $324 million sent in 1988. Some Filipino Americans have chosen to retire in the Philippines, buying real estate. Filipino Americans continue to travel back and forth between the United States and the Philippines, making up more than a tenth of all foreign travelers to the Philippines in 2010; when traveling back to the Philippines they often bring cargo boxes known as a balikbayan box.
Filipino and English are constitutionally established as official languages in the Philippines, and Filipino is designated as the national language, with English in wide use. Many Filipinos speak American English due to American colonial influence in the country's education system and due to limited Spanisheducation. Among Asian Americans in 1990, Filipino Americans had the smallest percentage of individuals who had problems with English. In 2000, among U.S.-born Filipino Americans, three quarters responded that English is their primary language; nearly half of Filipino Americans speak English exclusively.
In 2003, Tagalog was the fifth most-spoken language in the United States, with 1.262 million speakers; by 2011, it was the fourth most-spoken language in the United States. Tagalog usage is significant in California, Nevada, and Washington, while Ilocano usage is significant in Hawaii. Many of California's public announcements and documents are translated into Tagalog.Tagalog is also taught in some public schools in the United States, as well as at some colleges. Other significant Filipino languages are Ilocano and Cebuano. Other languages spoken in Filipino American households include Pangasinan, Kapampangan, Hiligaynon, Bicolano, Chavacano, and Waray. However, fluency in Philippine languages tends to be lost among second- and third-generation Filipino Americans. Other languages of the community include Spanish and Chinese (Hokkien). The demonym Filipinx is a gender-neutral term that is applied only to those of Filipino heritage in the diaspora, specifically Filipino Americans. The term is not applied to Filipinos in the Philippines.
In 2010, Filipino American Catholics were the largest population of Asian American Catholics, making up more than three-fourths of Asian American Catholics. In 2015, a majority (65%) of Filipino Americans identify as Catholic; this is down slightly from 2004 (68%). Filipino Americans, who are first generation immigrants were more likely to attend mass weekly, and tended to be more conservative, than those who were born in the United States. Culturally, some traditions and beliefs rooted from the original indigenous religions of Filipinos are still known among the Filipino diaspora.
In the 2010s, successful and critically reviewed Filipino American restaurants were featured in The New York Times. That same decade began a Filipino Food movement in the United States; it has been criticized for gentrification of the cuisine.Bon Appetit named Bad Saint in Washington, D.C. "the second best new restaurant in the United States" in 2016.Food & Wine named Lasa, in Los Angeles, one of its restaurants of the year in 2018. With this emergence of Filipino American restaurants, food critics like Andrew Zimmern have predicted that Filipino food will be "the next big thing" in American cuisine. Yet in 2017, Vogue described the cuisine as "misunderstood and neglected";SF Weekly in 2019, later described the cuisine as "marginal, underappreciated, and prone to weird booms-and-busts". In 2022, Chicago restaurant Kasama became the world's first Filipino restaurant to be awarded a Michelin star.
Filipino Americans undergo experiences that are unique to their own identities. These experiences derive from both the Filipino culture and American cultures individually and the dueling of these identities as well. These stressors, if great enough, can lead Filipino Americans into suicidal behaviors. Members of the Filipino community learn early on about kapwa, which is defined as “interpersonal connectedness or togetherness.”
With kapwa, many Filipino Americans have a strong sense of needing to repay their family members for the opportunities that they have been able to receive. An example of this is a new college graduate feeling the need to find a job that will allow them to financially support their family and themselves. This notion comes from “utang na loob,” defined as a debt that must be repaid to those who have supported the individual.
With kapwa and utang na loob as strong forces enacting on the individual, there is an “all or nothing” mentality that is being played out. To bring success back to one's family, there is a desire to succeed for one's family through living out a family's wants as opposed to one's true desires. This can manifest as one entering a career path that they are not passionate in, but select to help support their family.
