Manikongo of Kongo
Imperial
Details
First monarchLukeni lua Nimi
Last monarchManuel III
Formationc. 1390; 634 years ago (1390)
Abolition1914
ResidenceMbanza Kongo
AppointerHereditary, Dynastic (various)
Pretender(s)See list

This is a list of the rulers of the Kingdom of Kongo known commonly as the Manikongos (KiKongo: Mwenekongo). Mwene (plural: Awene) in Kikongo meant a person holding authority, particularly judicial authority, derived from the root -wene which meant, by the sixteenth century at least, territory over which jurisdiction was held. The ruler of Kongo was the most powerful mwene in the region who the Portuguese regarded as the king (in Kikongo ntinu) upon their arrival in 1483.

The kings claimed several titles and the following royal style in Portuguese "Pela graça de de Deus Rei do Congo, do Loango, de Cacongo e de Ngoio, aquém e além do Zaire, Senhor dos Ambundos e de Angola, de Aquisima, de Musuru, de Matamba, de Malilu, de Musuko e Anzizo, da conquista de Pangu-Alumbu, etc", that means "By the grace of God King of Kongo, of Loango, of Kakongo and of Ngoyo, on this side of the Zaire and beyond it, Lord of the Ambundu and of Angola, of Aquisima, of Musuru, of Matamba, of Malilu, of Musuko and Anzizo, of the conquest of Pangu-Alumbu, etc".

Kandas, Gerações and Houses

The kingdom of Kongo had a formal state apparatus, in which most positions (rendas in Portuguese-language documents, meaning income bearing positions) were in the hands of the king, and the king himself was elected by powerful officials. Kings sought and held office with the assistance of a kanda. Each kanda (plural: makanda) was a faction which organized people according to a common goal, often but not always rooted in a kin-based relationship.[1] Kandas generally took the name of a person (i.e. Nimi, Nlaza or Mpanzu), but could also take the name of a location or title such as Mbala (court)[2]) or birthplace (Kwilu or Nsundi[3]). The Kikongo prefix "ki" is added onto these names to mean "people with something in common".[4] These factions were recorded as gerações or casas (lineages or houses) in Kongo documents written in Portuguese. Until the mid-seventeenth century, following the Battle of Mbwila, these factions were short-lived and fluctuating, but following the battle, factions were much firmer and lasted for generations, particularly the Kimpanzu and Kinlaza.[5] The Quilombo dos Palmares, a Maroon kingdom formed in Northeast Brazil, was founded by princes and nobles who were enslaved and transported to Portuguese Brazil after the battle in Kongo. There, they retained their titles and their lineage survived even after the kingdom itself was destroyed.

Dynasties

When the Portuguese arrived in Kongo in 1483,[6] the reigning king represented the Nimi kanda.[7] This kanda was probably descended from Nimi a Nzima, father of the founder of Kongo.[8] Divisions emerged within the kanda during succession disputes, for example, following the death of Afonso I in 1542, his son Pedro I and grandson Diogo I formed two opposed factions, that of Pedro was called the Kibala (court) faction, and the other, whose name is unknown that followed Diogo.[9] Other elections in the sixteenth century probably also involved similar factions, though the details are unknown.

King Álvaro I was the first king of the House of Kwilu (Portuguese: Coulo). This kanda or lineage was named for the birthplace of Álvaro,[10] north of the capital city. The Kwilu reigned until 1614 when Antonio da Silva, Duke of Mbamba intervened to place Bernardo I on the throne, in place of Álvaro II's minor son, who would eventually take office as Álvaro III.

Another kanda, the House of Nsundi, later known as the Kinkanga a Mvika, took control of Kongo in 1622 under Pedro II, and retained it through the reign of his son, Garcia I.[11] Garcia never held power strongly, and the Kimpanzu returned to power under Ambrosio I. Kimpanzu domination ended in 1641 when two brothers Álvaro and Garcia of the new House of Kinlaza overthrew Álvaro V and took power.[12] The members of the Kikanga a Mvika were all killed or absorbed into the Kinlaza by 1657.[13] The Kinlaza dynasty would reign until Kongo's catastrophic civil war following the 1665 Battle of Mbwila, when sporadic and violent alternation followed.

