Maria Ressa
Maria Ressa.jpg
Ressa in 2011
Maria Angelita Delfin Aycardo

(1963-10-02) October 2, 1963 (age 59)
Manila, Philippines
  • Philippines
  • United States
  • Journalist
  • author
Known forCo-founding Rappler
WebsiteOfficial website

Maria Angelita Ressa (Tagalog pronunciation: [ˈɾesa]; born Maria Angelita Delfin Aycardo on October 2, 1963) is a Filipino and American journalist. She is the co-founder and CEO of Rappler.[1] She previously spent nearly two decades working as a lead investigative reporter in Southeast Asia for CNN.[2]

Ressa was born in Manila and raised in Toms River, New Jersey. She was included in Time's Person of the Year 2018 issue featuring a collection of journalists from around the world actively combating fake news. On February 13, 2019, she was arrested by Philippine authorities for cyberlibel due to accusations that Rappler published a false news story concerning businessman Wilfredo Keng. On June 15, 2020, a court in Manila found her guilty of cyberlibel[3][4] under the controversial Anti-Cybercrime law,[5][6] a move condemned by human rights groups and journalists as an attack on press freedom.[7][8][9] As she is a prominent critic of the then Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte, her arrest and conviction was seen by many in the opposition and the international community as a politically motivated act by Duterte's government.[10][11][12] Ressa is one of the 25 leading figures on the Information and Democracy Commission launched by Reporters Without Borders.[13] She was awarded the 2021 Nobel Peace Prize jointly with Dmitry Muratov for "their efforts to safeguard freedom of expression, which is a precondition for democracy and lasting peace."[14][15][16]

Early life

Ressa was born in Manila in October 1963.[17] Ressa's father Phil Sunico Aycardo, a Chinese-Filipino, died when she was one year old. She grew up speaking only Tagalog and studied at St. Scholastica's College in Manila. Her mother Hermelina then moved to the United States, leaving Ressa and her sister with their father's family, but would visit her two children frequently.[18] Subsequently, her mother married an Italian-American man named Peter Ames Ressa and returned to the Philippines. She brought both of her children to New Jersey, United States when Ressa was ten years old. Ressa was adopted by her stepfather and she took his last name.[19] Her parents then relocated to Toms River, New Jersey, where she went to Toms River High School North, a public school nearby. Ressa had to learn the English language, and by high school stood out as a member of the Theater Guild and student council. She explained her experience thus:

"I landed in New Jersey, where I could barely speak English, and I had to figure out what a short brown kid was going to do in this big white world."[20]

Her yearbook profile included her dreams to set out and conquer the world.[20][21][22][23] Ressa was an undergraduate student at Princeton University, where she graduated cum laude with an A.B. in English and certificates in theater and dance in 1986.[24][25][26][27] She completed a 77-page-long senior thesis titled "Sagittarius."[28] She then was awarded a Fulbright Fellowship to study political theater at the University of the Philippines Diliman where she also taught several journalism courses as a faculty member in the university.[29][30]


Ressa conducts an interview with former Philippine President Benigno Aquino III at the Music Room of the Malacañang Palace, June 7, 2016
Ressa conducts an interview with former Philippine President Benigno Aquino III at the Music Room of the Malacañang Palace, June 7, 2016

Ressa's first job was at government station PTV 4.[31] She then co-founded independent production company Probe in 1987, and simultaneously served as CNN's bureau chief in Manila until 1995. She then ran CNN's Jakarta bureau from 1995 to 2005.[32] As CNN's lead investigative reporter in Asia, she specialized in investigating terrorist networks.[33] She became an author-in-residence at the International Center for Political Violence and Terrorism Research (ICPVTR) of Nanyang Technological University's S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies in Singapore.[34]

