Portuguese Americans
luso-americanos (Portuguese)
Total population
Portuguese ancestry
1,371,153 (2019)
0.42% of the US population[1]
Regions with significant populations
California, Florida, Hawaii, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, and Rhode Island, among others.
Roman Catholic
Related ethnic groups

Portuguese Americans (Portuguese: portugueses americanos), also known as Luso-Americans (luso-americanos), are citizens and residents of the United States who are connected to the country of Portugal by birth, ancestry, or citizenship.

Americans and others who are not native Europeans from Portugal but originate from countries that were former colonies of Portugal do not necessarily self-identify as "Portuguese American", but rather as their post-colonial nationalities, although many refugees (referred to as retornados) from former Portuguese colonies, as well as many white Brazilians, are ethnically or ancestrally Portuguese. In 2017, an estimated 48,158 Portuguese nationals were living in the United States.[2]

Some Melungeon communities in rural Appalachia have historically self-identified as Portuguese. Given their complex ancestry, individual Melungeons may descend from Portuguese people, but not all do.


Touro Synagogue in Newport, Rhode Island was founded by Portuguese Jews in 1763.

Bilateral ties date from the earliest years of the United States. Following the American Revolutionary War, Portugal was the first neutral country to recognize the United States.[3]

Portuguese people have had a very long history in the United States, since 1634. The first documented Portuguese to live in colonial America was Mathias de Sousa, possibly a Sephardic Jew of mixed African background.[4] The oldest synagogue in the country, the Touro Synagogue, is named after one of these early Portuguese Jews, Isaac Touro.

The Cabrillo National Monument in San Diego honors João Rodrigues Cabrilho, the first European to reach California in 1542


Some of the earliest European explorers to reach continental North America in the Age of Discovery were Portuguese explorers, such as João Fernandes Lavrador. Navigators, like the Miguel Corte-Real family, may have visited the North American shores at the beginning of the 16th century.[5] João Rodrigues Cabrilho was a Portuguese navigator who became the first European to reach California in 1542.

There is a historic landmark, the Dighton Rock, in Southeastern Massachusetts, that a small minority of scholars believe testifies their presence in the area. Portuguese explorer João Rodrigues Cabrilho explored the California coast for the first time.

During the Colonial period, there was a small Portuguese immigration to the present-day U.S., especially to the islands of Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket.

Peter Francisco, the giant soldier in the Continental Army, is generally thought to have been born Portuguese, from the Azores.

Peter Francisco was an Azorean born patriot of the American Revolutionary War.

In the late 19th century, many Portuguese, mainly Azoreans and Madeirans, emigrated to the eastern U.S., establishing communities in New England coastal cities, primarily but not limited to Tiverton, East Providence, Valley Falls, and Pawtucket in Rhode Island,[6] and Taunton, Brockton, Fall River, and New Bedford in Southeastern Massachusetts.

In the 1840s, whaling ships were the way to get to America, after a slow voyage of two to three years.[7] In the early 1700s, Massachusetts dominated the whaling industry with Nantucket, Cape Cod and New Bedford. By the early 19th century, New Bedford had become the center of whaling in America. When whalers were out at sea, they would frequently stop in the Azores to recruit crew members for help.[7] At the end of their voyage, they docked in New England, where crew members often settled as immigrants. Today, one can visit the Whaling Museum in New Bedford, Massachusetts and encounter authentic Portuguese whaling history.[7]

Another part of Massachusetts that attracted many Portuguese immigrants was Northern Massachusetts, most notably Lowell and Lawrence. In addition, Many Portuguese immigrants also went to nearby Southern New Hampshire. Massachusetts was a key location for Portuguese immigrants due to the availability of low skill jobs. Many migrants came to the United States with little knowledge of the English Language, and textile jobs were frequently available in these areas. Portuguese migrants had to seek out low skill jobs because of education in Portugal and the lack of job availability in the nineteenth century.

Renowned composer and conductor John Philip Sousa

A number of Portuguese immigrants settled in the city of Boston. These Portuguese immigrants mainly settled in East Boston and North End. In addition, many Portuguese immigrants also went to Cambridge and Somerville.

