|United States Capitol Police|
|Common name||U.S. Capitol Police|
|Motto||"A Tradition of Service and Protection"|
|Formed||May 2, 1828|
|Annual budget||$516 million (FY2021)|
|Operations jurisdiction||United States|
|Legal jurisdiction||Congressional buildings, parks, and thoroughfares. Members of Congress, Officers of Congress, and their families throughout the United States, its territories and possessions.|
|Governing body||Capitol Police Board|
|Headquarters||119 D Street, NE|
Washington, D.C., U.S. 20510
The United States Capitol Police (USCP) is a federal law enforcement agency in the United States charged with protecting the United States Congress within the District of Columbia and throughout the United States and its territories. It answers to the Capitol Police Board and is the only full-service federal law enforcement agency appointed by the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States.
The United States Capitol Police has the primary responsibility for protecting life and property, preventing, detecting, and investigating criminal acts, and enforcing traffic regulations throughout a complex of congressional buildings, parks, and thoroughfares. The Capitol Police has primary jurisdiction within buildings and grounds of the United States Capitol Complex. It also has concurrent jurisdiction with other law enforcement agencies, including the United States Park Police and the Metropolitan Police Department of the District of Columbia, in an area of approximately 200 blocks around the complex. Officers also have jurisdiction throughout the District of Columbia to take enforcement action when they observe or are made aware of crimes of violence while on official duties. Additionally, they are charged with the protection of members of Congress, officers of Congress, and their families throughout the entire United States, its territories and possessions, and the District of Columbia. While performing protective functions, the Capitol Police have jurisdiction throughout the entire United States.
The jurisdiction of the United States Capitol Police centers on the United States Capitol building in Washington, D.C., the adjacent congressional (House and Senate) offices, and the Library of Congress buildings. This primary jurisdiction is about 270 acres (0.42 sq mi; 1.1 km2), with about 58 acres (0.091 sq mi; 0.23 km2) being the Capitol grounds themselves. The U.S. Capitol Police also have extended jurisdiction over parts of Northeast, Northwest, and Southwest Washington D.C. The USCP protects House and Senate leaders, other Congresspeople depending on individual risk analysis, lawmakers' state and district offices (with the help of local police), and "off-campus" events such as presidential nominating conventions.
Four congressional committees have statutory oversight. The authority of the Police Chief is, in many ways, restrained. The Capitol Police chief reports to the Capitol Police Board, a three-person group composed of the Senate and House Sergeants at Arms and the Architect of the Capitol. The chief is “whipsawed between partisan politicians and career professionals like the two Sergeants at Arms and congressional staff...here they literally have hundreds of people who think they're their bosses." The pay for the USCP Chief is far less than many police chiefs in the US.
In FY2021, the USCP had an annual budget of more than $515 million; it employs more than 2,000 sworn and civilian personnel, making it one of the most well-funded and well-staffed police departments relative to the two square miles it guards. USCP's budget is divided into a salaries account, used for overtime and benefits, and a general expenses account, used for equipment, vehicles, communications, training, medical services, forensic services, etc. USCP cannot transfer money between the accounts without the approval the House and Senate Appropriations Committees.
U.S. Capitol Police officers attend training at the Capitol Police Training Academy in Cheltenham, Maryland and is one of many agencies that sends its recruits to the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC), located in Glynco, Georgia, for initial training. Rarely, recruits are sent to the FLETC location in Artesia, New Mexico. Following 12 weeks at FLETC, recruits return to FLETC's location in Cheltenham, for an additional 13 weeks of training. After the recruits' academy training, graduates are sworn in as law enforcement officers and assigned to one of four divisions to begin their careers. Once assigned, officers are assigned a Field Training Officer (FTO) for a definite period to provide additional on-the-job training. FTO's provide weekly updates on the subjects that have been learned and issue tests to the new officers. Officers are also subject to a one-year probationary period. Initial salary at the start of training is $64,173.00, with an increase to $66,423.00 after graduation. After 30 months of satisfactory performance and promotion to private first class (PFC), salary is increased to $74,478.00.
The history of the United States Capitol Police dates back to 1801 when Congress moved from the city of Philadelphia to the newly constructed Capitol Building in Washington, D.C. At the time, Congress appointed one watchman to protect the building and Congressional property.
