|41st United States Congress|
March 4, 1869 – March 4, 1871
9 non-voting delegates
|Senate President||Schuyler Colfax (R)|
|House Speaker||James G. Blaine (R)|
|1st: March 4, 1869 – April 10, 1869|
2nd: December 6, 1869 – July 15, 1870
3rd: December 5, 1870 – March 4, 1871
The 41st United States Congress was a meeting of the legislative branch of the United States federal government, consisting of the United States Senate and the United States House of Representatives. It met in Washington, D.C. from March 4, 1869, to March 4, 1871, during the first two years of Ulysses S. Grant's presidency. The apportionment of seats in the House of Representatives was based on the Eighth Census of the United States in 1860. Both chambers had a Republican majority.
The count below identifies party affiliations at the beginning of the first session of this Congress, and includes members from vacancies and newly admitted states, when they were first seated. Changes resulting from subsequent replacements are shown below in the "Changes in membership" section.
During this Congress, Virginia, Mississippi, Texas, and Georgia were readmitted to representation.
(shading shows control)
|End of previous congress||9||57||0||66||8|
|Final voting share||16.2%||83.8%||0.0%|
|Beginning of next congress||16||55||1[a]||72||2|
(shading shows control)
|End of previous congress||45||170||2||3[b]||220||23|
|Final voting share||28.0%||69.9%||2.1%||0.0%|
|Beginning of next congress||93||144||0||2[c]||239||2|
This list is arranged by chamber, then by state. Senators are listed then by class and representatives are listed then by district.
Senators were elected by the state legislatures every two years, with one-third beginning new six-year terms with each Congress. Preceding the names in the list below are Senate class numbers, which indicate the cycle of their election. In this Congress, "Class 1" meant their term began in this Congress, facing re-election in 1874; "Class 2" meant their term ended in this Congress, facing re-election in 1870; and "Class 3" meant their term began in the last Congress, facing re-election in 1872.
The names of members of the House of Representatives are preceded by their district numbers.
The count below reflects changes from the beginning of the first session of this Congress.
|Vacated by||Reason for change||Successor||Date of successor's|
|Virginia (1)||Vacant||Virginia re-admitted to the Union||John F. Lewis (R)||January 26, 1870|
|Virginia (2)||John W. Johnston (D)|
|Mississippi (1)||Vacant||Mississippi re-admitted to the Union||Adelbert Ames (R)||February 23, 1870|
|Mississippi (2)||Hiram R Revels (R)|
|Texas (1)||Vacant||Texas re-admitted to the Union||James W. Flanagan (R)||March 30, 1870|
|Texas (2)||Morgan C. Hamilton (R)||March 31, 1870|
|Georgia (3)||Vacant||Georgia re-admitted to the Union||Joshua Hill (R)||February 1, 1871|
|Georgia (2)||Homer V. M. Miller (D)||February 28, 1871|
|Maine (2)||William P. Fessenden (R)||Died September 8, 1869.
Successor appointed October 30, 1869.
Successor was subsequently elected January 19, 1870 to finish the term.
|Lot M. Morrill (R)||October 30, 1869|
|Iowa (2)||James W. Grimes (R)||Resigned December 6, 1869, because of failing health.
Successor elected January 18, 1870.
|James B. Howell (R)||January 18, 1870|
|Minnesota (2)||Daniel S. Norton (R)||Died July 13, 1870.
Successor appointed July 15, 1870.
|William Windom (R)||July 15, 1870|
|Missouri (3)||Charles D. Drake (R)||Resigned December 19, 1870, after being appointed chief justice of the United States Court of Claims.
Successor appointed December 19, 1870.
|Daniel T. Jewett (R)||December 19, 1870|
|Missouri (3)||Daniel T. Jewett (R)||Interim appointee retired.
Successor elected January 20, 1871.