A Portuguese community existed in the vicinity of the Carpenter Street Underpass in Springfield, Illinois, one of the earliest and largest Portuguese settlements in the Midwestern United States. By the early twentieth century, the project area represented the western extension of a neighborhood known as the "Badlands." The Badlands was included in the widespread destruction and violence of the Springfield Race Riot in August 1908, an event that led to the formation of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). The Carpenter Street archaeological site possesses local and national significance for its potential to contribute to an understanding of the lifestyles of multiple ethnic/racial groups in Springfield during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.[8]

Portuguese National Church, in the Little Portugal neighborhood of San Jose, California

On the West Coast in California there are Portuguese communities in San Francisco, Oakland, San Jose, Santa Cruz, as well as in dairy farming areas in the Central Valley, the Los Angeles Basin, and San Diego, in connection to Portuguese fishermen and settlers emigrating to California from the Azores. There are also connections with Portuguese communities in the Pacific Northwest in Astoria, Oregon, and Seattle, Washington, and British Columbia, Canada as well.

Many of the Portuguese communities on the west coast were farming towns. Portuguese who moved to California often saved money to buy land to start farming. Portuguese farmers in California and along the west coast of the United States often hired other Portuguese migrants as farm hands. Aside from farming Portuguese migrants also were able to secure jobs as fishermen in port cities.[9]

Portuguese migration to Hawaii occurred often in the late nineteenth century due to the availability of labor contracts on the islands. Labor contracts paid for the migration of entire families. This was enticing for families looking to migrate without the means or the desire to migrate in stages. This led to families having to work off debt before they could move off of the island. Often times Portuguese migrants decided just to remain in Hawaii despite there being little opportunity for improving their lives.[9]

20th century

Benjamin N. Cardozo served on the United States Supreme Court in the 1930's.

After World War II, there was another wave of Portuguese immigration to the country, mainly in the northeastern United States (New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts and Maryland), and also in California. Many were fleeing the right-wing dictatorship of Antonio Salazar. There are Portuguese clubs, principally in the larger cities of these states, which operate with the intention of promoting sociocultural preservation as venues for community events, athletics, etc.

Many Portuguese Americans may include descendants of Portuguese settlers born in Africa (like Angola, Cape Verde, and Mozambique) and Asia (mostly Macanese people), as well Oceania (Timor-Leste). There were around one million Portuguese Americans in the United States by 2000.

A general contribution the Portuguese people have made to American music is the ukulele, which originated in Madeira and was initially popularized in the Kingdom of Hawaii.[10] John Philip Sousa was a famous Portuguese American composer most known for his patriotic compositions.

The Ukulele is one of the most notable Portuguese contributions to American culture, originally brought by Madeiran immigrants to Hawaii.

A large amount of mingling took place between Chinese and Portuguese in Hawaii.[11] There were very few marriages between European and Chinese people with the majority being between Portuguese and Chinese people.[12][13] These unions between Chinese men and Portuguese women resulted in children of mixed parentage, called Chinese-Portuguese. For two years to June 30, 1933, 38 of these children were born; they were classified as pure Chinese because their fathers were Chinese.[14] Curiously, these marriages are in marked contrast to the situation in Macau, where very few Han Chinese married Portuguese settlers; instead, the Portuguese mixed with indigenous Tanka people, leading to the Macanese people.[15]

As with other immigrants that arrived in America, several Portuguese surnames have been changed to align with more American sounding names, for example Rodrigues to Rogers, Oliveira to Oliver, Martins to Martin, Pereira to Perry, Moraes or Morais to Morris, Magalhães to McLean, Souto to Sutton, Moura to Moore, Serrão to Serran, Silva to Silver or Sylvia, Rocha to Rock (or Stone), Madeira or Madeiros to Wood, Pontes to Bridges, Fernandes to Frederick, Costa to Charlie, Emo or Emos to Emma and Santos to Stan.

