There have been 49 vice presidents of the United States since the office came into existence in 1789. Originally, the vice president was the person who received the second most votes for president in the Electoral College. However, in the election of 1800 a tie in the electoral college between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr led to the selection of the president by the House of Representatives. To prevent such an event from happening again, the Twelfth Amendment was added to the Constitution, creating the current system where electors cast a separate ballot for the vice presidency.[1]

The vice president is the first person in the presidential line of succession and assumes the presidency if the president dies, resigns, or is impeached and removed from office.[2] Nine vice presidents have ascended to the presidency in this way – eight (John Tyler, Millard Fillmore, Andrew Johnson, Chester A. Arthur, Theodore Roosevelt, Calvin Coolidge, Harry S. Truman, and Lyndon B. Johnson) through the president's death and one (Gerald Ford) through the president's resignation. In addition, the vice president serves as the president of the Senate and may choose to cast a tie-breaking vote on decisions made by the Senate. Vice presidents have exercised this latter power to varying extents over the years.[1]

Prior to adoption of the Twenty-fifth Amendment in 1967, an intra-term vacancy in the office of the vice president could not be filled until the next post-election inauguration. Several such vacancies occurred—seven vice presidents died, one resigned and eight succeeded to the presidency. This amendment allowed for a vacancy to be filled through appointment by the president and confirmation by both chambers of the Congress. Since its ratification, the vice presidency has been vacant twice (both in the context of scandals surrounding the Nixon administration) and was filled both times through this process, namely in 1973 following Spiro Agnew's resignation, and again in 1974 after Gerald Ford succeeded to the presidency.[1] The amendment also established a procedure whereby a vice president may, if the president is unable to discharge the powers and duties of the office, temporarily assume the powers and duties of the office as acting president. Three vice presidents have briefly acted as president under the 25th Amendment: George H. W. Bush on July 13, 1985; Dick Cheney on June 29, 2002 and on July 21, 2007; and Kamala Harris on November 19, 2021.

The persons who have served as vice president were born in or primarily affiliated with 27 states plus the District of Columbia. New York has produced the most of any state as eight have been born there and three others considered it their home state. Most vice presidents have been in their 50s or 60s and had political experience prior to assuming the office.[1] The youngest person to become vice president was John C. Breckinridge at 36 years of age while the oldest was Alben W. Barkley at 71 years of age. Two vice presidents—George Clinton and John C. Calhoun—served under more than one president.

There are currently five living former vice presidents. The most recent former vice president to die was Walter Mondale on April 19, 2021.

Vice presidents

#[a] Portrait Vice President Term Party[b] Election President
1
Official Presidential portrait of John Adams (by John Trumbull, circa 1792).jpg
John Adams
(1735–1826)
[3][4][5]
April 21, 1789[c]

March 4, 1797
Pro-Administration[d] 1788–89 George Washington[e]
Federalist 1792
2
Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale, 1800.jpg
Thomas Jefferson
(1743–1826)
[6][7][8]
March 4, 1797

March 4, 1801
Democratic-Republican 1796 John Adams[f]
3
Vanderlyn Burr.jpg
Aaron Burr
(1756–1836)
[9]
March 4, 1801

March 4, 1805
Democratic-Republican 1800 Thomas Jefferson
4
George Clinton by Ezra Ames.jpg
George Clinton[g]
(1739–1812)
[10]
March 4, 1805

April 20, 1812
Democratic-Republican 1804
1808 James Madison
Office vacant April 20, 1812 – March 4, 1813[h]
5
Nathaniel Jocelyn - Elbridge Gerry (1744-1814) - 1943.1816 - Harvard Art Museums.jpg
Elbridge Gerry[g]
(1744–1814)
[11]
March 4, 1813

November 23, 1814
Democratic-Republican 1812
Office vacant November 23, 1814 – March 4, 1817[h]
6
Daniel D Tompins by John Wesley Jarvis.jpg
Daniel D. Tompkins
(1774–1825)
[12]
March 4, 1817

March 4, 1825
Democratic-Republican 1816 James Monroe
1820
7
John C Calhoun by Mathew Brady, 1849.png
John C. Calhoun[i]
(1782–1850)
[13]
March 4, 1825

December 28, 1832
Democratic-Republican 1824 John Q. Adams
Nullifier[j] 1828 Andrew Jackson[k]
Office vacant December 28, 1832 – March 4, 1833[h]
8
Martin Van Buren.jpg
Martin Van Buren
(1782–1862)
[14][15][16]
March 4, 1833