Ressa at her office
Ressa at her office

From 2004, Ressa headed the news division of ABS-CBN,[35] while also writing for CNN,[36] and The Wall Street Journal.[37] In September 2010, she wrote a piece for The Wall Street Journal criticising the then president Beningno Aquino III handling of the bus hostage crisis.[38] This piece was published two weeks before the president's official visit to the United States of America. Speculations were rife that this, among other reasons, finally led to Ressa leaving the company in 2010, after deciding not to renew her contract.[39][40][38]

Ressa is a fellow at the Initiative on the Digital Economy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and is a 2021 Joan Shorenstein Fellow at the Shorenstein Center on Media, Politics and Public Policy and Hauser Leader at the Center for Public Leadership at Harvard Kennedy School.[41]


She is the author of three books concerning the rise of terrorism in Southeast Asia—Seeds of Terror: An Eyewitness Account of Al-Qaeda's Newest Center (2003)[42] and From Bin Laden to Facebook: 10 Days of Abduction, 10 Years of Terrorism (2013).[43] and How to Stand Up To a Dictator (2022).[44]


Ressa has also taught courses in politics and the press in Southeast Asia for Princeton University, and broadcast journalism for the University of the Philippines Diliman.[45]


Ressa established the online news site Rappler in 2012 along with three other female founders and with a small team of 12 journalists and developers. It initially started as a Facebook page named MovePH in August 2011,[46] evolving into a complete website on January 1, 2012.[47] The site became one of the first multimedia news websites in the Philippines and a major news portal in the Philippines, receiving numerous local and international awards. She serves as the Executive Editor and Chief Executive Officer of the news website.[48]

"Real Content Oversight Board"

On September 25, 2020, Ressa became one the 25 members of the "Real Facebook Oversight Board," an independent watchdog group established to provide public commentary on Facebook's content moderation policies and role in civic life.[49]

Issue One – Council for Responsible Social Media

In October 2022, Ressa joined the Council for Responsible Social Media project launched by Issue One to address the negative mental, civic, and public health impacts of social media in the United States co-chaired by former House Democratic Caucus Leader Dick Gephardt and former Massachusetts Lieutenant Governor Kerry Healey.[50][51]

Legal issues

Rappler cases
Alleged ownership irregularities:
  • Securities and Exchange Commission: In re: Rappler Inc. and Rappler Holdings Corporation (SP Case No. 08-17-001)
  • Court of Appeals: Rappler Inc. v. SEC (CA-G.R. SP No. 154292)
  • Pasig City RTC Branch 265: People of the Philippines v. Maria Ressa (R-PSG-19-00737-CR)

Alleged defamation:

Alleged tax evasion:

  • Pasig City RTC Branch 165: People of the Philippines v. Rappler Holdings Corp. (R-PSG-18-02983-CR)
  • Court of Tax Appeals: People of the Philippines v. Rappler Holdings Corp. and Maria Ressa (Crim. Case No. O-679)

Ressa first interviewed Rodrigo Duterte, the 16th president of the Philippines, in the 1980s when he was mayor of Davao. She again interviewed him in 2015 during his presidential election campaign, where he confessed to killing three people when he was mayor.[52][53] Under her leadership, Rappler has been consistently critical of Duterte's policies, especially his policies on the war on drugs with their stories demonstrating that the abuses were being carried out by the police with Duterte's approval. The website under her stewardship also wrote about the alleged pro-Duterte online "troll army" which according to their article, were pushing out fake news stories and manipulating the narrative around his presidency.[48]

In July 2017, in his State of the Nation Address, Duterte declared Rappler to be "fully owned" by the Americans and hence in violation of the constitution. He also said, "Not only is Rappler's news fake, it being Filipino is also fake." Subsequently, in August 2017, the Philippine securities and exchange commission (SEC) initiated an investigation against Rappler and demanded to check its documents. In January 2018, it revoked Rappler's license to do business.[54] The case went to the court of appeals, where it was remanded back to the SEC for having no basis.[55][56] Duterte told a Rappler reporter in 2018: "If you are trying to throw garbage at us, then the least that we can do is explain – how about you? Are you also clean?" The government under his leadership revoked the site's operating license.[52]

