59th United States Congress
58th ←
→ 60th

March 4, 1905 – March 4, 1907
Members90 senators
386 representatives
6 non-voting delegates
Senate majorityRepublican
Senate PresidentCharles W. Fairbanks (R)
House majorityRepublican
House SpeakerJoseph G. Cannon (R)
Special: March 4, 1905 – March 18, 1905
1st: December 4, 1905 – June 30, 1906
2nd: December 3, 1906 – March 3, 1907

The 59th United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, composed of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1905, to March 4, 1907, during the fifth and sixth years of Theodore Roosevelt's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the 1900 United States census. Both chambers had a Republican majority.

Major events

Main articles: 1905 in the United States, 1906 in the United States, and 1907 in the United States

Major legislation

Main article: List of United States federal legislation

Party summary


(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
End of previous congress 33 56 89 1
Begin 32 56 88 2
End 58 900
Final voting share 35.6% 64.4%
Beginning of next congress 29 61 90 0

House of Representatives

(shading shows control)
Total Vacant
End of previous congress 175 209 384 2
Begin 136 249 385 1
End 133 246 3797
Final voting share 35.1% 64.9%
Beginning of next congress 162 221 383 3


Senate leadership

Senate President
President pro tempore


House leadership

House Speaker


Majority (Republican) leadership

Minority (Democratic) leadership


This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed by class, and representatives are listed by district.

Skip to House of Representatives, below


At this time, Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election, In this Congress, Class 2 meant their term ended with this Congress, requiring reelection in 1906; Class 3 meant their term began in the last Congress, requiring reelection in 1908; and Class 1 meant their term began in this Congress, requiring reelection in 1910.

House of Representatives

Changes in membership

The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.


Vacated by Reason for vacancy Subsequent Date of successor's installation
Vacant Legislature had elected late. William Warner (R) March 18, 1905
Vacant Legislature had elected late. Henry A. du Pont (R) June 13, 1906
William B. Bate (D) Died March 9, 1905. Successor was elected. James B. Frazier (D) March 21, 1905
Orville H. Platt (R) Died April 21, 1905. Successor was appointed and subsequently elected. Frank B. Brandegee (R) May 10, 1905
John H. Mitchell (R) Died December 8, 1905. Successor was appointed. John M. Gearin (D) December 13, 1905
Joseph R. Burton (R) Resigned June 4, 1906, due to a conviction of corruption charges. Successor was appointed. Alfred W. Benson (R) June 11, 1906
Arthur P. Gorman (D) Died June 4, 1906. Successor was appointed. William P. Whyte (D) June 8, 1906
John M. Gearin (D) Successor was elected. Frederick W. Mulkey (R) January 23, 1907
Russell A. Alger (R) Died January 24, 1907. Successor was elected. William A. Smith (R) February 6, 1907
Alfred W. Benson (R) Successor was elected. Charles Curtis (R) January 29, 1907

House of Representatives

District Previous Reason for change Subsequent Date of successor's installation
Indiana 1st Vacant Rep. James A. Hemenway resigned during previous congress John H. Foster (R) May 16, 1905
Nebraska 1st Elmer Burkett (R) Resigned March 4, 1905, after being elected to the U.S. Senate Ernest M. Pollard (R) July 18, 1905
West Virginia 2nd Alston G. Dayton (R) Resigned March 16, 1905, after being appointed judge for the United States District Court for the Northern District of West Virginia Thomas B. Davis (D) June 6, 1905
Texas 8th John M. Pinckney (D) Died April 24, 1905 John M. Moore (D) June 6, 1905
Connecticut 3rd Frank B. Brandegee (R) Resigned May 10, 1905, after being elected to the U.S. Senate Edwin W. Higgins (R) October 2, 1905
Illinois 14th Benjamin F. Marsh (R) Died June 2, 1905 James McKinney (R) November 7, 1905
California 1st James Gillett (R) Resigned January 4, 1906, after being elected Governor of California William F. Englebright (R) November 6, 1906
Virginia 5th Claude A. Swanson (D) Resigned January 30, 1906, after being elected Governor of Virginia Edward W. Saunders (D) November 6, 1906
Pennsylvania 3rd George A. Castor (R) Died February 19, 1906 J. Hampton Moore (R) November 6, 1906
Pennsylvania 12th George R. Patterson (R) Died March 21, 1906 Charles N. Brumm (R) November 6, 1906
Pennsylvania 2nd Robert Adams Jr. (R) Died June 1, 1906 John E. Reyburn (R) November 6, 1906
Georgia 1st Rufus E. Lester (D) Died June 16, 1906 James W. Overstreet (D) October 3, 1906
Missouri 12th Ernest E. Wood (D) Lost contested election June 23, 1906 Harry M. Coudrey (R) June 23, 1906
District of Alaska New seat New delegate seat August 14, 1906 Frank H. Waskey (D) August 14, 1906
Wisconsin 2nd Henry C. Adams (R) Died July 9, 1906 John M. Nelson (R) September 4, 1906
New York 8th Timothy Sullivan (D) Resigned July 27, 1906 Daniel J. Riordan (D) November 6, 1906
Illinois 13th Robert R. Hitt (R) Died September 20, 1906 Frank O. Lowden (R) November 6, 1906
Massachusetts 3rd Rockwood Hoar (R) Died November 1, 1906 Charles G. Washburn (R) December 18, 1906
New York 21st John H. Ketcham (R) Died November 4, 1906 Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Tennessee 10th Malcolm R. Patterson (D) Resigned November 5, 1906, after being elected Governor of Tennessee Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Indiana 12th Newton W. Gilbert (R) Resigned November 6, 1906, after being appointed judge of the court of first instance at Manila, Philippines Clarence C. Gilhams (R) November 6, 1906
Arkansas 4th John S. Little (D) Resigned January 14, 1907, after being elected Governor of Arkansas Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Kansas 1st Charles Curtis (R) Resigned January 28, 1907, after being elected to the U.S. Senate Seat remained vacant until next Congress
New York 26th William H. Flack (R) Died February 2, 1907 Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Virginia 8th John F. Rixey (D) Died February 8, 1907 Seat remained vacant until next Congress
Michigan 5th William Alden Smith (R) Resigned February 9, 1907, after being elected to the U.S. Senate Seat remained vacant until next Congress


Lists of committees and their party leaders for members of the House and Senate committees can be found through the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of this article. The directory after the pages of terms of service lists committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and, after that, House/Senate committee assignments. On the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.


House of Representatives

Joint committees



Legislative branch agency directors


House of Representatives

See also


  1. ^ "Carnegie Foundation". Carnegie Foundation. November 26, 2011. Retrieved December 5, 2011.
  2. ^ Robert M. La Follette was elected to the 59th Congress for the term starting March 4, 1905, but he did not assume the seat until January 2, 1906, preferring to finish his term as Governor of Wisconsin. Nevertheless, his Senate service technically began March 4, 1905.