March 4, 1837
Democratic 1832
9
John Neagle, Richard Mentor Johnson, 1843, NGA 166465.jpg
Richard Mentor Johnson
(1780–1850)
[17]
March 4, 1837

March 4, 1841
Democratic 1836 Martin Van Buren
10
John Tyler.jpg
John Tyler[l]
(1790–1862)
[18][19][20]
March 4, 1841

April 4, 1841
Whig[m] 1840 William H. Harrison
[g]
Office vacant April 4, 1841 – March 4, 1845[h] John Tyler
11
George Mifflin Dallas 1848 crop.png
George M. Dallas
(1792–1864)
[21]
March 4, 1845

March 4, 1849
Democratic 1844 James K. Polk
12
Millard Fillmore -13th president of the United States.jpg
Millard Fillmore[l]
(1800–1874)
[22][23][24]
March 4, 1849

July 9, 1850
Whig 1848 Zachary Taylor
[g]
Office vacant July 9, 1850 – March 4, 1853[h] Millard Fillmore
13
William R. D. King Vice President.jpg
William R. King[g]
(1786–1853)
[25]
March 4, 1853[n]

April 18, 1853
Democratic 1852 Franklin Pierce
Office vacant April 18, 1853 – March 4, 1857[h]
14
John C Breckinridge-04775-restored.jpg
John C. Breckinridge
(1821–1875)
[26]
March 4, 1857

March 4, 1861
Democratic 1856 James Buchanan
15
Hannibal Hamlin, photo portrait seated, c1860-65-retouched-crop.jpg
Hannibal Hamlin
(1809–1891)
[27]
March 4, 1861

March 4, 1865
Republican 1860 Abraham Lincoln[o]
16
President Andrew Johnson.jpg
Andrew Johnson[l]
(1808–1875)
[28][29][30]
March 4, 1865

April 15, 1865
National Union[p] 1864
Office vacant April 15, 1865 – March 4, 1869[h] Andrew Johnson
17
Schuyler Colfax portrait.jpg
Schuyler Colfax
(1823–1885)
[31]
March 4, 1869

March 4, 1873
Republican 1868 Ulysses S. Grant
18
Henry Wilson, VP of the United States.jpg
Henry Wilson[g]
(1812–1875)
[32]
March 4, 1873

November 22, 1875
Republican 1872
Office vacant November 22, 1875 – March 4, 1877[h]
19
VicePresident-WmAlWheeler.jpg
William A. Wheeler
(1819–1887)
[33]
March 4, 1877

March 4, 1881
Republican 1876 Rutherford B. Hayes
20
Chester Alan Arthur.jpg
Chester A. Arthur[l]
(1829–1886)
[34][35][36]
March 4, 1881

September 19, 1881
Republican 1880 James A. Garfield[q]
Office vacant September 19, 1881 – March 4, 1885[h] Chester A. Arthur
21
Thomas Andrews Hendricks.jpg
Thomas A. Hendricks[g]
(1819–1885)
[37]
March 4, 1885

November 25, 1885
Democratic 1884 Grover Cleveland
Office vacant November 25, 1885 – March 4, 1889[h]
22
Levi P. Morton cph.3a02231.jpg
Levi P. Morton
(1824–1920)
[38]
March 4, 1889

March 4, 1893
Republican 1888 Benjamin Harrison
23
23 Adlai E. Stevenson 3x4.jpg
Adlai Stevenson I
(1835–1914)
[39]
March 4, 1893

March 4, 1897
Democratic 1892 Grover Cleveland
24
Garret Augustus Hobart.jpg
Garret Hobart[g]
(1844–1899)
[40]
March 4, 1897

November 21, 1899
Republican 1896 William McKinley[r]
Office vacant November 21, 1899 – March 4, 1901[h]
25
President Roosevelt - Pach Bros (cropped).jpg
Theodore Roosevelt[l]
(1858–1919)
[41][42][43]
March 4, 1901

September 14, 1901
Republican 1900
Office vacant September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1905[h] Theodore Roosevelt
26
CharlesWFairbanks.jpg
Charles W. Fairbanks
(1852–1918)
[44]
March 4, 1905

March 4, 1909
Republican 1904
27
James Sherman, Bain bw photo portrait facing left.jpg
James S. Sherman[g]
(1855–1912)
[45]
March 4, 1909

October 30, 1912
Republican 1908 William H. Taft
Office vacant October 30, 1912 – March 4, 1913[h]
28
Thomas Riley Marshall headshot.jpg
Thomas R. Marshall
(1854–1925)
[46]
March 4, 1913