Azorean Refugee Act of 1958

Portuguese Centenniel Park in Hayward, California

In 1957–58, the Capelinhos volcano erupted on the Azorean island of Faial, causing massive destruction from lava and smoke. In response, then Senators John F. Kennedy and John Pastore co-sponsored an Azorean Refugee Act.[16]

President Dwight Eisenhower signed the legislation in 1958, making 1,500 visas available to the victims of the eruption.[17] An extension was enabled in 1962, providing opportunities for even more immigrants. According to the United States Census from 2000, there were 1,176,615 Portuguese-Americans, the majority being of Azorean descent.

This led to the passing of the 1965 Immigration Act, which stated if someone has legal or American relatives in the United States, they could serve as a sponsor and, therefore could be a legal alien. This act dramatically increased Portuguese immigration into the 1970s and 1980s.[7]


In California's Central Valley, the historically Portuguese community has developed a form of bullfight in which the bull is taunted by a matador, but the lances are tipped with fabric hook and loop (e.g. Velcro) and they are aimed at hook-and-loop covered pads secured to the bull's shoulder. Fights occur from May through October around traditional Portuguese holidays. Bullfighting was outlawed in California in 1957, but the law was amended in response to protests from the Portuguese community in Gustine. Lawmakers determined that a form of "bloodless" bullfighting would be allowed to continue, in affiliation with certain Christian holidays. Though the bull is not killed as with traditional bullfighting, it is still intentionally irritated and provoked and its horns are shaved down to prevent injury to people and other animals present in the ring, but serious injuries still can and do occur and spectators are also at risk. The Humane Society of the United States has expressed opposition to bullfighting in all its forms since at least 1981.[citation needed]

Portuguese-American literature

Renowned 20th-century novelist John Dos Passos

There are four anthologies of Portuguese-American literature: Luso-American Literature: Writings by Portuguese-Speaking Authors in North America edited by Robert Henry Moser and António Luciano de Andrade Tosta and published in 2011, The Gávea-Brown Book of Portuguese-American Poetry edited by Alice R. Clemente and George Monteiro, published in 2013, Writers of the Portuguese Diaspora in the United States and Canada: An Anthology edited by Luís Gonçalves and Carlo Matos, published in 2015, and Behind the Stars, More Stars: The Tagus/Disquiet Collection of New Luso-American Writing edited by Christopher Larkosh and Oona Patrick, published in 2019 by Tagus Press.

A list of accomplished writers include: Katherine Vaz, Frank X. Gaspar, Millicent Borges Accardi, Sam Pereira, Nancy Vieira Couto, Alfred Lewis, Charles Reis Felix, Michael Garcia Spring and John dos Passos.

In recent years, the Portuguese in the Americas Series at Tagus Press at UMass Dartmouth has been particularly active in publishing works by Portuguese-American authors, the most recent of these being The Poems of Renata Ferreira, by Frank X. Gaspar, published in 2020.


Main article: Portuguese American neighborhoods

Portuguese ancestry in the United States in the 2000 census

Portuguese-Americans are the fourth largest ethnic group in the state of Hawaii, fifth largest group in Rhode Island and the eighth largest group in Massachusetts.[18]

Largest communities

Portuguese-American communities in the U.S. according to the 5 Year Estimates of the (2016 American Community Survey):[19][20]

U.S. by Ancestry: 1,367,476
U.S. by Country of Birth: 176,286

Top CSAs by Ancestry:

Portuguese in California
Dia de Portugal Festival in San José, California
  1. Boston-Worcester-Manchester, MA-RI-NH CSA: 393,457
  2. New York-Newark-Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA CSA: 141,522
  3. San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA CSA: 124,652
  4. Los Angeles-Long Beach-Riverside, CA CSA: 49,465
  5. Sacramento-Arden-Arcade-Yuba City, CA-NV CSA: 40,972
  6. Modesto-Merced, CA CSA: 38,031
  7. Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Port St. Lucie, FL CSA: 21,842
  8. Hartford-East Hartford, CT CSA: 21,599
  9. Philadelphia-Reading-Camden, PA-NJ-DE-MD CSA: 14,245

