Mike Simpson
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from Idaho's 2nd district
Assumed office
January 3, 1999
Preceded byMike Crapo
38th Speaker of the Idaho House of Representatives
In office
Preceded byTom Boyd
Succeeded byBruce Newcomb
Member of the Idaho House of Representatives
In office
December 1, 1984 – December 1, 1998
Preceded byJerry Wellard
Succeeded byStan Williams
ConstituencyDistrict 26B (1984–1992)
District 31B (1992–1998)
Personal details
Michael Keith Simpson

(1950-09-08) September 8, 1950 (age 73)
Burley, Idaho, U.S.
Political partyRepublican
Kathy Simpson
(m. 1977)
EducationUtah State University (BS)
Washington University (DMD)
WebsiteHouse website

Michael Keith Simpson (born September 8, 1950) is an American politician and former dentist serving as the U.S. representative for Idaho's 2nd congressional district since 1999. The district covers most of the eastern portion of the state, including Idaho Falls, Pocatello, Sun Valley, Twin Falls and the northern two-thirds of Boise. A member of the Republican Party, Simpson was first elected to public office in 1984, and was elected to the House in the 1998 elections, succeeding Mike Crapo. He served as Speaker of the Idaho House of Representatives from 1992 to 1998.

Generally regarded as a centrist, Simpson supports DACA, work visas for illegal immigrant farm workers, and was one of 18 Republicans who voted against Jim Jordan's nomination for Speaker of the House all three times.[1][2]

Early life, education and private career

Born in Burley, Simpson was raised in Blackfoot, where his father was a dentist. He graduated from Blackfoot High School in 1968, Utah State University in Logan in 1972, and the dental school of Washington University in St. Louis[3] in St. Louis, Missouri, in 1977.[4] Simpson practiced dentistry in Blackfoot until his election to Congress in 1998. He was elected to the Blackfoot City Council in 1980 and to the state legislature in 1984, the first of seven terms. He was the Speaker of the Idaho House before his election to Congress.

U.S. House of Representatives



Simpson entered the 1998 campaign for the U.S. House seat vacated by Mike Crapo, who was running for United States Senate. He defeated former Democratic Congressman Richard H. Stallings, who held the seat from 1985 to 1993, in the general election with 52% of the vote. He has never faced another contest that close; Stallings was the last Democrat to win even 40% of the vote.

Simpson did not face serious opposition in 2000, 2002, or 2004. In 2006, Simpson defeated former Democratic state representative Jim D. Hansen, son of former Republican Congressman Orval H. Hansen, with 61% of the vote.


See also: 2008 United States House of Representatives elections in Idaho § District 2

Simpson defeated two primary challengers with 85.2% of the vote.[5] He defeated Democratic nominee Debbie Holmes with 71% of the vote.[6]

During the 2008 presidential primaries, Simpson was an early supporter of former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney and a member of his Congressional Whip Team.[7][8]


See also: 2010 United States House of Representatives elections in Idaho § District 2

In the Republican primary, Simpson defeated Chick Heileson of Iona and Russ Mathews of Idaho Falls.

Simpson defeated Democratic nominee Mike Crawford and Independent candidate Brian Schad with 68.8% of the vote.


See also: 2012 United States House of Representatives elections in Idaho § District 2

In the Republican primary, Simpson defeated Chick Helieson with 69.6% of the vote.[9] He defeated Democratic nominee Nicole LeFavour with 65.1% of the vote.[10]


See also: 2014 United States House of Representatives elections in Idaho § District 2

In the Republican primary, Simpson defeated lawyer Bryan Smith with 61.8% of the vote.[11] He defeated former congressman Richard H. Stallings in the general election with 61.4% of the vote.[10]


See also: 2016 United States House of Representatives elections in Idaho § District 2

In the Republican primary, Simpson defeated perennial candidate Lisa Marie with 73% of the vote.[12] He defeated Jennifer Martinez and Anthony Tomkins in the general election with 62.9% of the vote.[13]