Despite many of the stressors for these students deriving from family, it also becomes apparent that these are the reasons that these students are resilient. When family conflict rises in Filipino American families, there is a negative association with suicide attempts. This suggests that though the family is a presenting stressor in a Filipino American's life, it also plays a role in their resilience. In a study conducted by Yusuke Kuroki, family connectedness, whether defined as positive or negative to each individual, served as one means of lowering suicide attempts.
The growth of publications for the masses in the Philippines accelerated during the American period.Ethnic media serving Filipino Americans dates back to the beginning of the 20th Century. In 1905, pensionados at University of California, Berkeley published The Filipino Students' Magazine. One of the earliest Filipino American newspapers published in the United States, was the Philippine Independent of Salinas, California, which began publishing in 1921. Newspapers from the Philippines, to include The Manila Times, also served the Filipino diaspora in the United States. In 1961, the Philippine News was started by Alex Esclamado, which by the 1980s had a national reach and at the time was the largest English-language Filipino newspaper. While many areas with Filipino Americans have local Filipino newspapers, one of the largest concentrations of these newspapers occur in Southern California. Beginning in 1992, Filipinas began publication, and was unique in that it focused on American born Filipino Americans of the second and third generation.Filipinas ended its run in 2010, however it was succeeded by Positively Filipino in 2012 which included some of the staff from Filipinas. The Filipino diaspora in the United States are able to watch programming from the Philippines on television through GMA Pinoy TV and The Filipino Channel.
In a survey which was conducted by Asian Americans Advancing Justice in September 2020, of the 263 Filipino American respondents, 46% of them identified themselves as Democrats, 28% of them identified themselves as Republicans, and 16% of them identified themselves as independents. According to interviews which were conducted by Anthony Ocampo, an academic, Filipino American supporters of Donald Trump cited their support for the former President based on their support for the building of a border wall, their support for tax cuts to businesses, their support for legal immigration, their belief in school choice, their opposition to LGBTQ rights, their opposition to abortion, their opposition to affirmative action, their antagonism towards the People's Republic of China, and their belief that Trump is not a racist. There was an age divide among Filipino Americans, with older Filipino Americans more likely to support Trump or be Republicans, while younger and US-born Filipino Americans were more likely to support Biden or be Democrats. In the 2020 presidential election, Philippine Ambassador Jose Manuel Romualdez alleges that 60% of Filipino Americans reportedly voted for Joe Biden. Filipino Americans were the largest non-White ethnic group of those arrested in the 2021 United States Capitol attack. Rappler alleges that the Filipino American media has heavily repeated QAnon conspiracies. Rappler further alleges that, many Filipino Americans who voted for Trump, and adhere to QAnon, cite similar political leanings in the Philippines with regard to Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte, and anti-Chinese sentiment because China has been building artificial reefs in the South China Sea near the Philippines in the 2010s and as a result, they have recently seen the Republican Party as being more hardline with regard to the Chinese government's actions. Also Filipino Americans have a high rate of gun ownership in the United States, and are among the most pro-gun minority group in the U.S. As a result, Filipino Americans have viewed gun control policies from the Democrats unfavorably.
The Citizenship Retention and Re-Acquisition Act of 2003 (Republic Act No. 9225) made Filipino Americans eligible for dual citizenship in the United States and the Philippines. Overseas suffrage was first employed in the May 2004 elections in which Philippine President Gloria Macapagal Arroyo was reelected to a second term.
By 2005, about 6,000 Filipino Americans had become dual citizens of the two countries. One effect of this act was to allow Filipino Americans to invest in the Philippines through land purchases, which are limited to Filipino citizens, and, with some limitations, former citizens.), vote in Philippine elections, retire in the Philippines, and participate in representing the Philippine flag. In 2013, for the Philippine general election there were 125,604 registered Filipino voters in the United States and Caribbean, of which only 13,976 voted.
The Philippine government actively encourages Filipino Americans to visit or return permanently to the Philippines via the "Balikbayan" program and to invest in the country.
