117th United States Congress
116th ←
→ 118th

January 3, 2021 – January 3, 2023
Members100 senators
435 representatives
6 non-voting delegates
Senate MajorityRepublican
(until January 20, 2021)
Democratic
(from January 20, 2021)
Senate PresidentMike Pence (R)
(until January 20, 2021)
Kamala Harris (D)
(from January 20, 2021)
House MajorityDemocratic
House SpeakerNancy Pelosi (D)
Sessions
1st: January 3, 2021 – present

The 117th United States Congress is the current meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the U.S. Senate and the U.S. House of Representatives. It convened in Washington, D.C., on January 3, 2021, during the final weeks of Donald Trump's presidency, and will end on January 3, 2023. It will meet during the first two years of Joe Biden's presidency.

The 2020 elections decided control of both chambers. In the House of Representatives, the Democratic Party retained their majority (albeit reduced from the 116th Congress).

In the Senate, the Republican Party briefly held the majority at the beginning of the term. On January 20, 2021, three new Democratic senators (Jon Ossoff and Raphael Warnock of Georgia and Alex Padilla of California) were sworn in, resulting in 50 seats held by Republicans, 48 seats held by Democrats, and two held by independents who caucus with the Democrats. Effectively, this created a 50–50 split, which had not occurred since the 107th Congress in 2001.

With Vice President Kamala Harris serving as the tie breaker in her constitutional role as Senate President, the Democrats have control of the Senate, and thereby have full control of Congress for the first time since the 111th Congress in 2009, and with Joe Biden being sworn in as President on January 20, 2021, this gave the Democrats an overall federal government trifecta, also for the first time since the 111th Congress.

Major events

2021 United States Capitol attack (January 6, 2021)
Joe Biden takes the oath of office as the 46th President of the United States

Major legislation

Enacted

Main article: List of acts of the 117th United States Congress

Proposed (but not enacted)

Main article: List of bills in the 117th United States Congress

Major resolutions

Adopted

Proposed

Party summary

Resignations and new members are discussed in the "Changes in membership" section below.

Senate

  • Current (from January 20, 2021)
    Current (from January 20, 2021)
  • Begin (January 3, 2021 – January 18, 2021)
    Begin (January 3, 2021 – January 18, 2021)
  • January 18, 2021 – January 20, 2021
    January 18, 2021 – January 20, 2021
  Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic Independent
(caucusing with
Democrats)
Republican
End of previous Congress 46 2 52 100 0
Begin (January 3, 2021)[a] 46 2 51 99 1
January 18, 2021[b] 45 98 2
January 20, 2021[b][c][d] 48 2 50 100 0
Latest voting share 50.0% 50.0%  

House of Representatives

  • Current (from June 14, 2021)
    Current (from June 14, 2021)
  • Begin (January 3, 2021 – January 15, 2021)
    Begin (January 3, 2021 – January 15, 2021)
  • January 15, 2021 – February 7, 2021
    January 15, 2021 – February 7, 2021
  • February 7, 2021 – February 11, 2021
    February 7, 2021 – February 11, 2021
  • February 11, 2021 – March 10, 2021
    February 11, 2021 – March 10, 2021
  • March 10, 2021 – March 16, 2021
    March 10, 2021 – March 16, 2021
  • March 16, 2021 – April 6, 2021
    March 16, 2021 – April 6, 2021
  • April 6, 2021 – April 14, 2021
    April 6, 2021 – April 14, 2021
  • April 14, 2021 – May 11, 2021
    April 14, 2021 – May 11, 2021
  • May 11, 2021 – May 16, 2021
    May 11, 2021 – May 16, 2021
  • May 16, 2021 – June 14, 2021
    May 16, 2021 – June 14, 2021
  Party
(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
Democratic Independent Republican Other
End of previous Congress 233 1 195 1[e] 430 5
Begin (January 3, 2021)[f][g] 222 0 211 0 433 2
January 15, 2021[h] 221 432 3
February 7, 2021[i] 210 431 4
February 11, 2021[g] 211 432 3
March 10, 2021[j] 220 431 4
March 16, 2021[k] 219 430 5
April 6, 2021[l] 218 429 6
April 14, 2021[m] 212 430 5
May 11, 2021[n] 219 431 4
May 16, 2021[o] 211 430 5
June 14, 2021[p] 220 431 4
TBD 2021[q] 212 432 3
Latest voting share 51.0% 0.0% 49.0% 0.0%  
Non-voting members 3 1[r] 2[s] 0 6 0

Leadership

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (April 2021)

Note: Democrats refer to themselves as a "Caucus"; Republicans refer to themselves as a "Conference".

