President of the
Togolese Republic
Président de la
République togolaise
Presidential Standard
Incumbent
Faure Gnassingbé
since 4 May 2005
TypeHead of state
ResidenceNew Presidential Palace, Lomé
Term length5 years, renewable once.
Formation27 April 1960
First holderSylvanus Olympio

This is a list of presidents of Togo since the formation of the post of president in 1960, to the present day.

A total of four people have served as president (not counting one acting president and two interim military officeholders). Additionally, one person, Faure Gnassingbé, has served on two non-consecutive occasions.

Gnassingbé is the incumbent president, since 4 May 2005.

Description of the office

Election

The president of the Republic is elected by universal, direct and secret suffrage for a mandate of five (05) years.[1]

He is re-eligible.[1] As of 2021, there is a two-term limit for the president in the Constitution of Togo which was reinstated in 2019. This limit has been lifted for Gnassingbé Eyadéma in 2002 and for Faure Gnassingbé in 2019.[2]

The election of the president of the Republic takes place by uninominal majority ballot in one (01) round.[3]

The president of the Republic is elected with the majority of the suffrage expressed.[3]

The vote is opened on convocation of the electoral body by decree taken in the Council of Ministers sixty (60) days at least and seventy-five (75) days at most before the expiration of the mandate of the president in office.[4]

No one may be a candidate for the office of the president of the Republic if they:[5]

  1. are not exclusively of Togolese nationality by birth;
  2. are not thirty-five (35) years of age on the date of the deposit of the candidature;
  3. do not enjoy all their civil and political rights;
  4. do not present a general state of physical and mental well-being duly declared by three (03) sworn physicians, designated by the Constitutional Court;
  5. do not reside in the national territory for at least twelve (12) months.

The president of the Republic enters office within the fifteen days which follow the proclamation of the results of the presidential election.[6]

Oath of office

Before his entry into office, the president of the Republic swears before the Constitutional Court meeting in solemn hearing, in these terms:[7]

Before God and before the Togolese people, sole holders of popular sovereignty, We _____, elected President of the Republic in accordance with the laws of the Republic, solemnly swear.

— to respect and to defend the Constitution that the Togolese people have freely given themselves;

— to loyally fulfill the high functions that the Nation has confided in us.

— to be guided solely by the general interest and the respect of the rights of the human person, to consecrate all our forces to the promotion of development, of the common good, of peace and of national unity;

— to preserve the integrity of the national territory;

— to conduct our self at all times, as a faithful and loyal servant of the People.

Vacancy

In case of a vacancy of the presidency of the Republic by death, resignation or definitive incapacity, the presidential function is exercised provisionally by the president of the National Assembly.[8]

The vacancy is declared by the Constitutional Court referred to [the matter] by the Government.[8]

The Government convokes the electoral body within the sixty (60) days of the opening of the vacancy for the election of a new president of the Republic.[8]

Residences

After independence, the President of Togo used the Palace of the Governors as an office and residence. The Palace was formerly used by both German and French colonial administrators. In 1970, President Gnassingbé Eyadéma moved in a new Presidential Palace built near the Palace of the Governors. Another residence used by the Gnassingbé Eyadéma was the Presidential Residence of Lomé II. In 2006, a new Presidential Palace, financed by China, was inaugurated by President Faure Gnassingbé on the outskirts of Lomé.[9]

List of officeholders

Political parties
  Committee of Togolese Unity (CUT)
  Togolese People's Movement (MPT)
  Rally of the Togolese People (RPT)
  Union for the Republic (UNIR)
Other factions
  Military

Status

  Denotes Acting/Interim head of State
No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of office Political party Prime minister(s)
Took office Left office Time in office
1 Sylvanus Olympio
(1902–1963)
1961 27 April 1960 13 January 1963
(Assassinated in a coup d'état)
2 years, 261 days CUT Himself
Emmanuel Bodjollé
(1928–?)[a]
13 January 1963 15 January 1963 2 days Military Position abolished
2 Nicolas Grunitzky
(1913–1969)
1963 16 January 1963 13 January 1967
(Deposed in coup d'état)
3 years, 362 days MPT Position abolished
Kléber Dadjo
(1914–1988/89)[b]
16 January 1967 14 April 1967 91 days Military Position abolished
3 Gnassingbé Eyadéma
(1935–2005)[c]
1972
1979
1986
1993
1998
2003
14 April 1967 5 February 2005
(Died in office)
37 years, 297 days Military / RPT Koffigoh
E. Kodjo
Klutse
Adoboli
A. Kodjo
Sama
4 Faure Gnassingbé
(born 1966)[d]
5 February 2005[e] 25 February 2005
(Resigned)[f]
20 days RPT Sama
Bonfoh Abass
(1948–2021)[g]
25 February 2005 4 May 2005 68 days RPT Sama
(4) Faure Gnassingbé
(born 1966)[d]
2005
2010
4 May 2005 Incumbent 18 years, 280 days RPT
(until 2012)
Sama
E. Kodjo
Agboyibo
Mally
Houngbo
Ahoomey-Zunu
Klassou
Dogbé
2015
2020
UNIR

Timeline

Bonfoh AbassFaure GnassingbéGnassingbé EyadémaKléber DadjoNicolas GrunitzkyEmmanuel BodjolléSylvanus Olympio

Latest election

Main article: 2020 Togolese presidential election

CandidatePartyVotes%
Faure GnassingbéUnion for the Republic1,760,30970.78
Agbéyomé KodjoPatriotic Movement for Democracy and Development483,92619.46
Jean-Pierre FabreNational Alliance for Change116,3364.68
Aimé GoguéAlliance of Democrats for Integral Development59,7772.40
Wolou KomiSocialist Pact for Renewal29,7911.20
Georges Williams KuessanSanté du Peuple19,9230.80
Tchassona TraoréCivic Movement for Democracy and Development16,8140.68
Total2,486,876100.00
Valid votes2,486,87689.80
Invalid/blank votes282,41110.20
Total votes2,769,287100.00
Registered voters/turnout3,614,05676.63
Source: Constitutional Court

Notes

  1. ^ Styled as Chairman of the Insurrection Committee.
  2. ^ Styled as Chairman of the National Reconciliation Committee.
  3. ^ Previously named Étienne Eyadéma; changed name on 8 May 1974 due to the policy of Africanization, and to commemorate survival of a crash of his Douglas C-47 Skytrain presidential plane on 24 January 1974.
  4. ^ a b Son of Gnassingbé Eyadéma.
  5. ^ Proclaimed president by General Zakari Nandja, Chief of Staff of the Togolese Armed Forces, and confirmed by the National Assembly.
  6. ^ Stepped down due to heavy regional pressure, caused over doubts regarding the constitutional legitimacy of his succession.
  7. ^ Succeeded Eyadéma as the constitutional successor, President of the National Assembly.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Article 59 of the Constitution of 1992.
  2. ^ Cook, Candace; Siegle, Joseph. "Circumvention of Term Limits Weakens Governance in Africa". Africa Center for Strategic Studies.
  3. ^ a b Article 60 of the Constitution of 1992.
  4. ^ Article 61 of the Constitution of 1992.
  5. ^ Article 62 of the Constitution of 1992.
  6. ^ Article 63 of the Constitution of 1992.
  7. ^ Article 64 of the Constitution of 1992.
  8. ^ a b c Article 65 of the Constitution of 1992.
  9. ^ "Le président Faure inaugure le palais présidentiel construit avec l'aide chinoise". www.mfa.gov.cn. Retrieved 2022-06-20.