March 4, 1921
Democratic 1912 Woodrow Wilson
1916
29
Calvin Coolidge cph.3g10777 (cropped).jpg
Calvin Coolidge[l]
(1872–1933)
[47][48][49]
March 4, 1921

August 2, 1923
Republican 1920 Warren G. Harding
[g]
Office vacant August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1925[h] Calvin Coolidge
30
Chas G Dawes-H&E.jpg
Charles G. Dawes
(1865–1951)
[50]
March 4, 1925

March 4, 1929
Republican 1924
31
Charles Curtis-portrait.jpg
Charles Curtis
(1860–1936)
[51]
March 4, 1929

March 4, 1933
Republican 1928 Herbert Hoover
32
JohnNanceGarner.png
John Nance Garner
(1868–1967)
[52]
March 4, 1933

January 20, 1941
Democratic 1932 Franklin D. Roosevelt[g]
1936
33
Henry-A.-Wallace-Townsend.jpeg
Henry A. Wallace
(1888–1965)
[53]
January 20, 1941

January 20, 1945
Democratic 1940
34
TRUMAN 58-766-06 (cropped).jpg
Harry S. Truman[l]
(1884–1972)
[54][55][56]
January 20, 1945

April 12, 1945
Democratic 1944
Office vacant April 12, 1945 – January 20, 1949[h] Harry S. Truman
35
Alben Barkley.jpg
Alben W. Barkley
(1877–1956)
[57]
January 20, 1949

January 20, 1953
Democratic 1948
36
Richard Nixon presidential portrait.jpg
Richard Nixon
(1913–1994)
[58][59][60]
January 20, 1953

January 20, 1961
Republican 1952 Dwight D. Eisenhower
1956
37
37 Lyndon Johnson 3x4.jpg
Lyndon B. Johnson[l]
(1908–1973)
[61][62]
January 20, 1961

November 22, 1963
Democratic 1960 John F. Kennedy[s]
Office vacant November 22, 1963 – January 20, 1965[h] Lyndon B. Johnson
38
Hubert Humphrey crop.jpg
Hubert Humphrey
(1911–1978)
[63]
January 20, 1965

January 20, 1969
Democratic 1964
39
Spiro Agnew.jpg
Spiro Agnew[i]
(1918–1996)
[64]
January 20, 1969

October 10, 1973
Republican 1968 Richard Nixon[i]
1972
Office vacant October 10 – December 6, 1973[t]
40
Gerald Ford (1974) (cropped).jpg
Gerald Ford[l]
(1913–2006)
[65][66][67]
December 6, 1973

August 9, 1974
Republican
Office vacant August 9 – December 19, 1974[t] Gerald Ford
41
Nelson Rockefeller.jpg
Nelson Rockefeller
(1908–1979)
[68]
December 19, 1974

January 20, 1977
Republican
42
Vice President Mondale 1977 closeup.jpg
Walter Mondale
(1928–2021)
[69]
January 20, 1977

January 20, 1981
Democratic 1976 Jimmy Carter
43
George H. W. Bush vice presidential portrait (1).jpg
George H. W. Bush
(1924–2018)
[70][71][72]
January 20, 1981

January 20, 1989
Republican 1980 Ronald Reagan
1984
44
Dan Quayle crop.jpg
Dan Quayle
(b. 1947)
[73]
January 20, 1989

January 20, 1993
Republican 1988 George H. W. Bush
45
Al Gore, Vice President of the United States, official portrait 1994.jpg
Al Gore
(b. 1948)
[74]
January 20, 1993

January 20, 2001
Democratic 1992 Bill Clinton
1996
46
46 Dick Cheney 3x4.jpg
Dick Cheney
(b. 1941)
[75]
January 20, 2001

January 20, 2009
Republican 2000 George W. Bush
2004
47
Joe Biden official portrait crop.jpg
Joe Biden
(b. 1942)
[76]
January 20, 2009

January 20, 2017
Democratic 2008 Barack Obama
2012
48
Mike Pence official Vice Presidential portrait (cropped).jpg
Mike Pence
(b. 1959)
[77][78]
January 20, 2017

January 20, 2021
Republican 2016 Donald Trump
49
Kamala Harris Vice Presidential Portrait (cropped).jpg
Kamala Harris
(b. 1964)
January 20, 2021

Incumbent
Democratic 2020 Joe Biden

Subsequent public office

Further information: List of vice presidents of the United States by other offices held