Arrest and conviction

See also: People of the Philippines v. Santos, Ressa and Rappler

Ressa with FLAG Manila regional director and personal legal counsel Atty. Ted Te
Ressa with FLAG Manila regional director and personal legal counsel Atty. Ted Te

On January 22, 2018, Ressa appeared before the Philippines' National Bureau of Investigation (NBI), to comply with a subpoena over an online libel complaint under the Cybercrime Prevention Act of 2012, which the administration of Rodrigo Duterte has wielded to punish criticism of the President and his allies.[57][58][59][60][61] The subpoena was issued on January 10 to Ressa, together with former Rappler reporter Reynaldo Santos, and businessman Benjamin Bitanga. The subpoena was filed in October 2017 by a Filipino–Chinese national, Wilfredo Keng, after Rappler published a story on Keng's alleged lending of his sports utility vehicle to now-deceased Chief Justice Renato Corona as a bribed form of favor.[62] Though the article was written in 2012 before the act criminalizing cyberlibel was signed into law by Benigno Aquino III, the Department of Justice considered it republished after a typographical error was corrected in 2014.[63] In 2019, human rights lawyers Amal Clooney, Caoilfhionn Gallagher, and Can Yeginsu joined the legal team (consisting of international and Filipino lawyers) defending Ressa.[64] The Free Legal Assistance Group (FLAG), which is the main human rights law firm in the Philippines, led by Atty. Theodore O. "Ted" Te, managed the legal team of Ressa during her different cases.[65][66]

In November 2018, the Philippine government announced that it would charge Ressa and Rappler's parent company, Rappler Holdings Corporation, with tax evasion and failure to file tax returns.[67] The charge concerns the investment in Rappler by the Omidyar Network in 2015.[68] Ressa has denied wrongdoing,[69] originally stating that the foreign money was "donated" to its managers, later stating the investments were in the form of securities.[70] Rappler issued a statement denying any wrongdoing.[71] The Philippines' Bureau of Internal Revenue, after a study of Ressa's explanation, ruled that Rappler's issuance of securities-generated capital gains was taxable. It concluded that Rappler evaded payment amounting to ₱133 million in taxes.[70]

On February 13, 2019, Philippine judge Rainelda Estacio-Montesa of the Manila Regional Trial Court Branch #46 issued the arrest warrant for "cyber libel" against Ressa for an article published on Rappler. The officials of the Philippines National Bureau of Investigation fulfilled this warrant filed under the charge of cyber libel. The "cyber libel" law was passed after the article was originally published, so the charge was based on the technicality that fixing a typo might be considered "republishing".[72] The arrest was live-streamed by many of Rappler's senior reporters on Facebook.[73]

Due to time constraints, Ressa was unable to post bail amounting to 60,000 ($1,150) resulting in her arrest and confinement within the (holding) board room office of the NBI building. A total of six lawyers, two pro bono, were assigned to work on her case.[74] On February 14, 2019, at the executor proceeding of Manila city Judge Maria Teresa Abadilla, Ressa gained freedom by posting bail at ₱100,000 ($1,900).[75]

Ressa's arrest was criticized by the international community. As Ressa is an outspoken critic of President Rodrigo Duterte, many viewed the arrest as being politically motivated.[10] In contrast, the official spokesperson for the Malacañang Palace denied any government involvement in the arrest, asserting that the lawsuit against Ressa was set forth by a private individual, the plaintiff Wilfredo Keng.[76]

Madeleine Albright, a former U.S. Secretary of State, issued an opinion stating that the arrest "must be condemned by all democratic nations".[76] Similarly, the National Union of Journalists of the Philippines called it "a shameless act of persecution by a bully government".[77]