Senate

Senate President
Mike Pence (R),
until January 20, 2021
Kamala Harris (D),
from January 20, 2021
Senate President pro tempore
Chuck Grassley (R),
until January 20, 2021
Patrick Leahy (D),
from January 20, 2021

Presiding

Democratic leadership

(Minority until January 20, 2021, majority thereafter)

Republican leadership

(Majority until January 20, 2021, minority thereafter)

House of Representatives

House Speaker

Presiding

See also: 2021 Speaker of the United States House of Representatives election

Majority (Democratic) leadership

Minority (Republican) leadership

Members

Senate

For year of birth, when first took office, prior background, and education, see List of current United States senators.

The numbers refer to their Senate classes. All class 1 senators are in the middle of their term (2019–2025), having been elected in 2018 and facing re-election in 2024. Class 2 senators are at the beginning of their term (2021–2027), having been elected in 2020. Class 3 senators are at the end of their term (2017–2023), facing re-election in 2022.

House of Representatives

All 435 seats were filled by election in November 2020.

Further information: List of current members of the United States House of Representatives

Changes in membership

Senate

See also: List of special elections to the United States Senate

State
(class)
Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[v]
Georgia
(2)
Vacant Republican David Perdue's term expired January 3, 2021, before a runoff election could be held.
Successor elected January 5, 2021.[a]
Jon Ossoff
(D)
January 20, 2021
California
(3)
Kamala Harris
(D)
Incumbent resigned on January 18, 2021, to become U.S. Vice President.
Successor appointed January 20, 2021, to complete the term.[32]
Alex Padilla
(D)
January 20, 2021
Georgia
(3)
Kelly Loeffler
(R)
Interim appointee lost election to finish the term.
Successor elected January 5, 2021, for the remainder of the term that will end January 3, 2023.
Raphael Warnock
(D)
January 20, 2021

House of Representatives

See also: List of special elections to the United States House of Representatives, 2021 United States House of Representatives elections, and 2022 United States House of Representatives elections § Special elections

District Vacator Reason for change Successor Date of successor's
formal installation[v]
New York 22 Vacant Anthony Brindisi's (D) term expired January 3, 2021, and the seat remained vacant due to the result of the 2020 election being disputed.
On February 5, 2021, a judge declared a winner.[33]
Claudia Tenney
(R)
February 11, 2021[34][8]
Louisiana 5 Vacant Member-elect Luke Letlow (R) died from COVID-19 on December 29, 2020, before his term started.
A special election was held March 20, 2021.[6]
Julia Letlow
(R)
April 14, 2021[35]
Louisiana 2 Cedric Richmond
(D)
Resigned January 15, 2021, to become Senior Advisor to the President and director of the Office of Public Liaison.[36][37]
A special election was held March 20, 2021, and a runoff was held on April 24, 2021.[36]
Troy Carter
(D)
May 11, 2021
Texas 6 Ron Wright
(R)
Died from COVID-19 on February 7, 2021.[10]
A special election was held on May 1, 2021, with a runoff scheduled for July 27.[38][39]
TBD (R) TBD
Ohio 11 Marcia Fudge
(D)
Resigned March 10, 2021, to become U.S. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.[40]
A special election will be held on November 2, 2021.
TBD TBD
New Mexico 1 Deb Haaland
(D)
Resigned March 16, 2021, to become U.S. Secretary of the Interior.[41]
A special election was held on June 1, 2021.[41]
Melanie Stansbury
(D)
June 14, 2021
Florida 20 Alcee Hastings
(D)
Died April 6, 2021.
A special election will be held on January 11, 2022.[42]
TBD TBD
Ohio 15 Steve Stivers
(R)
Resigned May 16, 2021, to become the president and CEO of the Ohio Chamber of Commerce.[43]
A special election will be held on November 2, 2021.
TBD TBD