Filipinos remain one of the largest immigrant groups to date with over 40,000 arriving annually since 1979. The United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS) has a preference system for issuing visas to non-citizen family members of U.S. citizens, with preference based generally on familial closeness. Some non-citizen relatives of U.S. citizens spend long periods on waiting lists. Petitions for immigrant visas, particularly for siblings of previously naturalized Filipinos that date back to 1984, was not granted until 2006. As of 2016[update], over 380 thousand Filipinos were on the visa wait list, second only to Mexico and ahead of India, Vietnam and China. Filipinos have the longest waiting times for family reunification visas, as Filipinos disproportionately apply for family visas; this has led to visa petitions filed in July 1989 still waiting to be processed in March 2013.
It has been documented that Filipinos were among those naturalized due to the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986. In 2009, the Department of Homeland Security estimated that 270,000 Filipinos were "unauthorized immigrants". This was an increase of 70,000 from a previous estimate in 2000. In both years, Filipinos accounted for 2% of the total. As of 2009[update], Filipinos were the fifth-largest community of illegal immigrants behind Mexico (6.65 million, 62%), El Salvador (530,000, 5%), Guatemala (480,000, 4%), and Honduras (320,000, 3%). In January 2011, the Department of Homeland Security estimate of "unauthorized immigrants" from the Philippines remained at 270,000. By 2017, the number of Filipinos who were in the United States illegally increased to 310,000. Filipinos who reside in the United States illegally are known within the Filipino community as "TnT's" (tago nang tago translated to "hide and hide").
In Hawaii, Filipino Americans often have little identification with their heritage, and it has been documented that many disclaim their ethnicity. This may be due to the "colonial mentality," or the idea that Western ideals and physical characteristics are superior to their own. Although categorized as Asian Americans, Filipino Americans have not fully embraced being part of this racial category due to marginalization by other Asian American groups and or the dominant American society. This created a struggle within Filipino American communities over how far to assimilate. The term "white-washed" has been applied to those who are seeking to assimilate further.
Of the ten largest immigrant groups, Filipino Americans have the highest rate of assimilation. with exception to the cuisine; Filipino Americans have been described as the most "Americanized" of the Asian American ethnicities. However, even though Filipino Americans are the second largest group among Asian Americans, community activists have described the ethnicity as "invisible," claiming that the group is virtually unknown to the American public, and is often not seen as significant even among its members. Another term for this status is forgotten minority.
Considering most people now, when they hear the word "assimilate," they almost automatically think of converting. Although many Filipinos migrate to America to start a "new life," they still carry over some negative norms (Wolf 476).
This description has also been used in the political arena, given the lack of political mobilization. In the mid-1990s it was estimated that some one hundred Filipino Americans have been elected or appointed to public office. This lack of political representation contributes to the perception that Filipino Americans are invisible.
The concept is also used to describe how the ethnicity has assimilated. Few affirmative action programs target the group although affirmative action programs rarely target Asian Americans in general. Assimilation was easier given that the group is majority religiously Christian, fluent in English, and have high levels of education. The concept was in greater use in the past, before the post-1965 wave of arrivals.
The term invisible minority has been used for Asian Americans as a whole, and the term "model minority" has been applied to Filipinos as well as other Asian American groups. Filipino critics allege that Filipino Americans are ignored in immigration literature and studies.
As with fellow Asian Americans, Filipino Americans are viewed as "perpetual foreigners," even for those born in the United States. This has resulted in physical attacks on Filipino Americans, as well as non-violent forms of discrimination.
In college and high school campuses, many Filipino American student organizations put on annual Pilipino Culture Nights to showcase dances, perform skits, and comment on the issues such as identity and lack of cultural awareness due to assimilation and colonization.
The U.S. government promised these soldiers all of the benefits afforded to other veterans. However, in 1946, the United States Congress passed the Rescission Act of 1946 which stripped Filipino veterans of the promised benefits. One estimate claims that monies due to these veterans for back pay and other benefits exceed one billion dollars. Of the sixty-six countries allied with the United States during the war, the Philippines is the only country that did not receive military benefits from the United States. The phrase "Second Class Veterans" has been used to describe their status.