The National Press Club, an organization accused of having close ties to the Duterte regime and with a long history of criticizing the Rappler organization, has stated that the arrest was not harassment, and that Ressa should not be relegated to "the altar of press freedom for martyrdom".[78] It also warned against politicizing the issue.[78]

Ressa's trial on charges of cyberlibel began in July 2019. In a statement she made on the first day of her trial, Ressa said: "This case of cyberlibel stretches the rule of law until it breaks."[79]

Ressa was found guilty on June 15, 2020.[3] In her ruling, Judge Rainelda Estacio-Montesa argued that Rappler "did not offer a scintilla of proof that they verified the imputations of various crimes in the disputed article... They just simply published them as news in their online publication in reckless disregard of whether they are false or not."[80] Judge Rainelda Estacio-Montesa also quoted Nelson Mandela, saying, "To be free is not merely to cast off one's chains but to live in a way that respects and enhances the freedom of others." Sheila Coronel, director of the Stabile Center for Investigative Journalism at Columbia University, argued that the conviction is representative of "how democracy dies in the 21st century."[81]

Ressa faces between six months and six years in prison and a fine of ₱400,000 ($8,000).[63] Ressa warned that her conviction could augur the end of freedom of the press in the Philippines.[82] Presidential Spokesperson Harry Roque asked the media to "respect the decision" and said President Rodrigo Duterte was still committed to free speech, while Vice President Leni Robredo described the conviction as a "chilling development" and the National Union of Journalists of the Philippines said it "basically kills freedom of speech and of the press."[82] Internationally the ruling has been criticized by Human Rights Watch,[83] Amnesty International,[84] and Reporters Without Borders.[85] In its statement condemning the sentence, Reporters Without Borders described the legal proceedings against Ressa as "Kafkaesque".[86]

On January 15, 2023, 12 Nobel Peace Prize laureates, including all of the 2022 laureates and her fellow 2021 Nobel Peace Prize winner Dmitri Muratov, issued an open letter to President Marcos implored him to “assist in bringing about a rapid resolution to the unjust charges against Maria Ressa and Rappler.” [87][88]

In January 2023, a Philippine court acquitted Ressa and Rappler of tax evasion, stemming from the 2018 case.[89] The Philippine Court of Tax Appeals acquitted Ressa and Rappler of four tax charges, while a fifth tax case remains pending at the Pasig Regional Trial Court. Rappler executive editor Glenda Gloria was also charged for the case at the Pasig court.[90]

Awards and recognition

Ressa winning the 2018 Free Speech Award from the Tully Center
Ressa winning the 2018 Free Speech Award from the Tully Center

Ressa has won an Emmy nomination for Outstanding Investigative Journalism, the Asian Television Awards, TOWNS – Ten Outstanding Women in the Nation's Service (Philippines) and TOYM Philippines.[91][92]

Nobel Peace Prize

Main article: 2021 Nobel Peace Prize

Nobel Prize winners Ressa and Muratov
Nobel Prize winners Ressa and Muratov

Ressa was nominated for the 2021 Nobel Peace Prize by prime minister and leader of the Norwegian Labour Party Jonas Gahr Støre.[109][16] On October 8, 2021, Ressa was officially announced as the recipient of the prize alongside Dmitry Muratov of the Russian Federation. They were awarded the prize "for their efforts to safeguard freedom of expression, which is a precondition for democracy and lasting peace".[110] Ressa and Muratov are the first journalists since 1935 to receive the Nobel Peace Prize.[111]

Personal life

Ressa is openly lesbian.[112]