Committees

Section contents: Senate, House, Joint

Senate

Main article: List of United States Senate committees

Prior to the passing of an organizing resolution on February 3, 2021, chairs of Senate committees remained the same as in the 116th Congress. Where the chair had retired (as in the Agriculture, Budget, and HELP committees), the chair was vacant.[44]

Committee Chair Ranking Member
Aging (Special) Bob Casey Jr. (D-PA) Tim Scott (R-SC)
Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry Debbie Stabenow (D-MI) John Boozman (R-AR)
Appropriations Patrick Leahy (D-VT) Richard Shelby (R-AL)
Armed Services Jack Reed (D-RI) Jim Inhofe (R-OK)
Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs Sherrod Brown (D-OH) Pat Toomey (R-PA)
Budget Bernie Sanders (I-VT) Lindsey Graham (R-SC)
Commerce, Science and Transportation Maria Cantwell (D-WA) Roger Wicker (R-MS)
Energy and Natural Resources Joe Manchin (D-WV) John Barrasso (R-WY)
Environment and Public Works Tom Carper (D-DE) Shelley Moore Capito (R-WV)
Ethics (Select) Chris Coons (D-DE) James Lankford (R-OK)
Finance Ron Wyden (D-OR) Mike Crapo (R-ID)
Foreign Relations Bob Menendez (D-NJ) Jim Risch (R-ID)
Health, Education, Labor and Pensions Patty Murray (D-WA) Richard Burr (R-NC)
Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs Gary Peters (D-MI) Rob Portman (R-OH)
Indian Affairs (Permanent Select) Brian Schatz (D-HI) Lisa Murkowski (R-AK)
Intelligence (Select) Mark Warner (D-VA) Marco Rubio (R-FL)
International Narcotics Control (Permanent Caucus) Dianne Feinstein (D-CA) John Cornyn (R-TX)
Judiciary Dick Durbin (D-IL) Chuck Grassley (R-IA)
Rules and Administration Amy Klobuchar (D-MN) Roy Blunt (R-MO)
Small Business and Entrepreneurship Ben Cardin (D-MD) Rand Paul (R-KY)
Veterans' Affairs Jon Tester (D-MT) Jerry Moran (R-KS)

House of Representatives

Main article: List of United States House of Representatives committees

Committee Chair Ranking Member
Agriculture David Scott (D-GA) Glenn Thompson (R-PA)
Appropriations Rosa DeLauro (D-CT) Kay Granger (R-TX)
Armed Services Adam Smith (D-WA) Mike Rogers (R-AL)
Budget John Yarmuth (D-KY) Jason Smith (R-MO)
Climate Crisis (Select) Kathy Castor (D-FL) Garret Graves (R-LA)
Economic Disparity and Fairness in Growth (Select) TBD TBD
Education and Labor Bobby Scott (D-VA) Virginia Foxx (R-NC)
Energy and Commerce Frank Pallone (D-NJ) Cathy McMorris Rodgers (R-WA)
Ethics Ted Deutch (D-FL) Jackie Walorski (R-IN)
Financial Services Maxine Waters (D-CA) Patrick McHenry (R-NC)
Foreign Affairs Gregory Meeks (D-NY) Mike McCaul (R-TX)
Homeland Security Bennie Thompson (D-MS) John Katko (R-NY)
House Administration Zoe Lofgren (D-CA) Rodney Davis (R-IL)
Intelligence (Permanent Select) Adam Schiff (D-CA) Devin Nunes (R-CA)
Judiciary Jerry Nadler (D-NY) Jim Jordan (R-OH)
Modernization of Congress (Select) Derek Kilmer (D-WA) William Timmons (R-SC)
Natural Resources Raúl Grijalva (D-AZ) Bruce Westerman (R-AR)
Oversight and Reform Carolyn Maloney (D-NY) Jim Comer (R-KY)
Rules Jim McGovern (D-MA) Tom Cole (R-OK)
Science, Space and Technology Eddie Bernice Johnson (D-TX) Frank Lucas (R-OK)
Small Business Nydia Velázquez (D-NY) Blaine Luetkemeyer (R-MO)
Transportation and Infrastructure Peter DeFazio (D-OR) Sam Graves (R-MO)
Veterans' Affairs Mark Takano (D-CA) Mike Bost (R-IL)
Ways and Means Richard Neal (D-MA) Kevin Brady (R-TX)