See also: 2018 United States House of Representatives elections in Idaho § District 2


See also: 2020 United States House of Representatives elections in Idaho § District 2


See also: 2022 United States House of Representatives elections in Idaho § District 2

2022 GOP primary results by county:
  •   40–50%
  •   50–60%
  •   60–70%
  •   70–80%
  •   40–50%

In the Republican primary Simpson once again defeated his 2014 opponent Bryan Smith, this time by 54.6% to 32.7%, with three other candidates splitting the rest of the vote.[14]


While the Republican Party held the majority in the U.S. House of Representatives, Simpson often served as the Speaker Pro Tempore of the House, particularly during debates on controversial legislation, due to his command of House procedure. Simpson is known to have broken several sounding boards with the gavel while calling the House to order. This inspired him to have a number of sounding boards produced in Idaho, which he presented to then Speaker of the House Dennis Hastert as a joke. When the Republican Party regained control of the House of Representatives in 2010, Simpson began once again to serve frequently as Speaker Pro Tempore.[15][16]

In the 111th United States Congress Simpson became the Ranking Member on the Interior, Environment, and Related Agencies Appropriations Subcommittee. He also serves as the small state representative on the 33-member House Republican Steering Committee.[17] Known as the "committee of committees", the Steering Committee decides which Republican lawmakers become ranking members on House committees.[18] Simpson replaced Don Young on the committee.[17]

In December 2020, Simpson signed an amicus brief in support of Texas Attorney General Ken Paxton's lawsuit seeking to overturn the results of the 2020 presidential election.[19]

Larry Craig scandal

During the 2007 scandal involving U.S. Senator Larry Craig, Simpson was openly considered for an appointment to the Senate if Craig resigned. But Simpson asked Governor C.L. "Butch" Otter to remove his name from consideration, claiming that the Idaho Congressional Delegation would be in a better position if he were to remain in the House and retain his seniority on the House Appropriations Committee.

Simpson rankled Senate leadership during the Craig scandal by criticizing them for their treatment of Craig. He said: "If that's how they treat their own, that tells me they're more interested in party than individuals, and the party is made up of individuals. How you treat them says a lot about your party."[20] Simpson is not known to have condoned Craig's alleged misconduct, but demanded that Craig be treated fairly. For example, he said, "They have people over there [in the Senate Republican Conference] in far worse trouble that they haven't said a thing about."[20]

Simpson during the 113th Congress

2013 government shutdown

In October 2013, Simpson voted to end the United States federal government shutdown of 2013.[21]

Health care

Affordable Care Act repeal

Simpson voted for and presided[22] over the vote on the American Health Care Act of 2017, which passed the House on May 4, 2017.[23]

Newborn health

Simpson was an original co-sponsor of the Newborn Screening Saves Lives Reauthorization Act of 2013 (H.R. 1281; 113th Congress), a bill that would amend the Public Health Service Act to reauthorize grant programs and other initiatives to promote expanded screening of newborns and children for heritable disorders.[24] Simpson said: "the bill reflects the realities of reduced budgets Washington, but continues and strengthens the well established system of monitoring and evaluating infant conditions soon after birth. Just one small blood sample from the newborn's foot identifies infants with genetic or other conditions that can be treated quickly and effectively, saving and improving thousands of lives."[25]

Energy and water

On June 20, 2014, Simpson introduced the Energy and Water Development and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2015 (H.R. 4923; 113th Congress), a bill that would make appropriations for energy and water development and related agencies for FY2015.[26] The bill would appropriate $34 billion, which is $50 million less than these agencies then received.[27] The appropriations for the United States Department of Energy and the United States Army Corps of Engineers are made by this bill.