Published works

See also


  1. ^ Arsenault, Adrienne (April 27, 2017). "'Democracy as we know it is dead': Filipino journalists fight fake news". CBC News. Retrieved November 27, 2022.
  2. ^ Lagrimas, Nicole-Anne C. (February 13, 2019). "Rappler CEO Maria Ressa arrested for cyber libel". GMA Network. Retrieved May 30, 2022.
  3. ^ a b Ratcliffe, Rebecca (June 15, 2020). "Maria Ressa: Rappler editor found guilty of cyber libel charges in Philippines". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
  4. ^ Regencia, Ted (June 15, 2020). "Maria Ressa found guilty in blow to Philippines' press freedom". Al Jazeera English. Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. Retrieved February 14, 2021.
  5. ^ "Philippines: Maria Ressa's cyber libel verdict 'a method of silencing dissent'". Deutsche Welle. June 15, 2020. Archived from the original on June 16, 2020. Retrieved February 14, 2021.
  6. ^ "Philippine cybercrime law takes effect amid protests". BBC News. October 3, 2012. Retrieved November 27, 2022.
  7. ^ "Philippines: CFWIJ condemns cyber libel conviction of Maria Ressa". The Coalition For Women In Journalism. June 15, 2020. Retrieved June 29, 2020.
  8. ^ "US Senators Durbin, Markey, Leahy slam Ressa libel verdict". Philippine Daily Inquirer. June 17, 2020. Retrieved June 29, 2020.
  9. ^ Cabato, Regine (June 15, 2020). "Conviction of Maria Ressa, hard-hitting Philippine American journalist, sparks condemnation". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 27, 2022.
  10. ^ a b Leung, Hillary (February 14, 2019). "Philippines Journalist Maria Ressa Released on Bail After Arrest for 'Cyber Libel'". Time. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
  11. ^ Gonzales, Cathrine (June 15, 2020). "Robredo: Ressa's cyber libel conviction a threat to Filipinos' freedom". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved June 29, 2020.
  12. ^ Dancel, Raul (June 15, 2020). "Court finds prominent Philippine journalist and Duterte critic Maria Ressa guilty of cyber-libel". The Straits Times. Retrieved June 29, 2020.
  13. ^ "Maria A. Ressa". Reporters Without Borders. September 9, 2018. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
  14. ^ Gavilan, Jodesz (October 9, 2021). "What you need to know: Filipinos and the Nobel Peace Prize". Rappler. Retrieved November 27, 2022.
  15. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 2021". Nobel Peace Prize. Archived from the original on October 8, 2021. Retrieved October 8, 2021.
  16. ^ a b "Hektisk nomineringsaktivitet før fredsprisfrist". Dagsavisen. January 31, 2021.
  17. ^ "Maria Ressa". Retrieved October 8, 2021.
  18. ^ "Manuel Phil III Sunico Aycardo". October 8, 2021.
  19. ^ Montalvan II, Antonio J. (October 27, 2021). "When fake news made Maria Ressa an 'Indonesian citizen'".
  20. ^ a b Pobre, Addie (October 12, 2021). "10 Facts About Nobel Winner Maria Ressa, Including Her Childhood In The PH & Her Stint At CNN".
  21. ^ Johnson, Eric (November 26, 2018). "Memo from a 'Facebook nation' to Mark Zuckerberg: You moved fast and broke our country". Vox. Retrieved June 4, 2020.
  22. ^ Amanda Oglesby: TIME person of the year, from Toms River, to trigger Time Square ball dro. Ashbury Park Press, 31. Dezember 2018
  23. ^ "'Journalists are under attack globally': Maria Ressa". South China Morning Post. May 26, 2019. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  24. ^ "Maria Ressa : HuMan of the year". Spinbusters. Archived from the original on October 3, 2013. Retrieved September 27, 2013.
  25. ^ "Maria Ressa: The best is yet to come". The Philippine Star. September 4, 2005. Retrieved January 4, 2019.
  26. ^ "Q&A with Maria Ressa '86, Filipina journalist and Time 2018 Person of the Year". The Princetonian. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  27. ^ "Maria Ressa '86, journalist and 2018 Time Person of the Year, named 2020 Baccalaureate speaker". The Princetonian. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
