President of the
Gabonese Republic
Président de la
République gabonaise
Presidential standard
Incumbent
Brice Oligui Nguema
(Transitional)
since 30 August 2023
Executive branch of the Government of the Gabonese Republic
ResidencePresidential Palace, Libreville
Term length7 years, renewable
Formation17 August 1960; 63 years ago (1960-08-17)
First holderLéon M'ba
DeputyVice President of Gabon
SalaryUS$65,000 annually[1]

The president of Gabon (French: Président du Gabon) is the head of state of Gabon. A total of three people have served as president (not counting two acting presidents) since the post was formed in 1960.

The current transitional president, Brice Oligui, took power in a coup on 30 August 2023 from Ali Bongo.

Description of the office

Election

The president of the republic is elected for a presidential term of seven (7) years, by universal and direct suffrage. The president is re-electable.[2] There was a two-term limit for the president in the Constitution of Gabon. This limit was lifted for Omar Bongo in 2003.[3]

The election is won by the candidate who obtains the largest number of votes.[2]

All Gabonese citizens, male and female, who are at least forty (40) years old, have resided in Gabon for at least twelve (12) months, and who enjoy their full civil and political rights are eligible to run for the seat of the presidency.[4]

The Constitutional Court may extend the provisioned time periods conforming to Article 11 below, but the elections may not take place more than thirty-five (35) days after the date of the decision of the Constitutional Court.[4]

If an application of the policies in the present paragraphs postpones the election to a date beyond the last day in office of the current president, the president will remain in office until the election of the successor.[4]

The ways and means by which the present article may be applied are fixed by organic law.[4]

The presidential term begins on the day he presents himself for the presidential oath and finishes at the end of the seventh year following his election.[5]

The election of the president of the republic takes place at least a month and at most two months before the end of the previous president's term.[5]

A current president may not shorten his or her term in any manner to run for another term.[5]

If the current president of the republic runs for the next presidential term, the National Assembly of Gabon may not be dissolved. The president may also not exercise his power to legislate by ordinance from the moment he announces his candidacy up to the election. In cases of necessity, Parliament may convene in an extraordinary session.[5]

Oath of office

The presidential oath marks the beginning of the presidential term. It may not take place before the Constitutional Court's decision to proclaim the official election results.[6]

At the moment of the president's entry into office, the president of the republic will solemnly take the oath below, before the Parliament and the Constitutional Court, the left hand on the Constitution, and the other hand raised before the national flag:[7]

I promise to devote all my energies to the good of the Gabonese people, to assure their well-being and to protect them from all misfortune, to respect and defend the Constitution and the State of law, to fulfill conscientiously the duties of my position and to be just to all.

Vacancy

In case of a vacancy of the presidential office for whatever reason, or a permanent impairment of the current president, affirmed by the Constitutional Court called upon by the government through an absolute majority of its members, or failing that, by the bureaus of the two chambers of Parliament with a majority of their members, the president of the Senate will temporarily exercise the duties of the president of the republic, or in case of permanent impairment of the president of the Senate, affirmed by the Constitutional Court called upon in the same conditions, the first vice-president of the Senate will temporarily carry out the duties of the presidential office.[8]

The authority that assumes the presidential office in the interim will be temporarily invested with the full duties and powers of the president of the republic, to the exclusion of certain duties and powers provisioned by Articles 18, 19, and the first paragraph of 116. The temporary president may not present him or herself as a candidate of the next presidential election.[8]

Before his or her entry into office, the authority concerned will take the oath of office according to the conditions of Article 12 above.[8]

In the case of a vacancy, or if the president's impairment is declared permanent by the Constitutional Court, the polls for the election of the new president, excluding cases of emergency announced by the Constitutional Court, will take place at least thirty (30) days or at most sixty (60) days after the beginning of the vacancy or the declaration of a permanent impairment of the president.[8]

List of officeholders

Political parties
  Gabonese Democratic Bloc (BDG) → Gabonese Democratic Party (PDG)
  Democratic and Republican Alliance (ADERE)
Other factions
  Military
Status
  Denotes acting or transitional president
Symbols