Joint

Main article: List of current United States congressional joint committees

Committee Chair Vice Chair Ranking Member Vice Ranking Member
Economic Rep. Don Beyer (D-VA) Sen. Martin Heinrich (D-NM) Sen. Mike Lee (R-UT) Rep. David Schweikert (R-AZ)
Inaugural Ceremonies (Special)
until January 20, 2021
Sen. Roy Blunt (R-MO) Rep. Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) Rep. Kevin McCarthy (R-CA) Sen. Amy Klobuchar (D-MN)
Library Rep. Zoe Lofgren (D-CA) Sen. Amy Klobuchar (D-MN) Sen. Roy Blunt (R-MO) Rep. Rodney Davis (R-IL)
Printing Sen. Amy Klobuchar (D-MN) Rep. Zoe Lofgren (D-CA) Rep. Rodney Davis (R-IL) Sen. Roy Blunt (R-MO)
Taxation[w] Rep. Richard Neal (D-MA) Sen. Ron Wyden (D-OR) Sen. Mike Crapo (R-ID) Rep. Kevin Brady (R-TX)

Officers and officials

Senate

House of Representatives

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d The Congress began with 51 Republicans, 48 Democrats (including 2 independents who caucus with the Democrats) and 1 vacancy in the Senate. Georgia's class 2 seat was vacant from the start until Democrat Jon Ossoff was seated January 20, 2021. Georgia's class 3 Republican interim appointee Kelly Loeffler served until Democrat Raphael Warnock was seated January 20, 2021.[2]
  2. ^ a b c In California: Kamala Harris (D) resigned January 18, 2021, to become U.S. Vice President.
    Alex Padilla (D) was appointed to complete the unexpired term and began serving January 20, 2021.[3]
  3. ^ In Georgia: Kelly Loeffler (R) lost a special election to finish the term.
    Jon Ossoff (D) and Raphael Warnock (D) began their service January 20, 2021.[4][5]
  4. ^ Kamala Harris (D) became U.S. Vice President January 20, 2021, with the tie-breaking vote.
  5. ^ There was 1 Libertarian at the end of the previous Congress.
  6. ^ a b In Louisiana's 5th district: member elect Luke Letlow (R) died December 29, 2020, before the term started.[6]
  7. ^ a b c In New York's 22nd district: the term began with the previous election disputed, Claudia Tenney was declared the winner[7] and was sworn in February 11, 2021.[8]
  8. ^ a b In Louisiana's 2nd district: Cedric Richmond (D) resigned January 15, 2021, to serve in the Biden administration.[9]
  9. ^ a b In Texas's 6th district: Ron Wright (R) died February 7, 2021.[10]
  10. ^ a b In Ohio's 11th district: Marcia Fudge (D) resigned March 10, 2021, to serve in the Biden administration.[11]
  11. ^ a b In New Mexico's 1st district: Deb Haaland (D) resigned March 16, 2021, to serve in the Biden administration.[12]
  12. ^ a b In Florida's 20th district: Alcee Hastings (D) died April 6, 2021.[13]
  13. ^ a b In Louisiana's 5th district: Julia Letlow (R) won a special election on March 20, 2021. She was sworn in on April 14, 2021.[14]
  14. ^ a b In Louisiana's 2nd district: Troy Carter (D) won a special runoff election on April 24, 2021. He was sworn in on May 11, 2021.[15]
  15. ^ a b In Ohio's 15th district: Steve Stivers (R) resigned May 16, 2021, to become the president and CEO of the Ohio Chamber of Commerce.[16]
  16. ^ a b In New Mexico's 1st district: Melanie Stansbury (D) won a special election on June 1, 2021. She was sworn in on June 14, 2021.[17]
  17. ^ a b In Texas's 6th district: Two Republicans advanced to a runoff, to be held July 27, after a special election was held on May 1, 2021. A Republican will be sworn in on a date TBD.[18]
  18. ^ a b c d Caucuses with Democrats.
  19. ^ Includes a New Progressive Party member who is also affiliated as a Republican.
  20. ^ a b c d e f The Minnesota Democratic–Farmer–Labor Party (DFL) is the Minnesota affiliate of the U.S. Democratic Party and its members are counted as Democrats.
  21. ^ Miller-Meeks was provisionally seated with the rest of the 117th Congress, pending the challenge by her opponent Rita Hart.[30] Hart withdrew her challenge on March 31, 2021.[31]
  22. ^ a b When seated or oath administered, not necessarily when service began.
  23. ^ The Joint Taxation Committee leadership rotate the chair and vice chair and the ranking members between the House and Senate at the start of each session in the middle of the congressional term. The first session leadership is shown here.