  28. ^ Ressa, Maria Angelita (1986). Princeton University. Department of English (ed.). "Sagittarius".
  29. ^ "Maria Ressa: 'There's a need for transparency, accountability and consistency'". Southeast Asia Globe. August 9, 2015. Retrieved June 9, 2020.
  30. ^ "Maria Ressa". World Economic Forum. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
  31. ^ "CNN Programs – Anchors/Reporters – Maria Ressa". Retrieved June 10, 2020.
  32. ^ "Maria A. Ressa | Reporters without borders". RSF. September 9, 2018. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
  33. ^ "Life, the news, and Maria Ressa by Doreen Yu". The Philippine STAR. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
  34. ^ "Maria Ressa invited to author a book on the Asian terrorism threat" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on October 4, 2011. Retrieved May 6, 2011.
  35. ^ "Palace: No media censorship on Rappler". The Manila Times. January 16, 2018.
  36. ^ Maria Ressa. "Spreading terror: From bin Laden to Facebook in Southeast Asia". Retrieved December 11, 2018.
  37. ^ Ressa, Maria A. (September 6, 2010). "Noynoy Flunks His First Test". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved June 15, 2020 – via
  38. ^ a b "'Confluence of events' leads Philippine journalist Ressa to 'move on'". Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  39. ^ "Maria Ressa's letter to ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs". October 11, 2010. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
  40. ^ Visconti, Katherine (November 2, 2010). "Changes at ABS-CBN: What Maria Ressa leaves behind". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved June 10, 2020.
  41. ^ "Journalist and Kennedy School fellow Maria Ressa awarded Nobel Peace Prize". The Harvard Gazette. October 8, 2021.
  42. ^ Ressa, Maria (2003). Seeds of terror: an eyewitness account of Al-Qaeda's newest center of operations in Southeast Asia. New York: Free Press. ISBN 978-0743251334. OCLC 53170118.
  43. ^ Ressa, Maria (2013). From Bin Laden to Facebook: 10 days of abduction, 10 years of terrorism. Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific. ISBN 978-1908979551. OCLC 842932664.
  44. ^ Ressa, Maria (2022). How to Stand Up To a Dictator. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0063257511.
  45. ^ "Maria Ressa". International Center for Journalists. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  46. ^ "MovePH". Facebook. Retrieved May 12, 2014.
  47. ^ Ressa, Maria. "About Rappler". Rappler. Archived from the original on August 4, 2014. Retrieved August 20, 2013.
  48. ^ a b Ellis-Petersen, Hannah; Ratcliffe, Rebecca (June 15, 2020). "Maria Ressa: everything you need to know about the Rappler editor". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  49. ^ "While Facebook works to create an oversight board, industry experts formed their own". NBC News. September 25, 2020.
  50. ^ Feiner, Lauren (October 12, 2022). "Facebook whistleblower, former defense and intel officials form group to fix social media". CNBC. Retrieved October 12, 2022.
  51. ^ "Council for Responsible Social Media – Issue One". Retrieved October 12, 2022.
  52. ^ a b "Who is Philippine news boss Maria Ressa?". BBC News. June 15, 2020. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  53. ^ Ressa, Maria A. (October 26, 2015). "Duterte, his 6 contradictions and planned dictatorship". Rappler. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  54. ^ "SEC cancels Rappler's license to do business". cnn. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  55. ^ "Maria Ressa: everything you need to know about the Rappler editor". the Guardian. June 15, 2020. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  56. ^ "Philippine news site has licence revoked". BBC News. January 15, 2018. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  57. ^ Villanueva, Ralph Edwin (May 3, 2018). "Duterte: 'Anybody can criticize me, except foreigners'". Retrieved October 11, 2021.