The capital was destroyed in 1678.[14] Its destruction forced the claimants from both sides of the conflict to rule from mountain fortresses. The Kinlaza retreated to Mbula where they founded the capital of Lemba.[13] Earlier another branch of Kinlaza, under the leadership of Garcia III of Kongo founded a settlement at Kibangu. The Kimpanzu based their struggle for the throne at Mbamba Luvota in the south of Soyo.[13] A new faction appeared in the form of the Água Rosada kanda, headquartered at the mountain fortress of Kibangu. This might be considered a new house formed from both the Kinlaza and Kimpanzu, its founders were the children of a Kimpanzu father and a Kinlaza mother.[15] All parties claimed kingship over Kongo (or what was left of it), but their power rarely held beyond their fortresses or the immediately surrounding area.

The country was finally reunited by Pedro IV of the Água Rosada kanda. Pedro IV declared a doctrine of shared power by which the throne would shift (in due time) from Kinlaza to the Kimpanzu and back.,[16] while the Água Rosada appear to have continued as neutral in Pedro's fortress of Kibangu.[17]

The system functioned sporadically, with considerable fighting, until 1764 when José I of the Kinlaza faction usurped the throne and thrust the country back into civil war. The Kinlaza enjoyed a short-lived second dynasty that ended in 1788. After that, the throne moved through various royal hands until the kingship was extinguished in 1914.

Elections

The selection of kings of Kongo was by a variety of principles, as kings themselves evoked different methods of selection in their letters announcing their succession. Typically the kingdom was said to pass by election,[18] though the electors and the process they used changed over time and according to circumstances. Frequently election seems to have been a combination of elective and hereditary principles.[18]

Kings of Kongo

The following section is divided into periods based on kanda or house rulership. Most houses reigned of a distinct period with few if any intervals. This is not the case, however; after the Kongo Civil War. During this period you will note the name of each king's kanda alongside their reign.

Pre-colonial rulers

Ancestors of later rulers

According to oral tradition, the first king was the son of chief Nimi and his consort of unknown name, Mwene Mbata's daughter. Most of the succeeding dynasties either claim descent from this union or otherwise derive their legitimacy from it.

House of Kilukeni/Lukeni kanda (1390s–1568)

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Lukeni lua Nimic. 1380 – c. 1420 (aged 39/40)c. 1390c. 14201 Manikongo. He was the son of Chief Nimi and his consort, Mwene Mbata's daughter.Kilukeni
Nanga of Kongoc. 1381 – c. 1435 (aged 53/54)c. 1420c. 14352 Manikongo. He was a cousin of his predecessor.Kilukeni
Nlaza of Kongoc. 1407 – c. 1450 (aged 42/43)c. 1435c. 14503 Manikongo. He was a cousin of the 1st King..Kilukeni
Nkuwu a Ntinu of Kongoc. 1422 – c. 1470 (aged 47/48)c. 1450c. 14704 Manikongo. He was the son of the 1st King. Also known as Nkuwu a Lukeni.Kilukeni
João I Nzinga a Nkuwuc. 1440 – 1509 (aged 68/69)c. 147015095 Manikongo. He was the son of his predecessor and was baptized as João I on 3 May 1491, but returned to traditional beliefs around 1495.Kilukeni
Afonso I Mvemba a Nzinga1456–1542 or 1543 (aged 85/86 or 86/87)15091542 or 15436 Manikongo. He was the son of his predecessor and the first true Catholic king of Kongo. After him every king was Catholic. Granted a coat of arms.Kilukeni
Pedro I Nkanga a Mvemba1478–1566 (aged 87/88)1542/4315457 Manikongo. He was the son of his predecessor, but a member of a different Kanda (the House of Kibala).[19]Kilukeni
Francisco I of Kongo1500–1545 (aged 44/45)154515458 Manikongo. He was the son of his predecessor.Kilukeni
Diogo I Nkumbi a Mpudi1503–1561 (aged 57/58)15454 November 15619 Manikongo. He was a brother of his predecessor.Kilukeni
Afonso II Mpemba a Nzinga1531 – 1 December 1561 (aged 29/30)4 November 15611 December 156110 Manikongo. He was the son of his predecessor.Kilukeni
Bernardo I of Kongo1534 – 10 April 1561 (aged 31/32)1 December 156110 April 156711 Manikongo. He was a brother of his predecessor.Kilukeni
Henrique I Nerika a Mpudi 1505 – 1 February 1568 (aged 62/63)10 April 15671 February 156812 Manikongo. He was the uncle of his predecessor.Kilukeni