Many Filipino veterans traveled to the United States to lobby Congress for these benefits. Since 1993, numerous bills have been introduced in Congress to pay the benefits, but all died in committee. As recently as 2018, these bills have received bipartisan support.
In the late 1980s, efforts towards reinstating benefits first succeeded with the incorporation of Filipino veteran naturalization in the Immigration Act of 1990. Over 30,000 such veterans had immigrated, with mostly American citizens, receiving benefits relating to their service.
Similar language to those bills was inserted by the Senate into the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 which provided a one time payment of at least 9,000 USD to eligible non-US Citizens and US$15,000 to eligible US Citizens via the Filipino Veterans Equity Compensation Fund. These payments went to those recognized as soldiers or guerrillas or their spouses. The list of eligibles is smaller than the list recognized by the Philippines. Additionally, recipients had to waive all rights to possible future benefits. As of March 2011, 42 percent (24,385) of claims had been rejected; By 2017, more than 22,000 people received about $226 million in one time payments.
In the 113th Congress, Representative Joe Heck reintroduced his legislation to allow documents from the Philippine government and the U.S. Army to be accepted as proof of eligibility. Known as H.R. 481, it was referred to the Committee on Veterans' Affairs. In 2013, the U.S. released a previously classified report detailing guerrilla activities, including guerrilla units not on the "Missouri list".
In September 2012, the Social Security Administration announced that non-resident Filipino World War II veterans were eligible for certain social security benefits; however, an eligible veteran would lose those benefits if they visited for more than one month in a year, or immigrated.
^"Asian Americans: A Mosaic of Faiths, Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation". The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Pew Research Center. July 19, 2012. Archived from the original on August 11, 2018. Retrieved August 18, 2014. Religious Affiliations Among U.S. Asian American Groups - Filipino: 89% Christian (21% Protestant (12% Evangelical, 9% Mainline), 65% Catholic, 3% Other Christian), 1% Buddhist, 0% Muslim, 0% Sikh, 0% Jain, 2% Other religion, 8% Unaffiliated[failed verification] "Asian Americans: A Mosaic of Faiths". The Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Pew Research Center. July 19, 2014. Archived from the original on April 28, 2014. Retrieved March 15, 2017. Filipino Americans: 89% All Christian (65% Catholic, 21% Protestant, 3% Other Christian), 8% Unaffiliated, 1% Buddhist
^Marina Claudio-Perez (October 1998). "Filipino Americans"(PDF). The California State Library. State of California. Archived from the original(PDF) on September 30, 2011. Retrieved April 30, 2011. Filipino Americans are often shortened into Pinoy Some Filipinos believe that the term Pinoy was coined by the early Filipinos who came to the United States to distinguish themselves from Filipinos living in the Philippines. Others claim that it implies "Filipino" thoughts, deeds, and spirits.
^Loni Ding (2001). "Part 1. COOLIES, SAILORS, AND SETTLERS". NAATA. PBS. Archived from the original on May 16, 2012. Retrieved August 20, 2011. Most people think of Asians as recent immigrants to the Americas, but the first Asians—Filipino sailors—settled in the bayous of Louisiana a decade before the Revolutionary War.
^Carlo Osi (March 26, 2009). "Filipino cuisine on US television". Mind Feeds. Inquirer Company. Archived from the original on August 26, 2012. Retrieved July 31, 2012. In the United States, the Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and Vietnamese cultural groups often bond for organizational purposes, while Filipinos in general have not. Ethnically Filipino Americans are divided into Pampangeno, Ilocano, Cebuano, Tagalog, and so forth.