The police were formally created by Congress in 1828 following the assault on John Adams II, the son of John Quincy Adams, in the Capitol rotunda. The United States Capitol Police had as its original duty the provision of security for the United States Capitol.
Its mission has expanded to provide the congressional community and its visitors with a variety of security services. These services are provided through the use of a variety of specialty support units, a network of foot and vehicular patrols, fixed posts, a full-time Containment and Emergency Response Team (CERT), K-9, a Patrol/Mobile Response Division and a full-time Hazardous Devices and Hazardous Materials Sections.
In 1979, the Capitol Police got a separate chief of police; the role had previously been filled by officers of the Metropolitan Police Department.
In 2005 Congress established the United States Capitol Police (USCP) Office of Inspector General (OIG) as a legislative agency. The Inspector General heads OIG, supervises and conducts audits, inspections, and investigations involving USCP programs, functions, systems, and operations, and reports directly to the Capitol Police Board.
The Library of Congress Police were merged into the force in 2009.
The Sergeant at Arms of the U.S. House of Representatives is a member of the Capitol Police Board and reports to the Speaker of the House.
Prior to 2021, four Capitol police officers had died in the line of duty.
Main article: 1998 United States Capitol shooting
On July 24, 1998, a shooting occurred at a security checkpoint inside the Capitol, killing one U.S. Capitol police officer. Another Capitol police officer was killed when the assailant entered Majority Whip Tom DeLay's (R-TX-22) office.
Since 2001, more than 250 Black officers have sued the Capitol Police over allegations of racism. After the 2021 storming of the Capitol by a pro-Trump mob, several Capitol police were suspended for possible complicity with the insurrectionists.
Even though Washington, D.C. is 46% Black, only 29% of the Capitol Police is. This is in contrast to the Metropolitan Police Department (for D.C.), which is 52% Black.
Main article: 2021 United States Capitol attack
At a rally in Washington on January 6, 2021, Trump's lawyer Rudy Giuliani called for "trial by combat". Trump encouraged his supporters to "fight like hell" and "take back our country", and asked his supporters to march to the US Capitol. Eventually the building was easily stormed with little resistance.  Congress was in session at the time, conducting the Electoral College vote count and debating the results of the vote.
The rioters breached barricades erected by Capitol Police around the Capitol. Ultimately, one unarmed woman, Ashli Babbitt, was fatally shot by a USCP officer when she attempted to climb through a shattered window in a barricaded door, and three other rioters died in medical emergencies. One USCP police officer was also injured during the attack, with another officer who responded to the attack dying off-duty days later. More than fifty USCP and MPD officers were injured during the attack, and several USCP officers were hospitalized with serious injuries.
Federal authorities said they were not prepared for the unrest; however, far-right pro-Trump supporters had organized the unrest on pro-Trump far-right social media websites, including Gab and Parler, in advance. The ineffectiveness of Capitol Police's response to the rioting was harshly criticized, as was the contrast between it and the aggressive response of federal law enforcement to the George Floyd protests in the summer of 2020.
At the behest of the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Capitol Police Chief Steven Sund announced his resignation the following day, effective January 16, 2021. Two other officers were also suspended in January 2021. Six Capitol Police officers were suspended and 29 more were being investigated in February 2021.
Yogananda Pittman has been named Acting Chief of Capitol Police. She is the first woman and first African American to lead the agency.
Main article: April 2021 United States Capitol car attack
On April 2, 2021, a suspect identified as Noah Green used a car to hit two Capitol Police Officers and then hit a barricade. Officer William "Billy" Evans died and the other officer was hospitalized. Officers shot and killed the suspect. The Capitol was locked down. Green said on social media that he believed he was a victim of "mind control".
The agency is led by an "Executive Team" with the Chief of Police at the head, who is supported by an Assistant Chief of Police for Uniformed Operations, and a Chief Administrative Officer. There are about 18 bureaus and offices, and an Inspector General. Due to threats and other security measures in the wake of the 2021 United States Capitol attack, the agency announced plans to open field offices in California and Florida on July 6.
|Chief of Police|
|Assistant Chief of Police|
|Chief of Operations|
One maple leaf
|Private First Class|
One chevron over rocker
|Private with training|
[T]he historic merger with the Library of Congress Police in 2009