Current delegation

Alabama was admitted to the Union on December 14, 1819. The state elects U.S. senators to class 2 and class 3. Its United States Senate seats were declared vacant from March 1861 to July 1868 due to its secession from the Union during the American Civil War. Richard Shelby is Alabama's longest serving senator (served 1987–2023). Alabama's current U.S. senators are Republicans Tommy Tuberville (since 2021) and Katie Britt (since 2023).

List of senators

Class 2

Class 2 U.S. senators belong to the electoral cycle that has recently been contested in 2008, 2014, 2017 (special election), and 2020. The next election will be in 2026.

C

Class 3

Class 3 U.S. senators belong to the electoral cycle that has recently been contested in 2004, 2010, 2016, and 2022. The next election will be in 2028.

# Senator Party Dates in office Electoral history T T Electoral history Dates in office Party Senator #
1
William R. King
Democratic-
Republican
Dec 14, 1819 –
Apr 15, 1844
Elected in 1819. 1 16th 1 Elected in 1819.
Resigned.
Dec 14, 1819 –
Dec 12, 1822
Democratic-
Republican

John Williams Walker
1
17th
Elected to finish Walker's term.
Retired.
Dec 12, 1822 –
Mar 3, 1825
Democratic-
Republican
William Kelly 2
Re-elected in 1822. 2 18th
Jacksonian 19th 2 Elected in 1824 or 1825.
Died.
Mar 4, 1825 –
Jan 24, 1826
Jacksonian
Henry H. Chambers
3
  Jan 24, 1826 –
Feb 17, 1826
Vacant
Appointed to continue Chambers's term.
Successor elected.
Feb 17, 1826 –
Nov 27, 1826
Jacksonian
Israel Pickens
4
Elected to finish Chambers's term.
Lost re-election.
Nov 27, 1826 –
Mar 3, 1831
Jacksonian
John McKinley
5
20th
Re-elected in 1828. 3 21st
22nd 3 Elected in 1831.
Lost re-election.
Mar 4, 1831 –
Mar 3, 1837
Jacksonian
Gabriel Moore
6
23rd National
Republican
Re-elected in 1834. 4 24th
Democratic 25th 4 Elected in 1837.
Resigned to become a Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.
Mar 4, 1837 –
Apr 22, 1837
Democratic
John McKinley
7
  Apr 22, 1837 –
Jun 19, 1837
Vacant
Elected to finish McKinley's term.
Resigned.
Jun 19, 1837 –
Nov 15, 1841
Democratic
Clement Comer Clay
8
26th
Re-elected in 1840.
Resigned to become U.S. Minister to France.
5 27th
  Nov 15, 1841 –
Nov 24, 1841
Vacant
Elected to finish McKinley's term. Nov 24, 1841 –
Jun 16, 1848
Democratic
Arthur P. Bagby
9
28th 5 Re-elected in 1842.
Resigned to become U.S. Minister to Russia.
Vacant Apr 15, 1844 –
Apr 22, 1844
 
2
Dixon Hall Lewis
Democratic Apr 22, 1844 –
Oct 24, 1848
Appointed to finish King's term.
29th
Elected in 1847.
Died.
6 30th
  Jun 16, 1848 –
Jul 1, 1848
Vacant
Appointed to continue Bagby's term.
Elected to finish Bagby's term.
Jul 1, 1848 –
Dec 20, 1852
Democratic
William R. King
10
Vacant Oct 24, 1848 –
Nov 25, 1848
 