Gun rights

Simpson voted for and helped pass the National Right-to-Carry Reciprocity Act of 2011.[28] Under this law, which passed the House on November 16, 2011, people with a valid license are allowed to carry a concealed weapon in other states as long as those states allow concealed weapons and do not have specific rules about concealed weapons carried by nonresidents.[29]

Idaho-focused environmental legislation

Simpson's hallmark legislation is the Central Idaho Economic Development and Recreation Act (CIEDRA), which would create 312,000 acres of wilderness in central Idaho, much of which is currently a wilderness study area. He has faced substantial resistance from groups like the Sierra Club, which claim the bill lacks "wilderness values"[30] because it allows for motorized access to certain parts of the wilderness area and some federal land would be transferred to the State of Idaho to promote the economic development of the local community and the recreational use of National Forest land and other public lands in central Idaho.[31] Simpson has also faced opposition from groups that oppose new federal land designations, and wilderness designations particularly, because of restricted access to wilderness areas.[30] In August 2015, a revised version of CIEDRA, the Sawtooth National Recreation Area and Jerry Peak Wilderness Additions Act, passed Congress and was signed by President Obama, creating the Hemingway–Boulders, Jim McClure–Jerry Peak, and White Clouds wilderness areas, which cover a total of 275,665 acres (111,558 ha) of central Idaho.[32]

On March 21, 2014, Simpson introduced the bill To amend the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act to authorize the Secretary of the Interior to maintain or replace certain facilities and structures for commercial recreation services at Smith Gulch in Idaho (H.R. 4283; 113th Congress).[33] The bill would require the United States Secretary of Agriculture to permit private entities to repair or replace certain commercial facilities on United States Forest Service land in Idaho.[34] Simpson said, "this legislation clarifies Congress's intent of the 2004 amendments to the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act which continued the existing use and occupancy of commercial services in this corridor of the Salmon River".[35]

In February 2021, Simpson announced a "Salmon and Energy" concept intended to restore Snake River salmon while protecting agricultural and energy interests across the Columbia River basin.[36]

Judgeship reorganization

Simpson has actively pushed to divide the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, sponsoring bills to that effect in 2007,[37] 2011,[38] 2017,[39] and 2021.[40] None of these bills were successful.


A dentist himself, Simpson has worked closely with the American Dental Association on issues over the years. This has included co-sponsoring an unsuccessful 2009 bill intended to counter "methmouth",[41] watching out for dentists' interests during the COVID pandemic,[42] and in general pushing for better reimbursements and coverage for dental care.[43]

Tax reform

Simpson voted for the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act of 2017.[44] After passing the bill, he said he spoke to Idaho farmers, ranchers and businesses who called for a simplified tax code and reform. He said the bill would "create economic growth in the United States by unleashing American small businesses and unburdening middle-class families so they can make better financial decisions with their own money."[45]

Texas v. Pennsylvania

In December 2020, Simpson was one of 126 Republican members of the House of Representatives to sign an amicus brief in support of Texas v. Pennsylvania, a lawsuit filed at the United States Supreme Court contesting the results of the 2020 presidential election, in which Joe Biden defeated[46] incumbent Donald Trump. The Supreme Court declined to hear the case on the basis that Texas lacked standing under Article III of the Constitution to challenge the results of an election held by another state.[47][48][49]

House Speaker Nancy Pelosi issued a statement that called signing the amicus brief an act of "election subversion." She also reprimanded Simpson and the other House members who supported the lawsuit: "The 126 Republican Members that signed onto this lawsuit brought dishonor to the House. Instead of upholding their oath to support and defend the Constitution, they chose to subvert the Constitution and undermine public trust in our sacred democratic institutions."[50][51]

January 6 commission

On May 19, 2021, Simpson was one of 35 Republicans to join all Democrats in voting to approve legislation to establish the January 6 commission meant to investigate the attack of the U.S. Capitol.[52]


In 2021, Simpson voted for the Farm Workforce Modernization Act of 2021, which passes work visas for undocumented farm workers.[53]

Simpson voted for the Further Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2020, which authorized DHS to nearly double the available H-2B visas for the remainder of FY 2020.[54][55]

Simpson voted for the Consolidated Appropriations Act (H.R. 1158),[56] which effectively prohibits Immigration and Customs Enforcement from cooperating with the Department of Health and Human Services to detain or remove illegal alien sponsors of Unaccompanied Alien Children.[citation needed]

Simpson supports Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA).[57]

LGBT rights

In 2021, Simpson was among the House Republicans to sponsor the Fairness for All Act, the Republican alternative to the Equality Act.[58] The bill would prohibit discrimination on the basis of sex, sexual orientation, and gender identity, and protect the free exercise of religion.

