|Prime Minister of the|
Arab Republic of Egypt
|Term length||No term limit|
|Inaugural holder||Nubar Pasha|
|Formation||28 August 1878|
|Political parties (former)|
The prime minister of Egypt (Arabic: رئيس الوزراء المصري ,رئيس الحكومة) is the head of the Egyptian government. A direct translation of the Arabic-language title is "Minister-President of Egypt" and "President of the Government". The Arabic title can also be translated as "President of the Council of Ministers", as is the case with the Prime Minister of Syria, despite the Arabic title being the same in Syria and Egypt.
Egypt has a long history with a prime minister-type position existing in its governance. Under various Islamic Empires, Egypt had Viziers, a political office similar in authority and structure (in terms of being second in command to the Head of State) to that of a prime minister. During the Old, Middle, and New Kingdom phases of Ancient Egypt, it was common practice for the Pharaoh to appoint a second in command officer whose position is translated to as Vizier. This pattern of having a prime minister/vizier position in government was only broken for an extended period of time during Roman and Sassanid governance of Egypt, in which Egypt was directly ruled by appointed Governors. Then with the founding of modern Egypt and the advent of the Muhammad Ali dynasty, premiership and cabinets in their current definitions started appearing in Egypt parallel to the country's first modern constitutions and parliaments. The office of Prime Minister of Egypt was established in 1878 during the reign of Khedive Ismail, along with the Cabinet of Egypt. After the abolition of the monarchy in 1953, the Egyptian government maintained the position of prime-minister.
In the late 1970s, Egypt had several cohabitation governments which proved to be unstable, due to the struggle arising between the president and the prime minister. From 1981 until 2011, the National Democratic Party had maintained a majority in the People's Assembly and supplied the Egyptian president. The National Democratic Party was dissolved by the supreme administrative court on 16 April 2011, following the Egyptian uprising which eventually caused the resignation of Hosni Mubarak.
Previously, under the 1971 Constitution as amended on 1980, 2003 and 2007, the role of the Prime Minister was limited only to supervising the Cabinet, as the President at that time, was both the head of state and of the government.
The Prime Minister, now, heads the Cabinet, and the entire government of the country under the 2012 and the present 2014 Constitutions, aside from supervising and directing its activities and overseeing its work. He or she, alongside the members of the Cabinet, may propose laws to unicameral Parliament, the House of Representatives, as well as amendments during parliamentary meetings. The Prime Minister has also the power to issue regulations enforcing the laws as well as ensuring full public services and disciplinary measures, which must be subject to government approval.
The said regulatory powers were previously held by the President under the 1971 Constitution, as amended on 1980, 2003 and 2007.
The Prime Minister and the Cabinet also helps the President in formulating the state's general policy and in overseeing its implementation under both the 2012 and the present 2014 Constitutions.
Nubar Pasha was a Christian Egyptian-Armenian politician and the first Prime Minister of Egypt . He served as Prime Minister three times during his career. His first term was between August 1878 and 23 February 1879
When parties from opposite ends of the political spectrum control Parliament and the presidency, the power-sharing arrangement is known as cohabitation. Several cohabitation governments took control in the 1970s yet proved to be very unstable.
From 1 March to 17 June 2014, Ibrahim Mahlab served as the Acting Prime Minister of Egypt. At the time of his appointment by Adly Mansour, he said, "security and stability in the entire country and crushing terrorism will pave the way for investment."
A new cabinet was formed on 19 September 2015.
Egyptian President Abdel-Fattah El-Sisi accepted the resignation of the government and asked Petroleum Minister Sherif Ismail to form a new cabinet.
In June 2018, Ismail submitted his letter of resignation to Sisi. Soon afterwards, Sisi appointed Housing Minister Mostafa Madbouly as acting prime minister.
As of August 2022, there are seven living former prime ministers of Egypt, as seen below.
The most recent Prime Minister to die was Kamal Ganzouri (served 1996–1999, 2011–2012), on 31 March 2021, aged 88.