|Francis P. Blair Jr. (D)||January 20, 1871|
|Minnesota (2)||William Windom (R)||Successor elected January 22, 1871.||Ozora P. Stearns (R)||January 22, 1871|
|District||Vacated by||Reason for change||Successor||Date of successor's|
|South Carolina 3rd||Vacant||Contested election with J.P. Reed. Reed was never seated. House declared Hoge entitled to seat.||Solomon L. Hoge (R)||April 8, 1869|
|Wyoming Territory At-large||Vacant||Territory organized in previous congress and remained vacant until December 6, 1869||Stephen F. Nuckolls (D)||December 6, 1869|
|Virginia 2nd||Vacant||Virginia re-admitted into the Union||James H. Platt Jr. (R)||January 26, 1870|
|Virginia 3rd||Charles H. Porter (R)|
|Virginia 4th||George Booker (C)|
|Virginia 5th||Robert Ridgway (C)||January 27, 1870|
|Virginia 6th||William Milnes Jr. (C)|
|Virginia 8th||James K. Gibson (C)||January 28, 1870|
|Virginia 1st||Richard S. Ayer (R)||January 31, 1870|
|Virginia 7th||Lewis McKenzie (C)|
|Pennsylvania 21st||Vacant||Contested election with Henry D. Foster. House declared neither was entitled to seat. House then declared Covode duly elected February 9, 1870||John Covode (R)||February 9, 1870|
|Mississippi 1st||Vacant||Mississippi re-admitted into the Union||George E. Harris (R)||February 23, 1870|
|Mississippi 2nd||Joseph L. Morphis (R)|
|Mississippi 3rd||Henry W. Barry (R)|
|Mississippi 4th||George C. McKee (R)|
|Mississippi 5th||Legrand W. Perce (R)|
|Texas 1st||Vacant||Texas re-admitted into the Union||George W. Whitmore (R)||March 30, 1870|
|Texas 2nd||John C. Conner (D)||March 31, 1870|
|Texas 3rd||William T. Clark (R)|
|Texas 4th||Edward Degener (R)|
|Louisiana 4th||Vacant||Contested election with Michael Ryan. House declared neither was entitled to seat. Elected to seat thus caused||Joseph P. Newsham (R)||May 23, 1870|
|South Carolina 4th||Vacant||Contested election with William D. Simpson. Simpson was never seated. House declared Wallace entitled to seat.||Alexander S. Wallace (R)||May 27, 1870|
|Louisiana 1st||Vacant||Contested election with Louis St. Martin. House declared neither was entitled to seat. Elected to seat thus caused||J. Hale Sypher (R)||November 7, 1870|
|Georgia 1st||Vacant||Vacancy caused by House declaring Joseph W. Clift not entitled to seat||William W. Paine (D)||December 22, 1870|
|Georgia 2nd||Vacancy caused by House declaring Nelson Tift not entitled to seat||Richard H. Whiteley (R)|
|Georgia 3rd||Vacancy caused by House declaring William P. Edwards not entitled to seat||Marion Bethune (R)|
|Georgia 4th||Vacancy caused by House declaring Samuel F. Gove not entitled to seat||Jefferson F. Long (R)|
|Georgia 5th||Vacancy caused by House declaring Charles H. Prince not entitled to seat||Stephen A. Corker (D)|
|Georgia 6th||Failure to elect||William P. Price (D)|
|Georgia 7th||Vacancy caused by House declaring Pierce M. B. Young not entitled to seat. He was subsequently elected to fill the vacancy thus caused||Pierce M. B. Young (D)|
|Illinois 3rd||Elihu B. Washburne (R)||Resigned March 6, 1869, after being appointed United States Secretary of State||Horatio C. Burchard (R)||December 6, 1869|
|Massachusetts 7th||George S. Boutwell (R)||Resigned March 12, 1869, after being appointed United States Secretary of the Treasury||George M. Brooks (R)||November 2, 1869|
|Pennsylvania 3rd||John Moffet (D)||Lost contested election April 9, 1869||Leonard Myers (R)||April 9, 1869|
|Wisconsin 2nd||Benjamin F. Hopkins (R)||Died January 1, 1870||David Atwood (R)||February 23, 1870|
|Ohio 10th||Truman H. Hoag (D)||Died February 5, 1870||Erasmus D. Peck (R)||April 23, 1870|
|New York 11th||George W. Greene (D)||Lost contested election February 17, 1870||Charles Van Wyck (R)||February 17, 1870|
|South Carolina 1st||Benjamin F. Whittemore (R)||Resigned February 24, 1870, pending an investigation of certain appointments to the US Military and Naval Academies||Joseph Rainey (R)||December 12, 1870|
|Kentucky 3rd||Jacob Golladay (D)||Resigned February 28, 1870||Joseph H. Lewis (D)||May 10, 1870|
|North Carolina 4th||John T. Deweese (R)||Resigned February 28, 1870, pending an investigation of certain appointments to the US Military and Naval Academies||John Manning Jr. (D)||December 7, 1870|
|Pennsylvania 5th||John R. Reading (D)||Lost contested election April 13, 1870||Caleb N. Taylor (R)||April 13, 1870|
|North Carolina 2nd||David Heaton (R)||Died June 25, 1870||Joseph Dixon (R)||December 5, 1870|
|New York 28th||Noah Davis (R)||Resigned July 15, 1870, before being appointed U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York||Charles H. Holmes (R)||December 6, 1870|
|Iowa 2nd||William Smyth (R)||Died September 30, 1870||William P. Wolf (R)||December 6, 1870|
|Virginia 5th||Robert Ridgway (C)||Died October 16, 1870||Richard T. W. Duke (C)||November 8, 1870|
|Ohio 3rd||Robert C. Schenck (R)||Resigned January 5, 1871, after being appointed U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom||Vacant||Not filled this Congress|
|Pennsylvania 21st||John Covode (R)||Died January 11, 1871||Vacant||Not filled this Congress|
|Illinois At-large||John A. Logan (R)||Resigned at end of congress March 3, 1871, after being elected to the US Senate for the following term||Vacant||Not filled this Congress|
|Michigan 4th||Thomas W. Ferry (R)||Resigned at end of congress March 3, 1871, after being elected to the US Senate for the following term||Vacant||Not filled this Congress|
Lists of committees and their party leaders for members of the House and Senate committees can be found through the Official Congressional Directory at the bottom of this article. The directory after the pages of terms of service lists committees of the Senate, House (Standing with Subcommittees, Select and Special) and Joint and, after that, House/Senate committee assignments. On the committees section of the House and Senate in the Official Congressional Directory, the committee's members on the first row on the left side shows the chairman of the committee and on the right side shows the ranking member of the committee.