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Japanese propaganda poster of the Shōwa era showing Adolf Hitler, Fumimaro Konoe and Benito Mussolini, the political leaders of the three main Axis powers in 1938
Japanese propaganda poster of the Shōwa era showing Adolf Hitler, Fumimaro Konoe and Benito Mussolini, the political leaders of the three main Axis powers in 1938

The Axis leaders of World War II were important political and military figures during World War II. The Axis was established with the signing of the Tripartite Pact in 1940 and pursued a strongly militarist and nationalist ideology; with a policy of anti-communism. During the early phase of the war, puppet governments were established in their occupied nations. When the war ended, many of them faced trial for war crimes. The chief leaders were Adolf Hitler of Germany, Benito Mussolini of Italy, and Hirohito of Japan.[1][2] Unlike what happened with the Allies, there was never a joint meeting of the main Axis heads of government, although Mussolini and Adolf Hitler did meet on a regular basis.

Kingdom of Bulgaria (1941–1944)

Tsar Boris III.
Bogdan Filov
Bogdan Filov

The Third Reich (Nazi Germany)

Adolf Hitler was the Austrian-born leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party
Adolf Hitler was the Austrian-born leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party
Heinrich Himmler was Commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and Minister of the Interior
Heinrich Himmler was Commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS) and Minister of the Interior

Kingdom of Hungary (1940–1945)

Regent Miklós Horthy of Hungary
Regent Miklós Horthy of Hungary
Ferenc Szálasi
Ferenc Szálasi

Kingdom of Italy (1940–1943), Italian Social Republic (1943–1945)

King of Italy Victor Emmanuel III
Benito Mussolini, prime minister, Duce and leader of the National Fascist Party.

Empire of Japan

Hirohito, the Emperor of Japan
Hirohito, the Emperor of Japan
Hideki Tojo, Supreme Military Leader of Japan and Prime Minister of Japan from 1941 to 1944
Hideki Tojo, Supreme Military Leader of Japan and Prime Minister of Japan from 1941 to 1944

Kingdom of Romania (1940–1944)

King Michael I (left) and Ion Antonescu (right)
King Michael I (left) and Ion Antonescu (right)

Client states and protectorates of the Axis

Independent State of Croatia (1941–1945)

Ante Pavelić
Ante Pavelić
Philippe Pétain
Philippe Pétain
Jozef Tiso
Jozef Tiso

French State (1940–1944)

Slovak Republic (1939–1945)

Puppet states of Nazi Germany

Leonhard Kaupisch
Leonhard Kaupisch
Vidkun Quisling
Vidkun Quisling
Milan Nedić
Milan Nedić

Protectorate of Denmark (1940–1945)

Province of Ljubljana (1943–1945)

Norwegian National government (1940–1945)

Government of National Salvation, Serbia (1941–1944)

Puppet states of the Kingdom of Italy

Albanian Kingdom (1940–1943)

Kingdom of Montenegro (1941–1943)

Joint German-Italian puppet states

Hellenic State (1941–1944)

Puppet states of Imperial Japan

Chairman    Wang Jingwei
Emperor Puyi
Zhang Jinghui
Chairman Demchugdongrub

State of Burma (1943–1945)

Kingdom of Cambodia (1945)

Republic of China-Nanjing (1940–1945)

Provisional Government of Free India (1943–1945)

Kingdom of Laos (1945)

Great Manchu Empire

Mengjiang United Autonomous Government

Second Philippine Republic (1943–1945)

Empire of Vietnam (1945)

Co-belligerent state combatants

Various countries fought side by side with the Axis powers for a common cause. These countries were not signatories of the Tripartite Pact and thus not formal members of the Axis.

Finland (1941–1944)

Main article: Military history of Finland during World War II

Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim

Kingdom of Iraq (1941)

Main article: Anglo-Iraqi War

Faisal II
Faisal II

Kingdom of Thailand (1940–1945)

See also: Thailand in World War II

Plaek Pibulsongkram
Plaek Pibulsongkram

See also

References

  1. ^ Ferro, Marc (February 15, 2007). Ils étaient sept hommes en guerre. Robert Laffont Group. ISBN 978-2221100943.
  2. ^ Burleigh, Michael (January 1, 2010). Moral Combat: A History of World War II. Harper. ISBN 978-0007195763.
  3. ^ Daniel Barenblat, A plague upon humanity, 2004, p.37.
  4. ^ Yoshiaki Yoshimi, Dokugasusen Kankei Shiryō II, Kaisetsu(Materials on Poison Gas Warfare), 1997, pp.25–29., Herbert P. Bix, Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan, 2001