3
Benjamin Fitzpatrick
Democratic Nov 25, 1848 –
Nov 30, 1849
Appointed to continue Lewis's term.
Successor elected.
31st 6 Re-elected in 1848 or 1849.
Resigned due to poor health.
4
Jeremiah Clemens
Democratic Nov 30, 1849 –
Mar 3, 1853
Elected to finish Lewis's term.
Lost re-election.
32nd
  Dec 20, 1852 –
Jan 14, 1853
Vacant
Appointed to continue King's term.
Elected in 1853 to finish King's term.[1]
Jan 14, 1853 –
Mar 3, 1855
Democratic
Benjamin Fitzpatrick
11
Vacant Mar 4, 1853 –
Nov 29, 1853
Legislature failed to elect. 7 33rd
5
Clement Claiborne Clay
Democratic Nov 29, 1853 –
Jan 21, 1861
Elected late in 1853.
34th 7 Legislature failed to elect. Mar 4, 1855 –
Nov 26, 1855
Vacant
Elected late.
Withdrew.[a]
Nov 26, 1855 –
Jan 21, 1861
Democratic
Benjamin Fitzpatrick
35th
Re-elected in 1858.
Withdrew.[a]
8 36th
Vacant Jan 21, 1861 –
Jul 13, 1868
Civil War and Reconstruction Civil War and Reconstruction Jan 21, 1861 –
Jul 13, 1868
Vacant
37th 8
38th
9 39th
40th 9
6
Willard Warner
Republican Jul 13, 1868 –
Mar 3, 1871
Elected in 1868 to finish vacant term.
Lost re-election.
Elected in 1868 to finish vacant term. Jul 13, 1868 –
Mar 3, 1879
Republican
George E. Spencer
12
41st
7
George Goldthwaite
Democratic Mar 4, 1871 –
Mar 3, 1877
Elected in 1870.
Retired.
10 42nd
43rd 10 Re-elected in 1872.
Retired.
44th
8
John T. Morgan
Democratic Mar 4, 1877 –
Jun 11, 1907
Elected in 1876. 11 45th
46th 11 Elected in 1878.
Died.
Mar 4, 1879 –
Dec 31, 1879
Democratic
George S. Houston
13
  Dec 31, 1879 –
Jan 7, 1880
Vacant
Appointed to continue Houston's term.
Successor qualified.
Jan 7, 1880 –
Nov 23, 1880
Democratic
Luke Pryor
14
Elected to finish Houston's term. Nov 24, 1880 –
Mar 3, 1897
Democratic
James L. Pugh
15
47th
Re-elected in 1882. 12 48th
49th 12 Re-elected in 1884.
50th
Re-elected in 1888. 13 51st
52nd 13 Re-elected in 1890.
Lost renomination.[2]
53rd
Re-elected in 1894. 14 54th
55th 14 Elected in 1897.[3] Mar 4, 1897 –
Jul 27, 1907
Democratic
Edmund Pettus
16
56th
Re-elected in 1900. 15 57th
58th 15 Re-elected in 1903.
Re-elected early in 1907,[4][5] but died.
59th
Re-elected in 1907.[4][5]
Died.
16 60th
Vacant Jun 11, 1907 –
Jun 18, 1907
 
9
John H. Bankhead
Democratic Jun 18, 1907 –
Mar 1, 1920
Appointed to continue Morgan's term.
Elected in 1907 to finish Morgan's term.
  Jul 27, 1907 –
Aug 6, 1907
Vacant
Elected to finish Pettus's term. Aug 6, 1907 –
Aug 8, 1913
Democratic
Joseph F. Johnston
17
61st 16 Elected in to next term.
Died.
62nd
Re-elected early January 17, 1911. 17 63rd
Henry De Lamar Clayton Jr. (D) was appointed in 1913 to continue the term, but his appointment was challenged and withdrawn.
Franklin Potts Glass Sr. (D) was subsequently appointed to continue the term, but the Senate refused to seat him.[6]
Aug 8, 1913 –
May 11, 1914
Vacant
Elected to finish Johnston's term.
Retired.
May 11, 1914 –
Mar 3, 1915
Democratic
Francis S. White
18
64th 17 Elected in 1914. Mar 4, 1915 –
Mar 3, 1927
Democratic
Oscar Underwood
19
65th
Re-elected in 1918.
Died.
18 66th
Vacant Mar 1, 1920 –
Mar 5, 1920
 
10
B. B. Comer
Democratic Mar 5, 1920 –
Nov 2, 1920
Appointed to continue Bankhead's term.
Successor elected.
11
J. Thomas Heflin
Democratic Nov 3, 1920 –
Mar 3, 1931
Elected to finish Bankhead's term.
67th 18 Re-elected in 1920.
Retired.
68th
Re-elected in 1924.
Disqualified.
19 69th
70th 19 Elected in 1926. Mar 4, 1927 –
Aug 19, 1937
Democratic
Hugo Black
20
71st
12
John H. Bankhead II
Democratic Mar 4, 1931 –
Jun 12, 1946
Elected in 1930. 20 72nd
73rd 20 Re-elected in 1932.
Resigned to become a Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.
74th
Re-elected in 1936. 21 75th
Appointed by her husband to continue Black's term.
Resigned when her successor won the Democratic primary.
Aug 20, 1937 –
Jan 10, 1938
Democratic
Dixie Bibb Graves
21
Appointed to continue Black's term.
Elected in 1938 to finish Black's term.
Jan 11, 1938 –
Jan 3, 1969
Democratic
J. Lister Hill
22
76th 21 Re-elected in 1938.
77th
Re-elected in 1942.
Died.
22 78th
79th
Vacant Jun 12, 1946 –
Jun 15, 1946
 