  58. ^ "Harry reiterates Palace no hand in summons vs Rappler's Maria Ressa, 2 others". January 22, 2018. Retrieved October 11, 2021.
  59. ^ Lalu, Gabriel Pabico (May 15, 2020). "Monsod: Arrest of Duterte critic sans libel complaint illegal, unconstitutional". Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  60. ^ Marquez, Consuelo (May 14, 2020). "Man who called Duterte 'buang' on Facebook arrested for cyberlibel". Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  61. ^ Gotinga, J. C. (April 25, 2020). "DOLE asks Taiwan to deport OFW with Facebook posts criticizing Duterte". Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  62. ^ "Rappler CEO Maria Ressa faces NBI over online libel complaint". cnn. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
  63. ^ a b Cabato, Regine (June 15, 2020). "Conviction of Maria Ressa, hard-hitting Philippine American journalist, sparks condemnation". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  64. ^ France-Presse, Agence (July 9, 2019). "Philippines: Amal Clooney to defend journalist Maria Ressa in press freedom fight". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  65. ^ "Lawyers' group denounces raps against members". ABS-CBN News. July 20, 2019. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  66. ^ Buan, Lian (February 26, 2019). "Dismiss cyber libel case vs Maria Ressa, Rappler – Te, FLAG".
  67. ^ Pulta, Benjamin (November 9, 2018). "DOJ orders filing of charges vs. Rappler head, accountant".
  68. ^ Canlas, Jomar (March 9, 2018). "Rappler Holdings charged with tax evasion". Retrieved October 11, 2021.
  69. ^ Stevenson, Alexandra (November 9, 2018). "Philippines Says It Will Charge Veteran Journalist Critical of Duterte". The New York Times.
  70. ^ a b "The truth about Ressa and her vilification of Duterte". The Manila Times. February 20, 2019. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
  71. ^ (November 9, 2018). "Rappler: Tax case clear harassment, has no legal basis". Rappler.
  72. ^ Mike, Navallo (June 14, 2020). "How correcting a typo got Maria into trouble: The cyberlibel case vs Rappler". ABS-CBN. Retrieved June 14, 2020.
  73. ^ hermesauto (February 13, 2019). "Philippines arrests top journalist and Duterte critic Maria Ressa on libel charge". The Straits Times. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  74. ^ Joshua Berlinger; Lauren Said-Moorhouse (February 13, 2019). "Maria Ressa, journalist and Duterte critic, arrested in Philippines". CNN. Retrieved February 13, 2019.
  75. ^ Cabato, Regine (February 14, 2019). "Top Philippine journalist Maria Ressa released on bail after libel charges". Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  76. ^ a b "Maria Ressa, head of Philippines news site Rappler, freed on bail". BBC News. February 14, 2019. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
  77. ^ Cabato, Regine (February 13, 2019). "Top Philippine journalist and Time person of the year arrested on libel charges". The Washington Post. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
  78. ^ a b "National Press Club: Ressa arrest 'smacks of bad taste,' but not harassment". Retrieved February 17, 2019.
  79. ^ correspondent, Hannah Ellis-Petersen south-east Asia (July 23, 2019). "Philippines libel trial of journalist critical of Rodrigo Duterte begins". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved July 23, 2019.
  80. ^ Gomez, Jim; Favila, Aaron (June 15, 2020). "Philippine journalist convicted of libel, given 6-year term". Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  81. ^ Coronel, Sheila (June 16, 2020). "This Is How Democracy Dies". The Atlantic. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  82. ^ a b Gutierrez, Jason; Stevenson, Alexandra (June 15, 2020). "Maria Ressa, Crusading Journalist, Is Convicted in Philippines Libel Case". The New York Times. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  83. ^ "Philippines: Rappler Verdict a Blow to Media Freedom". Human Rights Watch. June 15, 2020. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  84. ^ "Quash Maria Ressa and Rey Santos' conviction in the Philippines". Amnesty International. June 15, 2020. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  85. ^ "Dismay over Philippine journalist Maria Ressa's prison sentence | Reporters without borders". Reporters Without Borders. June 15, 2020. Retrieved June 16, 2020.