Died in office

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Elected Term of office Political party Prime minister(s)
Took office Left office Time in office
1 Léon M'ba
(1902–1967)[a]
1961
1967
17 August 1960 27 November 1967[†] 7 years, 102 days BDG Himself
2 Omar Bongo
(1935–2009)[b]
1973
1979
1986
1993
1998
2005
2 December 1967 8 June 2009[†] 41 years, 188 days BDG
until 1968 renamed to
PDG
Mébiame
Oyé-Mba
Obame-Nguema
Ntoutoume Emane
Eyeghe Ndong
Didjob Divungi Di Ndinge
(born 1946)[c]
6 May 2009 10 June 2009 35 days ADERE Eyeghe Ndong
Rose Francine Rogombé
(1942–2015)[d]
10 June 2009 16 October 2009 128 days PDG Eyeghe Ndong
Biyoghé Mba
3 Ali Bongo
(born 1959)[e]
2009
2016
2023
16 October 2009 30 August 2023
(Deposed in a coup)
13 years, 318 days PDG Biyoghé Mba
Ndong Sima
Ona Ondo
Issoze-Ngondet
Nkoghe Bekale
Raponda
By Nze
Brice Oligui
(born 1975)
30 August 2023[9][10] Incumbent 302 days Military Ndong Sima

Timeline

Brice Oligui NguemaAli BongoRose Francine RogombéDidjob Divungi Di NdingeOmar BongoJean-Hilaire AubameLéon M'ba

Latest election (annulled)

Main article: 2023 Gabonese presidential election

CandidatePartyVotes%
Ali Bongo OndimbaGabonese Democratic Party293,91964.27
Albert Ondo OssaAlternance 2023140,69030.77
Pierre Claver MoussavouSocial Democratic Party5,1781.13
Gervais OnianeUnion for the Republic3,6390.80
Victoire Lasseni DubozeIndependent2,1980.48
Emmanuel Mvé MbaIndependent1,4120.31
Jean Romain FanguinovenyParty of the Gabonese People1,2720.28
Jean Delors Biyogué Bi NtougouIndependent1,2660.28
Gérard Ella NguémaGabonese Patriotic Front1,2390.27
Axel Stophène Ibinga IbingaIndependent1,1240.25
Abel Mbombe NzoundouIndependent1,0570.23
Jean Victor Mouanga MbadingaPeople's Social Emancipation Movement1,0340.23
Joachim Mbatchi PambouUFC9670.21
Thierry Yvon Michel N'gomaIndependent8250.18
Other candidates1,4680.32
Total457,288100.00
Valid votes457,28895.34
Invalid/blank votes22,3644.66
Total votes479,652100.00
Registered voters/turnout846,82256.64
Source: Gabon Review

Notes

  1. ^ Briefly interrupted during the 17–18 February 1964 coup d'état.
  2. ^ Previously named Albert-Bernard Bongo; changed name on 29 September 1973, after conversion to Islam. Added Ondimba to name on 15 November 2003.
  3. ^ Acted for Bongo while he was incapacitated in the hospital, Vice President.
  4. ^ Succeeded Bongo as the constitutional successor, President of the Senate.
  5. ^ Son of Omar Bongo.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Top 15 Highest Paid African Presidents 2017". 15 December 2016.
  2. ^ a b Article 9 of the Constitution of 1991.
  3. ^ Cook, Candace; Siegle, Joseph. "Circumvention of Term Limits Weakens Governance in Africa". Africa Center for Strategic Studies.
  4. ^ a b c d Article 10 of the Constitution of 1991.
  5. ^ a b c d Article 11 of the Constitution of 1991.
  6. ^ Article 11A of the Constitution of 1991.
  7. ^ Article 12 of the Constitution of 1991.
  8. ^ a b c d Article 13 of the Constitution of 1991.
  9. ^ "Gabon coup: Army seizes power from Ali Bongo and puts him in house arrest". bbc.com. 30 August 2023. Retrieved 30 August 2023.
  10. ^ "General Nguema appointed transitional president of Gabon following coup". Anadolu Agency. Kigali, Rwanda. 30 August 2023. Retrieved 31 August 2023.