References

  1. ^ a b "GOP Ousts Cheney From Leadership Over Her Criticism Of Trump". NPR.org. Retrieved May 12, 2021.
  2. ^ Werner, Erica; Gardner, Amy (January 19, 2021). "Georgia certifies Ossoff and Warnock victories, paving way for Democratic control of Senate". The Washington Post. Retrieved January 19, 2021.
  3. ^ Janes, Chelsea. "Kamala Harris resigns her Senate seat". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved January 18, 2021.
  4. ^ Bluestein, Greg; Journal-Constitution, The Atlanta. "Georgia U.S. Senate results certified; Ossoff and Warnock set to take office Wednesday". ajc. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
  5. ^ "Kamala Harris to swear in Alex Padilla to Senate after inauguration". SFChronicle.com. January 20, 2021. Retrieved January 20, 2021.
  6. ^ a b Hilburn, Greg (December 30, 2020). "Here's how the late Luke Letlow's congressional seat will be filled following his COVID death". The News-Star. Retrieved January 2, 2021.
  7. ^ "NY-22 house seat to become vacant Jan. 3 with court case continuing into 2021". WBNG.com. December 21, 2020. Retrieved January 6, 2021.
  8. ^ a b Howe, Steve (February 11, 2021). "NY22: Tenney is sworn in, takes aim at legislative agenda". Observer-Dispatch. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
  9. ^ "Louisiana House Democratic Caucus thanks Rep. Richmond for his service in congress". wbno.com. January 15, 2021. Retrieved February 9, 2021.
  10. ^ a b "Texas Representative Ron Wright Dies From COVID-19". CBS DFW. CBS. Retrieved February 8, 2021.
  11. ^ "Fudge resigns to go to HUD after voting for COVID-19 relief". The Hill. Retrieved February 8, 2021.
  12. ^ "Senate confirms Deb Haaland as Biden's Interior secretary in historic vote". CNN. Retrieved March 15, 2021.
  13. ^ "Rep. Alcee Hastings dies at 84 after cancer diagnosis". Politico. Retrieved April 6, 2021.
  14. ^ Hilburn, Greg. "Louisiana Republian Julia Letlow to join Congress this week". www.thenewsstar.com. The News Star. Retrieved April 13, 2021.
  15. ^ Marcos, Cristina. "Carter sworn in as House member to replace Richmond, padding Democrats' majority". The Hill. Retrieved May 11, 2021.
  16. ^ Choi, Joseph (April 19, 2021). "GOP Rep. Steve Stivers plans to retire". Retrieved April 19, 2021.
  17. ^ Marcos, Cristina (June 14, 2021). "New Mexico Democrat Stansbury sworn into Haaland's old seat". The Hill. Retrieved June 14, 2021.
  18. ^ Mutnick, Ally (May 2, 2021). "Dems get locked out of Texas special election". POLITICO. Retrieved May 2, 2021.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Swanson, Ian (November 10, 2020). "Senate Democrats reelect Schumer as leader by acclamation". TheHill. Retrieved November 10, 2020.
  20. ^ a b c d e f Balluck, Kyle (November 10, 2020). "McConnell reelected as Senate GOP leader". TheHill. Retrieved November 10, 2020.
  21. ^ "Senate Leadership Elections | C-SPAN.org". c-span.org.
  22. ^ Bolton, Alexander (January 10, 2021). "Republicans Wrestle over Removing Trump". The Hill. Retrieved February 5, 2021.
  23. ^ a b c d e Treene, Alayna. "Nancy Pelosi re-elected as House Democratic leader". Axios.
  24. ^ Balluck, Kyle (November 19, 2020). "House Democrats pick Aguilar as No. 6 leader in next Congress". TheHill. Retrieved November 19, 2020.
  25. ^ Ferris, Sarah; Mutnick, Ally (December 3, 2020). "Democrats elect Rep. Sean Patrick Maloney to lead campaign arm". POLITICO. Retrieved December 3, 2020.
