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Mike The Mover has run for various offices under various political affiliations on 17 occasions to promote his furniture moving business.
Mike The Mover has run for various offices under various political affiliations on 17 occasions to promote his furniture moving business.

A perennial candidate is a political candidate who frequently runs for elected office and rarely, if ever, wins.[1] Perennial candidates' existence lies in the fact that in some countries, there are no laws that limit a number of times a person can run for office, or laws that impose a non-negligible financial penalty on registering to run for election.[2]

Definition

A number of modern articles related to electoral politics or elections have identified those who have run for elected office and lost two to three times, and then decide to mount a campaign again as perennial candidates.[3][4][5] However, some articles have listed a number of notable exceptions.[2][6]

Some who have had their campaign applications rejected by their country's electoral authority multiple times have also been labelled as perennial candidates.[7]

Reason for running

It has been noted that some perennial candidates take part in an election with the aim of winning,[3][8] and some do have ideas to convey on the campaign trail, regardless of their chance for winning.[2][9]

Some perennial candidates may mount a run as a way to help strengthen his or her party's standing in a parliamentary body, in an effort to become kingmaker in the event of a political stalemate.[10]

Some perennial candidates have been accused of running for office continuously as a way to get public election funding.[11] Some have also been accused of being backed by the government of their country, in an effort to make the government appear more rational in comparison.[12]

Americas

Argentina

Brazil

Due to the complex and intricate political system in Brazil concerning political parties, there are more than 30 political parties. In this scenario, it is very useful to have hopeless candidates who can make a good number of votes and increase the overall votes count of a party (or coalition). As a consequence, there are thousands of small perennial candidates for local elections around the country, whose sole purpose is helping others get elected, then ask for a job in the elected government cabinet.[original research?]

Canada

Chile

Colombia

Costa Rica

Ecuador

Mexico

Peru

United States

Main article: Perennial candidates in the United States

Africa

Benin

Gambia

Ghana

Kenya

Mozambique

Senegal

Seychelles

Tanzania

Zambia

Asia and Oceania

Australia

Cyprus

Hong Kong

India

Indonesia

Iran

Israel

Japan

New Zealand

Philippines

Main article: Nuisance candidate

Singapore

Taiwan

Turkey

Europe

Czech Republic

Finland

France

Germany

Helmut Palmer's house in Geradstetten boasted some of his German election percentages.
Helmut Palmer's house in Geradstetten boasted some of his German election percentages.

Iceland

Ireland

Italy

Netherlands

Poland

Romania

Russia

United Kingdom

References

  1. ^ Zeitz, Josh (8 February 2015). "The Death of the Three-Time Candidate". Politico Magazine. Retrieved 27 August 2021. ...Harold Stassen is remembered as the “Grand Old Party’s Grand Old Loser”—the onetime “Boy Governor” who ran for president 10 times between 1948 and 1992—a “perennial, never-say-die candidate” whose quixotic, lifetime quest for the White House obscured an otherwise brilliant public career.
  2. ^ a b c Brown, Chris (29 September 2015). "Canada election 2015: Perennial candidates make running and losing a full-time job". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  3. ^ a b Weeks, Linton (23 September 2011). "Also-Rans: What Drives The Perennial Candidates?". NPR. Retrieved 28 August 2021. For the purposes of this story, we are defining the perennial presidential candidate as someone who runs for — and loses — the race to the White House at least twice. And then runs again.
  4. ^ "Iran's presidential election: Who the candidates are". BBC News. 28 May 2021. Retrieved 28 August 2021. [Mohsen Rezai] has stood three times as president, and never held public office, having also failed in a bid to be elected to parliament in 2000. He is commonly referred to as a "perennial candidate".
  5. ^ Samuels, Alex; Radcliffe, Mary (9 June 2021). "Most Candidates Take The Hint After Two Losses. Why Won't Beto O'Rourke and Charlie Crist?". FiveThirtyEight. Retrieved 28 August 2021. ...both O’Rourke and Crist are risking their political credibility if they run again and lose, as they’ve already failed to win two consecutive runs for office. Even worse, they could be marked as perennial candidates.
  6. ^ Zeitz, Josh (8 February 2015). "The Death of the Three-Time Candidate". Politico Magazine. Retrieved 27 August 2021. Henry Clay, whom Abraham Lincoln called his “beau ideal of a statesman,” ran for president four times. No one remembers him as a joke. William Jennings Bryan was a three-time Democratic presidential nominee. Also not a joke. Adlai Stevenson, twice nominated. Hubert Humphrey, Stassen’s fellow Minnesotan, ran three times. Ronald Reagan lost the GOP nomination in 1968 and 1976 before his victory in 1980. Definitely not a joke.
  7. ^ Kenyon, Peter (31 May 2021). "Iran's Presidential Candidate Slate Leans Heavily Toward Hard-Liners". NPR. Retrieved 29 August 2021. ...a former president, Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, was rejected again. He's becoming known as a perennial candidate.
  8. ^ Bor, Jonathan (2 October 2005). "Perennial candidate 'always ran to win'". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 29 August 2021.
  9. ^ Gardner, Steven (20 May 2008). "Perennial Candidate Says It's Not About Winning". Kitsap Sun. Bremerton, Washington: Gannett. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  10. ^ "港报社评:宋楚瑜明知会输一定要赢" [Hong Kong Newspaper Editorial: James Soong knows he will lost, but he must win]. Hong Kong Economic Journal (in Simplified Chinese). Reuters. Retrieved 28 August 2021. 宋楚瑜这位人所称颂的「政治精算师」胜算渺茫,他自己肯定比谁都清楚,那他为什么还要明知不可为而为之?最合理的推测是宋楚瑜企图成为足以左右大局的关键少数派,选总统第四次落败不重要,重要的是利用曝光机会拉抬他一手创立的亲民党,争取最多的立委席位,假如下届立法院选举一如预料蓝营绿营皆不过半,高举非蓝非绿旗帜的第三势力有望荣膺造王者。(The winning odds of James Soong, a man praised by people as a 'political calculator,' are slim, and he certainly knows that better than any other person, but why is he doing what he knows cannot happen? The most reasonable assumption is he is trying to be a key minority. Losing the presidency four times is not important. The most important thing is he uses his exposure to lift the election results of the People First Party he founded, and win more parliamentary seats. If the next Legislative Yuan election does, as predicted, create a situation with neither the pan-blue and pan-green camps have a majority, the non-blue, non-green camp can become the kingmaker)
  11. ^ "宋楚瑜選不停為補助款? 施明德:難免會聯想到" [James Song is running non-stop for public election money? Shih Ming-teh: it's hard not to imagine]. NOWNews (in Traditional Chinese). Taipei, Republic of China (Taiwan). 7 September 2015. Retrieved 28 August 2021.
  12. ^ Ludwig, Jonathan Z. (14 March 2018). "The Illusion of Russian Elections and Russian Power" (PDF). SAGE International Australia. p. 2. Retrieved 29 August 2021. Perennial candidate and leader of the LDPR Vladimir Zhirinovsky, long thought to be funded by the Kremlin to make them look rational by comparison, is once again on the ballot.
  13. ^ Moro, Teviah (June 10, 2016). "Michael Baldasaro, Hamilton's high priest of pot, dead at 67". The Hamilton Spectator.
  14. ^ Caggs, Samantha (June 9, 2016). "Michael Baldasaro, marijuana activist and mayoral candidate, dies at 67". CBC Hamilton.
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