^Hugo Lopez, Mark; Manuel Krogstad, Jens; Passel, Jeffrey (September 23, 2021). "Who is Hispanic?". Pew Research Center. Archived from the original on September 29, 2021. Retrieved March 4, 2022. People with ancestries in Brazil, Portugal and the Philippines do not fit the federal government's official definition of "Hispanic" because the countries are not Spanish-speaking. For the most part, people who trace their ancestry to these countries are not counted as Hispanic by the Census Bureau, usually because most do not identify as Hispanic when they fill in their census forms. Only about 2% of immigrants from Brazil do so, as do 1% of immigrants from Portugal and 1% from the Philippines, according to the 2019 American Community Survey. These patterns likely reflect a growing recognition and acceptance of the official definition of Hispanics. In the 1980 census, 18% of Brazilian immigrants and 12% of both Portuguese and Filipino immigrants identified as Hispanic. But by 2000, the shares identifying as Hispanic dropped to levels closer to those seen today. Sadural, Epifanio (September 20, 2017). "Dear Filipinos: We're Not Latino, We're Southeast Asian, Get Over It". The Odyssey. Archived from the original on March 4, 2022. Retrieved March 4, 2022.
^Jeffrey S. Passel; Paul Taylor (May 29, 2009). "Who's Hispanic?". Hispanic Trends. Pew Research Center. Archived from the original on March 4, 2017. Retrieved March 15, 2017. In the 1980 Census, about one in six Brazilian immigrants and one in eight Portuguese and Filipino immigrants identified as Hispanic. Similar shares did so in the 1990 Census, but by 2000, the shares identifying as Hispanic dropped to levels close to those seen today. Westbrook, Laura (2008). "Mabuhay Pilipino! (Long Life!): Filipino Culture in Southeast Louisiana". Louisiana Folklife Program. Baton Rouge, Louisiana: Louisiana Department of Culture, Recreation & Tourism. Archived from the original on May 18, 2018. Retrieved March 16, 2017.
^Mark Gray; Mary Gautier; Thomas Gaunt (June 2014). "Cultural Diversity in the Catholic Church in the United States"(PDF). United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. Archived(PDF) from the original on March 16, 2017. Retrieved March 16, 2017. Some 76 percent of Asian, Native Hawaiian, or Pacific Islander Catholics are estimated to self-identify as Filipino (alone and in combinations with other identities).
^KATRINA STUART SANTIAGO (June 8, 2011). "Balut as Pinoy pride". GMA. Archived from the original on June 13, 2011. Retrieved July 2, 2011. The balut is one claim to fame we're uncertain about, seeing as it is equated with hissing cockroaches on Fear Factor. Talk about bringing us back to the dark ages of being the exotic and barbaric brown siblings of America.
^Keli Dailey (February 9, 2012). "Andrew Zimmern's eating through San Diego". San Diego Union Tribune. Archived from the original on May 2, 2015. Retrieved February 11, 2013. "Tita's sisig, best I have ever tasted . San Diego Philippine (sic) food is crazy good," he tweeted.
^ abAmy Scattergood (February 25, 2011). "Off the menu". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on December 6, 2010. Retrieved January 21, 2011.
^ abcdKuroki, Yusuke (2015). "Risk Factors for Suicidal Behaviors Among Filipino Americans: A Data Mining Approach". American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 85 (1): 34–42. doi:10.1037/ort0000018. PMID25110976.
^Mendoza, Perkinson, S. Lily, Jim (2003). "Filipino "Kapwa" in Global Dialogue: A Different Politics of Being-With the "Other"". Intercultural Communication Studies. 12: 177–194.((cite journal)): CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
^Nadal, Kevin (2011). Filipino American Psychology: A Handbook of Theory, Research, and Clinical Practice. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
^Thomas Chen (February 26, 2009). "WHY ASIAN AMERICANS VOTED FOR OBAMA". PERSPECTIVE MAGAZINE. Archived from the original on August 26, 2014. Retrieved March 4, 2013. A survey of Filipino Americans in California—the second largest Asian American ethnic group and traditionally Republican voters
^Gus Mercado (November 10, 2008). "Obama wins Filipino vote at last-hour". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on February 27, 2012. Retrieved October 22, 2012. A pre-election survey of 840 active Filipino community leaders in America showed a strong shift of undecided registered voters towards the Obama camp in the last several weeks before the elections that gave Senator Barack Obama of Illinois a decisive 58–42 share of the Filipino vote.