Top CSAs by Country of Birth:

  1. Boston-Worcester-Manchester, MA-RI-NH CSA: 68,875
  2. New York-Newark-Bridgeport, NY-NJ-CT-PA CSA: 47,964
  3. San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland, CA CSA: 10,570
  4. Modesto-Merced, CA CSA: 5,841
  5. Hartford-East Hartford, CT CSA: 3,873
  6. Miami-Fort Lauderdale-Port St. Lucie, FL CSA: 3,493
  7. Los Angeles-Long Beach, CA CSA: 3,153
  8. Springfield-Greenfield Town, MA CSA: 3,105
  9. Philadelphia-Reading-Camden, PA-NJ-DE-MD CSA: 2,610

Top States by Country of Birth:[21]

  1. California: 350,011
  2. Massachusetts: 265,455
  3. Hawaii: 91,003
  4. Florida: 84,486
  5. Rhode Island: 83,414
  6. New Jersey: 82,964
  7. New York: 58,093
  8. Connecticut: 50,077
  9. Texas: 40,688
  10. Washington: 28,048
Portuguese in Rhode Island
Rancho Folclórico of Pawtucket in the Bristol Fourth of July Parade
Portuguese Discovery Monument at Brenton Point State Park
Bodo de Leite in East Providence

Top Cities by Country of Ancestry:

  1. Fall River, Massachusetts: 37,350
  2. New Bedford, Massachusetts: 30,390
  3. New York City: 13,837
  4. Taunton, Massachusetts: 13,825
  5. East Providence, Rhode Island: 13,295
  6. Dartmouth, Massachusetts: 12,907
  7. San Jose, California: 11,712
  8. Newark, New Jersey: 9,764
  9. San Diego: 9,307
  10. Pawtucket, Rhode Island: 7,077
  11. Honolulu: 6,328
  12. Sacramento, California: 6,007
  13. Boston: 5,948
  14. Turlock, California: 5,007
  15. Tiverton, Rhode Island: 4,838
  16. Elizabeth, New Jersey: 4,558
  17. San Francisco: 4,518
  18. Providence, Rhode Island: 4,486
  19. Tulare, California: 4,046
  20. Somerville, Massachusetts: 3,435
  21. Kearny, New Jersey: 3,958
  22. Philadelphia: 3,366
  23. Las Vegas: 3,233
  24. Hanford, California: 3,071

U.S. states with largest Portuguese populations

Portuguese in Massachusetts
Portuguese-American Veterans Memorial in New Bedford
State/Territory Portuguese
(2020 count)[22][23]
 Alabama 3,428 0.07
 Alaska 1,942 0.26
 Arizona 19,999 0.28
 Arkansas 2,289 0.08
 California 350,077 0.89
 Colorado 14,909 0.26
 Connecticut 50,042 1.4
 Delaware 1,956 0.2
 District of Columbia 2,205 0.31
 Florida 89,144 0.4
Georgia (U.S. state) Georgia 14,163 0.14
 Hawaii 48,005 3.38
 Idaho 8,288 0.47
 Illinois 12,323 0.1
 Indiana 4,309 0.06
 Iowa 1,464 0.05
 Kansas 2,727 0.09
 Kentucky 2,613 0.06
 Louisiana 3,863 0.08
 Maine 7,611 0.57
 Maryland 13,006 0.22
 Massachusetts 265,355 3.86
 Michigan 7,507 0.08
 Minnesota 4,334 0.08
 Mississippi 1,255 0.04
 Missouri 5,628 0.09
 Montana 2,273 0.21
 Nebraska 1,479 0.08
 Nevada 18,240 0.6
 New Hampshire 19,601 1.45
 New Jersey 82,951 0.93
 New Mexico 4,246 0.2
 New York 58,083 0.3
 North Carolina 17,076 0.16
 North Dakota 563 0.07
 Ohio 9,470 0.08
 Oklahoma 4,285 0.11
 Oregon 21,984 0.53
 Pennsylvania 23,569 0.18
 Rhode Island 83,373 7.9
 South Carolina 8,147 0.16
 South Dakota 583 0.07
 Tennessee 6,838 0.1
 Texas 40,020 0.14
 Utah 7,401 0.24
 Vermont 2,731 0.44
 Virginia 20,284 0.24
 Washington 27,938 0.37
 West Virginia 855 0.05
 Wisconsin 4,246 0.07
 Wyoming 900 0.16
USA (2020) 1,454,262[24][21] 0.44

Notable people

For a more comprehensive list, see List of Portuguese Americans.