House of Kwilu/Kwilu kanda (1568–1622)

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Álvaro I Nimi a Lukeni lua Mvemba1537 – 6 March 1587 (aged 49/50)1 February 15686 March 158713 Manikongo. He was the son-in-law of his predecessor. Granted a coat of arms.Kwilu
Álvaro II Nimi a Nkanga1565 – 9 August 1614 (aged 48/49)6 March 15879 August 161414 Manikongo. He was a son of his predecessor.Kwilu
Bernardo II Nimi a Nkanga1570 – 20 August 1615 (aged 44/45)9 August 161420 August 161515 Manikongo. He was a brother of his predecessor.Kwilu
Álvaro III Nimi a Mpanzu1595 – 4 May 1622 (aged 26/27)20 August 16154 May 162216 Manikongo. He was the son of his predecessor.Kwilu

House of Nsundi/Kinkanga a Mvika kanda (1622–1626)

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Pedro II Nkanga a Mvika1575 – 13 April 1624 (aged 48/49)27 April 162213 April 162417 Manikongo. He was a distant cousin of his predecessor.Kinkanga
Garcia I Mvemba a Nkanga1600 – 26 June 1626 (aged 25/26)13 April 162426 June 162618 Manikongo. He was the son of his predecessor.Kinkanga

House of Kwilu/Kwilu kanda (1626–1636)

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Ambrósio I Nimi a Nkanga1600/1610 – 7 March 1631 (aged 21/31)March 16267 March 163119 Manikongo. He was the son of Álvaro III.Kwilu
Álvaro IV Nzinga a Nkuwu1610 – 25 March 1636 (aged 25/26)8 February 163124 February 163620 Manikongo. He was a brother of his predecessor.Kwilu

House of Kimpanzu/Mpanzu kanda (1636)

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Álvaro V Mpanzu a Nimi1613 – 14 August 1636 (aged 23)27 February 163614 August 163621 Manikongo. He was a son of Pedro II.Kimpanzu

House of Kinlaza/Nlaza kanda (1636–1665)

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Álvaro VI Nimi a Lukeni a Nzenze a Ntumba1581 – 22 February 1641 (aged 59/60)27 August 163622 February 164122 Manikongo. He was a descendant of Afonso I.Kinlaza
Garcia II Nkanga a Lukeni a Nzenze a Ntumba1615 – 23 January 1660 (aged 44/45)23 February 164123 January 166023 Manikongo. He was a brother of his predecessor. Granted a coat of arms.Kinlaza
António I Nvita a Nkanga1617 – 29 October 1665 (aged 47/48)23 January 166029 October 166524 Manikongo. He was a nephew of his predecessor.Kinlaza

Civil War (1665–1709)

Kings of São Salvador (1665–1678 and 1691–1709)