In 2021, Simpson was one of 29 Republicans to vote to reauthorize the Violence Against Women Act.[59] This bill expanded legal protections for transgender people and contained provisions allowing transgender women to use women's shelters and serve time in prisons matching their gender identity.[60]

In 2022, Simpson was one of 47 House Republicans to vote with the Democratic Party to repeal the federal Defense of Marriage Act, and replace it with the Respect for Marriage Act.[61] He later voted for the final form of the bill as passed in the Senate in December.[62]

Committee assignments

For the 118th Congress:[63]

Party leadership

Caucus membership

Political positions

Simpson is a Republican who is known to be pragmatic on certain issues. For example, he was one of a handful of Republicans to vote for reauthorization of the State Children's Health Insurance Program (SCHIP) in the 110th Congress.[66] He has also supported the National Endowment for the Arts and the National Endowment for the Humanities, voting each year against Republican amendments to strip them of funding. In the past, he has opposed "earmarks", or congressionally directed spending.

Esquire listed Simpson as one of the 10 Best Members of Congress in October 2008.[67] The magazine wrote, "More than any other representative, Simpson lives by the philosophy that democratic representation is a matter of finding not advantageous positions but common ground".[67] The magazine's portrayal of Simpson echoes one of his personal philosophies, which is embodied in Henry Clay's words: "Politics is not about ideological purity or moral self-righteousness. It is about governing, and if a politician cannot compromise he cannot govern effectively." This quotation is framed and hangs in Simpson's Washington D.C. office.[68] Simpson played a key role in the election of John Boehner as House Majority Leader in the 109th United States Congress.[69]

Domestic issues


Simpson is a strong supporter of domestic sugar beet producers[70] and Idaho potato growers.[71] In 2010, he took up the cause, alongside his former colleague Walt Minnick, the lead sponsor of the bill, to secure a third federal judge for Idaho.[72] Simpson said, "The caseload of the Idaho District Court has increased significantly in recent decades resulting in Idaho's district judges carrying a disproportionate share of cases in relation to their colleagues in other states."[72]

Gun law

Simpson was one of the members of Congress to sign the D.C. v. Heller amicus brief which supported a recognition of the Second Amendment as an individual right.[73]

Health care

Simpson has committed to repealing the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, questioning its constitutionality and effectiveness.[74] He was close and loyal to Speaker John Boehner.[75][76][77][78][79]

Economic issues


Simpson supports an agenda of low taxes and pro-business policies.[80]

Tax reform

Simpson supports tax reform.[44] When asked about the Grover Norquist pledge to oppose any net increase in taxes, Simpson said, "Well, first, the pledge: I signed that in 1998 when I first ran. I didn't know I was signing a marriage agreement that would last forever."[81]

International issues

Climate change

In a 2019 conference in Boise, Simpson said: "climate change is a reality. It’s not hard to figure out. Go look at your thermometer." In his speech, he tied climate change to the viability of salmon in Idaho lakes and rivers.[82]


Simpson is also known as an outspoken proponent of nuclear power, extolling its virtues as an environmentally friendly source of energy with minimal carbon output. His support for nuclear energy plays a significant role in his membership of the United States House Appropriations Subcommittee on Energy and Water Development, which oversees the Idaho National Laboratory, a main site for nuclear and alternative energy research in the United States.