13
George R. Swift
Democratic Jun 15, 1946 –
Nov 5, 1946
Appointed to continue Bankhead's term.
Successor elected.
14
John Sparkman
Democratic Nov 6, 1946 –
Jan 3, 1979
Elected to finish Bankhead's term.
22 Re-elected in 1944.
80th
Re-elected in 1948. 23 81st
82nd 23 Re-elected in 1950.
83rd
Re-elected in 1954. 24 84th
85th 24 Re-elected in 1956.
86th
Re-elected in 1960. 25 87th
88th 25 Re-elected in 1962.
Retired.
89th
Re-elected in 1966. 26 90th
91st 26 Elected in 1968. Jan 3, 1969 –
Jun 1, 1978
Democratic
James Allen
23
92nd
Re-elected in 1972.
Retired.
27 93rd
94th 27 Re-elected in 1974.
Died.
95th
Appointed to continue her husband's term.
Lost nomination to finish her husband's term.
Jun 8, 1978 –
Nov 7, 1978
Democratic
Maryon Pittman Allen
24
Elected to finish James Allen's term.
Lost renomination; resigned one day early to give his successor advantageous seniority.
Nov 7, 1978 –
Jan 2, 1981
Democratic
Donald Stewart
25
15
Howell Heflin
Democratic Jan 3, 1979 –
Jan 3, 1997
Elected in 1978. 28 96th
Appointed to finish James Allen's term, having already been elected to the next term. Jan 2, 1981 –
Jan 3, 1987
Republican
Jeremiah Denton
26
97th 28 Elected in 1980.
Lost re-election.
98th
Re-elected in 1984. 29 99th
100th 29 Elected in 1986. Jan 3, 1987 –
Jan 3, 2023
Democratic
Richard Shelby
27
101st
Re-elected in 1990.
Retired.
30 102nd
103rd 30 Re-elected in 1992.
Changed parties in 1994.
Republican
104th
16
Jeff Sessions
Republican Jan 3, 1997 –
Feb 8, 2017
Elected in 1996. 31 105th
106th 31 Re-elected in 1998.
107th
Re-elected in 2002. 32 108th
109th 32 Re-elected in 2004.
110th
Re-elected in 2008. 33 111th
112th 33 Re-elected in 2010.
113th
Re-elected in 2014.
Resigned to become U.S. Attorney General.
34 114th
115th 34 Re-elected in 2016.
Retired.
17
Luther Strange
Republican Feb 9, 2017 –
Jan 3, 2018
Appointed to continue Sessions's term.
Lost nomination to finish Sessions's term.
18
Doug Jones
Democratic Jan 3, 2018 –
Jan 3, 2021
Elected in 2017 to finish Sessions's term.
Lost re-election.
116th
19
Tommy Tuberville
Republican Jan 3, 2021 –
present
Elected in 2020. 35 117th
118th 35 Elected in 2022. Jan 3, 2023 –
present
Republican
Katie Britt
28
119th
To be determined in the 2026 election. 36 120th
121st 36 To be determined in the 2028 election.
# Senator Party Years in office Electoral history T C T Electoral history Years in office Party Senator #
Class 2 Class 3

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b Clay and Fitzpatrick along with several other senators announced they were withdrawing from the Senate on January 21, 1861, due to their states' decisions to secede from the Union. Clay's seat was declared vacant by the Senate on March 14, 1861, but Fitzpatrick's was vacant because his term ended on March 4, 1861.

References

  1. ^ Journal of the Senate of the State of Alabama. 1903. pp. 82–83.
  2. ^ Schlup, Leonard C.; Ryan, James Gilbert (February 16, 2018). Historical Dictionary of the Gilded Age. M.E. Sharpe. ISBN 9780765621061 – via Google Books.
  3. ^ "Senator Pettus Re-elected". The New York Times. January 27, 1903. p. 3.
  4. ^ a b "NO CHOICE IN RHODE ISLAND". The New York Times. January 23, 1907. p. 1.
  5. ^ a b The Tribune Almanac and Political Register 1908. New York: The Tribune Association. 1908. p. 258.
  6. ^ Byrd, p. 340.