See also


  1. ^ "2019 American Community Survey 1-Year Estimates. Table B04006". United States Census Bureau. 2019.
  2. ^ "Observatório da Emigração". observatorioemigracao.pt.
  4. ^ Robert L. Santos (1995). "Azorean Immigration Into the United States". Archived from the original on February 6, 2012. Retrieved May 4, 2015.
  5. ^ "Associação Dr. Manuel Luciano da Silva" Acervo Documental". Archived from the original on May 23, 2003. Retrieved December 17, 2006.
  6. ^ "Cities with the Highest Percentage of Portuguese Population in Rhode Island". Zip Atlas. Retrieved May 29, 2023.
  7. ^ a b c d Ponta-Garça, Nelson, director. Portuguese in New England. 2016.
  8. ^ Martin, Andrea. "Carpenter Street Underpass" (PDF). Springfield Railroads Improvement Project. US Department of Transportation Federal Railroad Administration and the Illinois Historic Preservation Agency.
  9. ^ a b Baganha, Maria Ioannis Benis (1991). "The Social Mobility of Portuguese Immigrants in the United States at the Turn of the Nineteenth Century". The International Migration Review. 25 (2): 277–302. doi:10.1177/019791839102500202. JSTOR 2546289. S2CID 147321899 – via JSTOR.
  10. ^ "Ukulele origins from Madeira Portugal". Retrieved February 12, 2007.
  11. ^ United States Bureau of Education (1921). Bulletin, Issues 13–18. U.S. G.P.O. p. 27. Retrieved July 14, 2010.
  12. ^ Romanzo Adams (2005). Interracial Marriage in Hawaii. Kessinger Publishing. p. 154. ISBN 978-1-4179-9268-3. Retrieved July 14, 2010.
  13. ^ Margaret M. Schwertfeger (1982). Interethnic Marriage and Divorce in Hawaii: A Panel Study of 1968 First Marriages. Kessinger Publishing.
  14. ^ Romanzo Adams (2005). Interracial Marriage in Hawaii. Kessinger Publishing. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-4179-9268-3. Retrieved July 14, 2010.
  15. ^ Pina-Cabral, João de (2002). Between China and Europe: Person, Culture and Emotion in Macao. New York: Berg (Continuum Books). p. 163. ISBN 0-8264-5749-5. Retrieved August 14, 2020.
  16. ^ "Chronology, 1958–Present". Portuguese Immigrants in the United States. Library of Congress Hispanic Division. Retrieved June 22, 2020.
  17. ^ "Text of H.Res. 1438 (110th): Commemorating the 50th anniversary of the Azorean Refugee Act of 1958 and celebrating ... (Passed the House version) – GovTrack.us". GovTrack.us. Retrieved February 14, 2018.
  18. ^ "Portuguese American Population Numbers". Retrieved February 12, 2007.
  19. ^ "2016 American Community Survey Selected Population Tables". American FactFinder. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 14, 2020. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
  20. ^ "Census table". data.census.gov. Retrieved August 8, 2020.
  21. ^ a b "PALCUS: 2020 US Decennial Census Reveals Increase in Population of Portuguese in the United States". www.prnewswire.com.
  22. ^ "Ancestry table". data.census.gov. Retrieved April 25, 2022.
  23. ^ "Explore Census Data". data.census.gov.
  24. ^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder – Results". factfinder.census.gov. Archived from the original on December 18, 2014. Retrieved October 4, 2017.

Further reading