^ abMico Letargo (October 19, 2012). "Fil-Ams lean towards Romney – survey". Asian Journal. Archived from the original on October 23, 2012. Retrieved October 22, 2012. In 2008, 50 percent of the Filipino community voted for President Barack Obama (the Democrat candidate back then) while 46 percent voted for Republican Senator John McCain.
^Edmund M. Silvestre (January 18, 2009). "A Fil-Am on Capitol Hill". The Philippine Star. Retrieved April 29, 2011. There are now three members of U.S. Congress with Filipino lineage: Rep. Robert "Bobby" Scott, an African-American representing Virginia's 3rd congressional district; and Sen. John Ensign of Nevada. Maxwell, Rahasaan (March 5, 2012). Ethnic Minority Migrants in Britain and France: Integration Trade-Offs. Cambridge University Press. p. 206. ISBN978-1-107-37803-2. Archived from the original on March 26, 2021. Retrieved January 30, 2019. These numbers include politicians with only the slightest connection to the Philippines. For example, Bobby Scott of Virginia is commonly considered an African American and his only connection to the Philippines is one maternal grandmother. John Ensign of Nevada only has one Filipino great-grandparent.
^Guerrero, AP; Nishimura, ST; Chang, JY; Ona, C; Cunanan, VL; Hishinuma, ES (2010). "Low cultural identification, low parental involvement, and adverse peer influences as risk factors for delinquent behavior among Filipino youth in Hawai'i". International Journal of Social Psychiatry. 56 (4): 371–387. doi:10.1177/0020764009102772. PMID19617281. S2CID40241211.
^Amy Scattergood (February 25, 2010). "Off the menu". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on December 22, 2011. Retrieved May 30, 2011. That Filipino food has, by and large, not been assimilated into mainstream American cuisine is ironic, given how adept Filipinos historically have been at assimilating into other dominant cultures (the country is Catholic; English is the second official language), and given how assimilated the myriad cuisines have been within the country itself.
^Maze, Rick (January 29, 2008). "Senate puts Filipino vet pensions in stimulus"(News Article). Army Times. Army Times Publishing Company. Buried inside the Senate bill, which includes tax cuts and new spending initiatives intended to create jobs in the U.S., the Filipino payment was inserted at the urging of Sen. Daniel Inouye, D-Hawaii, the new chairman of the Senate Appropriations Committee and a longtime supporter of monthly pensions for World War II Filipino veterans.
^Joseph G. Lariosa (January 9, 2011). "Filipino Veterans Fairness bill filed at US Congress". GMA News. Archived from the original on January 24, 2013. Retrieved September 30, 2012. The bill likewise proposes to invalidate the "quit claim" or the waiver of the right of Filipino veterans to receive future benefits, like a lifetime monthly pension, as provided for in the Filipino Veterans Equity Compensation (FVEC) of the $787-billion American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA).
^Tiffany Hill (May 19, 2011). "Field Guide: Filipino Fun". Honolulu Magazine. Aio. Archived from the original on May 24, 2011. Retrieved June 8, 2011. Paul Raymund Cortes (June 3, 2011). "19 Annual Filipino Fiesta". Philippine Consulate General Honolulu. Republic of the Philippines Department of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on May 19, 2011. Retrieved June 8, 2011.
^"Filipino-American Association of Philadelphia, Inc". Filipino-American Association of Philadelphia, Inc. 2011. Archived from the original on July 4, 2011. Retrieved June 19, 2011. FAAPI also continues to hold the annual Mother of the Year celebration (started in 1950s) to honor motherhood on Mothers Day in May.
Bankston III, Carl L. (2005). "Filipino Americans". In Min, Pyong Gap (ed.). Asian Americans: Contemporary Trends and Issues. Pine Forge Press. pp. 180–202, 368. ISBN978-1-4129-0556-5. Archived from the original on May 9, 2011. Retrieved October 16, 2015.
Melendy, H. Brett. "Filipino Americans." in Gale Encyclopedia of Multicultural America, edited by Thomas Riggs, (3rd ed., vol. 2, Gale, 2014), pp. 119–135. onlineArchived March 23, 2023, at the Wayback Machine