  26. ^ Zanona, Melanie (November 20, 2020). "Huddle: Trump's cronies hold steady". POLITICO. Retrieved November 25, 2020.
  27. ^ a b McPherson, Lindsey (November 19, 2020). "House Democrats elect Aguilar, Allred in contested leadership elections". Roll Call. Retrieved November 25, 2020.
  28. ^ a b Clyburn, Jim. "Whip Clyburn Announces Chief Deputy Whips for 117th Congress". House Majority Whip. Retrieved December 2, 2020.
  29. ^ a b c d e f g Bresnahan, John; Zanona, Melanie (November 17, 2020). "McCarthy heads into next Congress with eye on speaker's gavel". POLITICO. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
  30. ^ Barton, Tom (January 5, 2021). "'States select electors, Congress does not': Miller-Meeks to vote to accept Biden win". QCTimes.com. The Quad-City Times. Retrieved January 6, 2021.
  31. ^ Schultz, Marisa. "Dem Rita Hart backs down in Iowa election challenge to Miller-Meeks amid mounting GOP pressure". foxnews.com. Fox News. Retrieved March 31, 2021.
  32. ^ Newsom, Gavin (January 18, 2021). "Proclamation and Writ of Election" (PDF). Executive Department, State of California. Retrieved February 1, 2021.
  33. ^ Gronewold, Anna (February 5, 2021). "Tenney takes 109-vote lead in NY-22 after judge orders certification". POLITICO. Albany, New York. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
  34. ^ Mahoney, Bill (February 10, 2021). "Support grows for Cuomo to remove election officials over Tenney-Brindisi snafu". POLITICO. Retrieved February 11, 2021.
  35. ^ Hilburn, Greg. "Louisiana Republican Julia Letlow to join Congress this week". www.thenewsstar.com. The News Star. Retrieved April 13, 2021.
  36. ^ a b Murphy, Paul (November 16, 2020). "Cedric Richmond will be Senior Advisor to the President; to resign House seat before inauguration". WWL-TV. Retrieved November 17, 2020.
  37. ^ "Special Election - U.S. House of Representatives Second Congressional District" (PDF). State of Louisiana. January 6, 2021. Retrieved January 15, 2021.
  38. ^ Fink, Jack (February 8, 2021). "Texas Leaders Remember GOP Congressman Ron Wright Who Died After Battling Lung Cancer, COVID-19". KTVT. CBS. Retrieved February 16, 2021. At some point, Greg Abbott will set a special election, which will either happen on Saturday, May 1, when municipal elections are set to be held, or at an earlier date.
  39. ^ Svitek, Patrick (May 12, 2021). "Gov. Greg Abbott sets July 27 as date of special election runoff to succeed late U.S. Rep. Ron Wright". The Texas Tribune. Retrieved May 13, 2021.
  40. ^ Nichola, Hans (December 8, 2020). "Biden to pick Vilsack for agriculture secretary, Fudge for HUD". Axios. Retrieved December 8, 2020.
  41. ^ a b Boyd, Dan; Boetel, Ryan. "Breaking: Haaland reportedly picked as Biden's interior secretary". Albuquerque Journal. Retrieved December 17, 2020.
  42. ^ "DeSantis schedules special election to replace Alcee Hastings for January". thehill.com. The Hill. Retrieved May 4, 2021.
  43. ^ Shabad, Rebecca. "Ohio Rep. Steve Stivers to leave Congress next month". nbcnews.com. NBC News. Retrieved April 19, 2021.
  44. ^ Tully-McManus, Katherine (February 2, 2021). "Senate Democrats still without committee control as power-sharing talks drag on". Roll Call. Retrieved February 5, 2021.
  45. ^ "U.S. Senate: Office of the Sergeant at Arms and Doorkeeper". Senate.gov. Retrieved January 16, 2021.
  46. ^ https://www.nytimes.com/2021/03/22/us/politics/karen-gibson-senate-sergeant-at-arms.html
  47. ^ "Sergeant at Arms". House.gov. Retrieved January 16, 2021.