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Afonso II of Kongo and Nkondo1632–1669 (aged 36/37)November 1665December 1665Claimed the title of Manikongo. He ruled the capital of the once unified Kingdom, but was deposed only a month into his term. The deposed king was forced to flee into the mountains of Nkondo where he ruled until his death in 1669. Was a relative of António I.Kimpanzu
Álvaro VII Mpanzu a Mpandu1631 – June 1666 (aged 34/35)December 1665June 1666Claimed the title of Manikongo. He sent Capuchin friar, Friar Girolamo of Montesarchio, to make peace with the Portuguese in to Luanda, in Christmas 1665. But the friar was waylaid by a rebellion in Mbamba, and only returned to the capital in June 1666.[20]Kinlaza
Álvaro VIII Mvemba a Mpanzu1630 – January 1669 (aged 38/39)June 1666January 1669Claimed the title of Manikongo. Was elevated to the throne by Paulo da Silva, Count of Soyo, who marched on São Salvador and killed his predecessor. In 1667, he sent his ambassador, Anastasius, to Luanda, to negotiate a treaty that ceded to the Portugueses the right to exploit the mines of the provinces of Mbamba and Mpemba.[20]Kinlaza
Pedro III Nsimba Ntamba1648–1680 (aged 34/35)January 1669June 1669Claimed the title of Manikongo. As Marquis of Mbemba, he led a small army and attacked Mbamba, killed Count Theodosius and then invaded the kingdom's capital, killing Alvaro VIII and proclaimed himself king.[21]Kinlaza
Álvaro IX Mpanzu a Ntivila1650–1669 (aged 18/19)June 1669End of 1670Claimed the title of Manikongo. In 1670, Álvaro IX was overthrown by the Soyo.Kimpanzu
Rafael I Nzinga a NkangaUnknown – 1673 (aged 4+)End of 1670Mid of 1673He claimed the title of Manikongo. After his ascension, he was briefly driven from the capital by Soyo.[22]Kinlaza
Afonso III Mvemba a NimiUnknown – mid 1674 (aged 37+)Mid 1673Mid 1674He claimed the title of Manikongo. He governed the Marquisate/Kingdom of Nkondo from late 1669 until mid 1673.Kimpanzu
Daniel I Miala mia NzimbwilaUnknown – mid 1678 (aged 4+)Mid 1674Mid 1678He claimed the title of Manikongo. In 1678 Pedro III marched on São Salvador with Jaga mercenaries resulting in the Sack of São Salvador, which burnt the majority of the city to the ground and killed Daniel I.[21]Kimpanzu
Interregnum13 yearsMid 16781691After the Sack of São Salvador the nation essentially ceased to exist for over a decade, instead split into three rival kingdoms ruled by the various claimants to the throne.
Manuel Afonso Nzinga an ElenkeUnknown – 23 September 1693 (aged 3/7+)16911692He conquered São Salvador, but was deposed and executed in 23 September 1693.[23]Kimpanzu
Pedro IV Afonso Agua Rosada Nusamu a Mvembac. 1666 – 21 February 1718 (aged 51/52)16921704He claimed the title of Manikongo, until he reunified the Kingdom.[24]Água Rosada
Pedro Constantino da SilvaUnknown – 15 February 1709 (aged 13+)170415 February 1709He claimed the title of Manikongo and was a staunch supporter of Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita.Kimpanzu

Kings of Kibangu for the House of Kinlaza (1678–1704)

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Sebastião I1634 – 1669/70 (aged 35/36)16661669/70Claimed the title of Manikongo. He ruled the Kingdom of Kibangu and was assassinated by Dom Rafael I. His 3 sons founded the House of Água Rosada.Kinlaza
Garcia III Nkanga a MvembaUnknown – 1685/89 (aged 19+)1669/701685/89Claimed the title of Manikongo. He ruled the Kingdom of Kibangu after his father and was assassinated by Dom Pedro III.Água Rosada
André I Mvizi a Nkanga1625–1685/89 (aged 60/61)1685/891686/90Claimed the title of Manikongo. He ruled the Kingdom of Kibangu after his brother, but died of natural causes after 1 year.Kinlaza
Manuel Afonso Nzinga an ElenkeUnknown – 23 September 1693 (aged 3/7+)1686/901687/91He conquered the Kingdom of Kibangu for a year and was executed in 23 September 1693.[23]Kimpanzu
Álvaro X Nimi a Mvemba Agua RosadaUnknown – December 1695 (aged 25+)16881695Claimed the title of Manikongo. He was a son of Sebastião I and reconquered the Kingdom of Kibangu. He ordered the edification of several churches in Kibagu but had a premature death before they were completed.[25]Água Rosada
Pedro IV Afonso Agua Rosada Nusamu a Mvembac. 1666 – 21 February 1718 (aged 51/52)1 December 169515 February 1709He claimed the title of Manikongo, until he reunified the Kingdom. He ruled the Kingdom of Kibangu after his brother.[24]Água Rosada

Kings of Nkondo for the House of Kimpanzu (1666–1709)

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Afonso II of Kongo and Nkondo1632–1669 (aged 36/37)16661669Claimed the title of Manikongo. He was a grandson of Álvaro II, who married Ana Afonso de Leão and ruled the Kingdom of Nkondo.Kimpanzu
Afonso III of KongoUnknown – mid 1674 (aged 37+)1669Mid 1673Claimed the title of Manikongo. He ruled the Kingdom of Nkondo after his brother.Kimpanzu
Ana Afonso de Leão1625–1710 (aged 84/85)16731709Claimed the title of Manikongo. She was the sister of Garcia II and ruled the Kingdom of Nkondo after her brother-in-law.Kinlaza