  86. ^ "Dismay over Philippine journalist Maria Ressa's prison sentence | Reporters without borders". RSF. June 15, 2020. Retrieved June 17, 2020.
  87. ^ "The Democracy Report".
  88. ^ ""Maria Ressa, Philippine Journalist and Nobel Laureate, Is Acquitted of Tax Evasion"". New York Times. January 17, 2023.
  89. ^ "Maria Ressa: Philippine journalist cleared of tax evasion". BBC News. January 18, 2023. Retrieved January 18, 2023.
  90. ^ "4 down, 3 to go: Cataloging Maria Ressa's legal battles in early 2023". International Journalists' Network. Retrieved February 17, 2023.
  91. ^ Lungay, G. J. "Maria Ressa – Achievements". Retrieved September 27, 2013.
  92. ^ "Local Female Leaders". Islands Society. Retrieved October 7, 2015.
  93. ^ "Maria Ressa—The Sexiest Woman Alive Atlas". October 11, 2010. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
  94. ^ "Rappler CEO Maria Ressa gets lifetime achievement award at PMPC Star Awards". Rappler. Retrieved October 31, 2018.
  95. ^ Ramos, Poyen (March 7, 2016). "8 Most Influential and Powerful Women Leaders". Kalibrr Blog.
  96. ^ "2017 Democracy Dinner Explores the Global Threat of Disinformation". November 2, 2017. Retrieved March 1, 2018.
  97. ^ ICFJ. "Digital News Trailblazers from the Philippines and Venezuela to Receive Top International Journalism Award". International Center for Journalists. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  98. ^ Albeanu, Catalina (June 7, 2018). "Maria Ressa, executive editor of Rappler, receives Golden Pen of Freedom". Retrieved June 8, 2018.
  99. ^ "Maria Ressa". Committee to Protect Journalists. Retrieved June 23, 2020.
  100. ^ "Metro News Today: Rappler's Maria Ressa among TIME's Person of the Year 2018". League Online News. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
  101. ^ Vick, Karl (December 11, 2018). "TIME Person of the Year 2018: The Guardians". Time. Retrieved December 11, 2018.
  102. ^ Cepeda, Maria (February 26, 2019). "Robredo: Maria Ressa, Bishop David prove human rights worth fighting for".
  103. ^ "Maria Ressa: The 100 Most Influential People of 2019". TIME. Retrieved June 15, 2020.
  104. ^ "Maria Ressa, Investigative Journalist and CEO of Rappler, To Receive The Columbia Journalism Award | Columbia Journalism School". Retrieved June 15, 2020.
  105. ^ Canadian Journalism Foundation. "Canadian Journalism Foundation to recognize embattled journalist Maria Ressa with Tribute honour". Retrieved June 15, 2020.
  106. ^ "BBC 100 Women 2019: Who is on the list this year?". BBC News. October 16, 2019.
  107. ^ "Embattled Philippine journalist wins UN press prize". Yahoo! News. Agence France-Presse. April 27, 2021. Retrieved April 27, 2021.
  108. ^ "Nobel Prize laureate and Canadian country music industry builder are MacEwan University honorary doctorate recipients". November 16, 2022.
  109. ^ "Flere fredsprisforslag før fristen gikk ut". Aftenposten. Norwegian News Agency. January 31, 2021.
  110. ^ "The Nobel Peace Prize 2021". October 8, 2021.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  111. ^ Aronson-Rath, Raney (December 30, 2021). "We Will 'Hold the Line': A Year-End Message from FRONTLINE's Executive Producer". FRONTLINE. Retrieved January 18, 2022.((cite web)): CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  112. ^ "Lesbian, Bisexual Scientists Receive Nobel Prizes". December 12, 2022. Retrieved December 13, 2022.
Media offices Preceded byDong Puno SVP for News and Current Affairs, ABS-CBN News 2004–2010 Succeeded byGing Reyes