Twenty-six vice presidents held other high state or federal government positions after leaving the vice presidency. Fifteen went on to become president: John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, Martin Van Buren, John Tyler, Millard Fillmore, Andrew Johnson, Chester A. Arthur, Theodore Roosevelt, Calvin Coolidge, Harry S. Truman, Richard Nixon, Lyndon B. Johnson, Gerald Ford, George H. W. Bush and Joe Biden (nine of them did so following their predecessor's death or resignation); and six served in the Senate: John C. Calhoun, John C. Breckinridge, Hannibal Hamlin, Andrew Johnson, Alben W. Barkley and Hubert Humphrey. Several served as a member of the U.S. Cabinet or as an ambassador in later administrations, or in state government.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ The U.S. vice presidents are counted according to uninterrupted periods of time served by the same person. For example, John Adams served two consecutive terms and is counted as the first vice president (not the first and second). Likewise, George Clinton is counted as the fourth and John Calhoun as the seventh, even though each one's consecutive terms in office were served under more than one president. Following the resignation of 39th vice president Spiro Agnew, Gerald Ford became the 40th vice president even though he was chosen to serve out the remainder of Agnew's second term. Then, after Ford succeeded to the presidency later in that same term, Nelson Rockefeller became the 41st vice president and served out the remainder of the term.
  2. ^ Reflects the vice president's political party at the start of their vice presidency. Changes during their time in office are noted. Also reflects the president's political party unless otherwise noted beside the individual's name.
  3. ^ Due to logistical delays, John Adams assumed the office of Vice President 1 month and 17 days after the March 4, 1789 scheduled start of operations of the new government under the Constitution. As a result, his first term was only 1,413 days long, and was the shortest term for a U.S. vice president who served a full term.
  4. ^ Pro-Administration is a contemporary term for the supporters of the political and economic policies of the Washington Administration prior to the formation of the Federalist and Democratic–Republican parties.
  5. ^ George Washington remained unaffiliated with any political faction or party throughout his eight-year presidency. Greatly concerned about the very real capacity of political parties to destroy the fragile unity holding the nation together, he was, and remains, the only U.S. president never to be affiliated with a political party.
  6. ^ The 1796 presidential election was the first contested American presidential election and resulted in a situation where the persons elected President and Vice President belonged to opposing political parties. Federalist John Adams was elected President, and Thomas Jefferson of the Democratic-Republicans was elected Vice President.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Died in office of natural causes.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Prior to ratification of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, February 10, 1967, an intra-term vacancy in the vice presidency could not be filled.
  9. ^ a b c Resigned from office
  10. ^ John Calhoun, formerly a Democratic-Republican, founded the Nullifier Party in 1828 to advance the cause of states' rights, but was brought on as Andrew Jackson's running mate in the 1828 presidential election in an effort to broaden the political coalition emerging around Jackson.
  11. ^ Andrew Jackson's supporters from the former Democratic-Republican Party, which had largely collapsed by the mid-1820s, began calling themselves 'Democrat' during his first term in office, thus marking the evolution of Thomas Jefferson's Democratic-Republican Party into the modern Democratic Party.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i Succeeded to the presidency intra-term.
  13. ^ John Tyler was elected vice president on the Whig Party ticket in 1840. His policy priorities as president soon proved to be opposed to most of the Whig agenda, and he was expelled from the party in September 1841.
  14. ^ Ill with tuberculosis, William King traveled to Cuba after the 1852 election in an effort to regain his health, and was not able to be in Washington, D.C. to take his oath of office on March 4, 1853. By an Act of Congress, he was allowed to take the oath outside the United States, and was sworn in on March 24, 1853 near Matanzas, Cuba. He is the only vice president to take his oath of office in a foreign country.
  15. ^ Died April 15, 1865; see Assassination of Abraham Lincoln for further details.
  16. ^ When he ran for reelection in 1864, Republican Abraham Lincoln formed a bipartisan electoral alliance with War Democrats by selecting Democrat Andrew Johnson as his running mate, and running on the National Union Party ticket. Later, while president, Johnson tried and failed to build a party of loyalists under the National Union banner. Near the end of his presidency, Johnson rejoined the Democratic Party.
  17. ^ Died September 19, 1881; see Assassination of James A. Garfield for further details.
  18. ^ Died September 14, 1901; see Assassination of William McKinley for further details.
  19. ^ Died November 22, 1963; see Assassination of John F. Kennedy for further details.
  20. ^ a b The Twenty-fifth Amendment established a process whereby an intra-term vacancy in the vice presidency is filled by presidential appointment.

References

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