Awenekongo of Lemba-Mbula for the House of Kinlaza (1669–1716)

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Pedro III Nsimba Ntamba1648–1683 (aged 34/35)June 16691680/83Claimed the title of Manikongo. He was a grandson of Álvaro II and ruled the Kingdom of Lemba-Mbula. He was assassinated by the King of Mbamba-Lovata, Manuel de Nóbrega.[21]Kinlaza
João Manuel II Nzuzi a NtambaUnknown–1716 (aged 36+)1680/831716Claimed the title of Manikongo. He was a brother of his predecessor and ruled the Kingdom of Lemba-Mbula.[26]Kinlaza

Mwenekongo of Mbamba-Lovata for the House of Kimpanzu (1678–1715)

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Manuel II of KongoUnknown–1715 (aged 45+)16781715Claimed the title of Manikongo. Born Manuel de Vuzi a Nóbrega. He was a grandson of Álvaro II and ruled the Kingdom of Mbamba-Lovata.[21]Kimpanzu

Reunification and Elective Monarchy (1709–1888)

Portuguese vassalage (1888–1914)

NameLifespanReign startReign endNotesFamilyImage
Pedro V EleloUnknown–1891 (aged 31+)7 August 1859February 1891Manikongo. He was a nephew of his Henrique III. Signed a treaty of vassalage with Portugal in 1888. He was the 6th king named Pedro, but signed his correspondence as Pedro V, thus ignoring the Pedro V who had ruled from 1763 to 1764.Kinlaza
Álvaro XIV of KongoUnknown – 18 November 1896February 189118 November 1896Manikongo. He was a nephew of his predecessor. Also known as Água Rosada.Água Rosadas
Henrique IV of Kongo1873–1901 (aged 27/28)18961901Manikongo. He was a half-brother of his predecessor. Also known as Tekenge.Água Rosada
Pedro VI of Kongo1880 – 24 June 1910 (aged 29/30)19011910Manikongo. He was a nephew of Álvaro XIV. Also known as Mbemba.Água Rosada
Manuel Nkomba of KongoUnknown – 191119101911Manikongo. He was a son of his predecessor. He was not awarded the title of Manuel III.Água Rosada
Manuel III of Kongo1884–1927 (aged 42/43)19111914Manikongo. He was a uncle of his predecessor. Also known as Kiditu. The Portuguese abolished the title of King of Kongo following the revolt of 1914.Água Rosada

Pretenders to the throne since 1914

The head of the nucleus of the Traditional Authorities of the Royal Court of Kongo is Afonso Mendes and is living in Mbanza-Kongo[31]

Brazilian branch of Palmares

The Quilombo dos Palmares was a Maroon Kingdom formed in the Captaincy of Pernambuco in what is now Northeast Brazil sometime around 1605 by princes and nobles from the Kingdom of Kongo. They had been captured during the Battle of Mbwila, and were subsequently transported there as slaves. After escaping slavery, they resumed use of their royal and noble titles. The members of this branch probably belonged to the House of Awenekongo of the Nlaza kanda of Antonio I.

Further reading

This list is constructed primarily from that found in Graziano Saccardo, 'Congo e Angola con la storia dell'antica missione dei cappuccini (3 vols, Milan, 1982–83), vol. 3, pp. 11–14. Saccardo bases his reconstruction on several king lists produced over time, by António da Silva, Duke of Mbamba in 1617, by António de Teruel in 1664, by Pedro Mendes in 1710 and by Francisco das Necessidades in 1844. In addition, many of the kings wrote letters and signed them with both their names and their numbers, and Saccardo has found many of these to verify the kinglists.

Saccardo's king list has been modified in the following manner: the Kikongo names of the kings have been given in a Kikongo form following norms established in Joseph de Munck, Kinkulu kia Nsi eto' (Tumba, 1956, 2nd ed, Matadi, 1971). The Christian names of the kings are given in modern Portuguese spelling. In addition, Saccardo's entries have been updated by a number of sources, most notably the king list, unknown to him found in the Instituto Histórico e Geográfico Brasileiro (Rio de Janeiro) Manuscritos, Lata 6, pasta 2. "Catallogo dos reis de Congo" MS of c. 1758.