In 2022, Simpson voted to provide approximately $14 billion to the government of Ukraine.[83][84]

Social issues

Simpson supports efforts to make it illegal to desecrate the American flag.[85]


Simpson is anti-abortion. He has a zero rating from NARAL Pro-Choice America and a 100% rating from the National Right to Life Committee for his voting record on abortion. He opposes using federal monies to fund abortions, embryonic stem cell research, restricting the transport of minors over state lines to receive abortions, partial-birth abortions except to save a mother's life and human cloning. He supports cutting federal funding of Planned Parenthood.[86]

Affirmative action

Simpson has a 28% rating from the NAACP for his affirmative action-related voting record.[85]


Simpson has a "D" rating from NORML for his voting history on cannabis-related causes. He opposes veterans having access to medical marijuana if recommended by their Veterans Health Administration doctor and if it is legal for medicinal purposes in their state of residence.[87]

Civil rights

Simpson had a 38% rating from the American Civil Liberties Union for his civil rights voting record in the 117th Congress as of November 2021.[88]

LGBT rights

Simpson has had a zero score from the Human Rights Campaign for his LGBT voting record as recently as the 115th Congress, but in the 117th Congress he received a 14, in part for his votes for the Respect for Marriage Act and the Violence Against Women Act.[89]

Big Tech

In 2022, Simpson was one of 39 Republicans to vote for the Merger Filing Fee Modernization Act of 2021, an antitrust package that would crack down on corporations for anti-competitive behavior.[90][91]

Election results

U.S. House elections (Idaho's 2nd district): Results 1998–2022
Year Democrat Votes Pct Republican Votes Pct 3rd Party Party Votes Pct 3rd Party Party Votes Pct
1998 Richard Stallings 77,736 44.7% Mike Simpson 91,337 52.5% Jonathan B. Ratner Natural Law 4,854 2.8%
2000 Craig Williams 58,265 25.9% Mike Simpson (inc.) 158,912 70.7% Donovan Bramwell Libertarian 7,542 3.4%
2002 Edward Kinghorn 57,769 29.0% Mike Simpson (inc.) 135,605 68.2% John A. Lewis Libertarian 5,508 2.8%
2004 Lin Whitworth 80,133 29.3% Mike Simpson (inc.) 193,704 70.7%
2006 Jim D. Hansen 73,441 34.4% Mike Simpson (inc.) 132,262 62.0% Cameron Forth Independent 5,113 2.4% Travis J. Hedrick Constitution 2,516 1.2%
2008 Debbie Holmes 83,878 28.9% Mike Simpson (inc.) 205,777 70.9% Gregory Nemitz Write-in 612 0.2%
2010 Mike Crawford 48,749 24.4% Mike Simpson (inc.) 137,468 68.8% Brian Schad Independent 13,500 6.8%
2012 Nicole LeFavour 110,847 34.8% Mike Simpson (inc.) 207,412 65.1%
2014 Richard Stallings 82,801 38.6% Mike Simpson (inc.) 131,492 61.4%
2016 Jennifer Martinez 95,940 29.4% Mike Simpson (inc.) 205,292 62.9% Anthony Tomkins Constitution 25,005 7.7%
2018 Aaron Swisher 110,381 39.3% Mike Simpson (inc.) 170,274 60.7%
2020 Aaron Swisher 124,151 31.7% Mike Simpson (inc.) 250,678 64.1% Pro-Life Constitution 8,573 2.2% Idaho Sierra Law Libertarian 7,940 2.0%
2022 Wendy Norman 98,736 36.4% Mike Simpson (inc.) 172,448 63.6%


See also


Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress

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Idaho House of Representatives Preceded byJerry Wellard Member of the Idaho House of Representativesfrom the 26th district Seat B 1984–1992 Succeeded byLenore Hardy Barrett Preceded byGrant Mortensen Member of the Idaho House of Representativesfrom the 31st district Seat B 1992–1998 Succeeded byStan Williams Political offices Preceded byTom Boyd Speaker of the Idaho House of Representatives 1992–1998 Succeeded byBruce Newcomb U.S. House of Representatives Preceded byMike Crapo Member of the U.S. House of Representativesfrom Idaho's 2nd congressional district 1999–present Incumbent U.S. order of precedence (ceremonial) Preceded byJan Schakowsky United States representatives by seniority 36th Succeeded byMike Thompson