See also

References

  1. ^ John Thornton, "Elite Women in the Kingdom of Kongo: Historical Perspectives on Women's Political Power", Journal of African History 47 (2006): 439.
  2. ^ Thornton, John: "Elite Women" p. 445.
  3. ^ Thornton "Elite Women," p. 449.
  4. ^ Thornton, "Elite Women", p. 445.
  5. ^ Thornton "Elite Women ", p. 449.
  6. ^ Oliver, Roland and Anthony Atmore: Medieval Africa, 1250–1800 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001 p. 168.
  7. ^ "Elite Women", p 445.
  8. ^ Thornton,"Elite Women", p. 445.
  9. ^ Thornton, "Elite Women", p.
  10. ^ John Thornton, The Kingdom of Kongo: Civil War and Transition, 1641–1718 (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1983)
  11. ^ Thornton, Kingdom of Kongo, pp. 449–50.
  12. ^ Thornton, Kingdom of Kongo.
  13. ^ a b c Thornton, John K: "The Kongolese Saint Anthony: Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita and the Antonian Movement, 1684–1706", p. 39. Cambridge University, 1998
  14. ^ Thornton, John K: "The Kongolese Saint Anthony: Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita and the Antonian Movement, 1684–1706", p. 23. Cambridge University, 1998
  15. ^ Thornton, John K: "The Kongolese Saint Anthony: Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita and the Antonian Movement, 1684–1706", p. 40. Cambridge University, 1998
  16. ^ Thornton, John: "Elite Women in the Kingdom of Kongo: Historical Perspectives on Women's Political Power", p. 455. The Journal of African History, Vol. 47, 2006
  17. ^ Thornton, John K: "The Kongolese Saint Anthony: Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita and the Antonian Movement, 1684–1706", p. 201. Cambridge University, 1998
  18. ^ a b Thornton, John: "Elite Women in the Kingdom of Kongo: Historical Perspectives on Women's Political Power", p. 439. The Journal of African History, Vol. 47, 2006
  19. ^ Thornton, John: "Elite Women in the Kingdom of Kongo: Historical Perspectives on Women's Political Power", pa. 445. The Journal of African History, Vol. 47, 2006
  20. ^ a b Shillington, Kevin: Encyclopedia of African History, Vol. 1, p. 776. Routledge, 2004
  21. ^ a b c d Thornton, John K: The Kongolese Saint Anthony: Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita and the Antonian Movement, 1684–1706, p. 79. Cambridge University, 1998
  22. ^ Thornton, John: "Elite Women in the Kingdom of Kongo: Historical Perspectives on Women's Political Power", p. 456. The Journal of African History, Vol. 47, 2006
  23. ^ a b Thornton, John K: The Kongolese Saint Anthony: Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita and the Antonian Movement, 1684–1706, p. 39. Cambridge University, 1998
  24. ^ a b Thornton, John K: The Kongolese Saint Anthony: Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita and the Antonian Movement, 1684–1706, p. 36. Cambridge University, 1998
  25. ^ Thornton, John K: The Kongolese Saint Anthony: Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita and the Antonian Movement, 1684–1706, p. 20. Cambridge University, 1998
  26. ^ Thornton, John K: The Kongolese Saint Anthony: Dona Beatriz Kimpa Vita and the Antonian Movement, 1684–1706, p. 38. Cambridge University, 1998
  27. ^ Thornton, John: "The Origins and Early History of the Kingdom of Kongo, c. 1350–1550", p. 100. International Journal of African Historical Studies, Vol. 34, No. 1, 2001
  28. ^ Nassoro Habib Mbwana Msonde, A Revised History for Advanced Level and Colleges: Part One, Xlibris Corporation, 2017
  29. ^ Boy, Once I. Was A. Clever (11 July 2020). "Once I Was A Clever Boy: The Kingdom of Kongo". Once I Was A Clever Boy. Retrieved 24 August 2021.
  30. ^ "New King of Kongo". alt.talk.royalty.narkive.com. Retrieved 24 August 2021.
  31. ^ "Autoridades tradicionais do Zaire propõem nova designação para a província". ANGOP (in Portuguese). 23 July 2019. Archived from the original on 22 December 2021. Retrieved 9 July 2020.