Egyptian cinema
No. of screens221 (2015)[1]
 • Per capita0.4 per 100,000 (2010)[1]
Main distributorsThe Trinity: (Nasr – Oscar – El Massah)
Cinema Masr
Studio Masr[2]
Produced feature films (2005–2009)[3]
Total42 (average)
Number of admissions (2015)[4]
Gross box office (2015)[4]
Total$267 million

The cinema of Egypt refers to the flourishing film industry based in Cairo, sometimes also referred to as Hollywood of the East or Hollywood on the Nile.[5] Since 1976, the capital has held the annual Cairo International Film Festival, which has been accredited by the FIAPF.[6] There are an additional 12 festivals. Of the more than 4,000 short and feature-length films made in MENA region since 1908, more than three-quarters were Egyptian films.[7][8][9] Egyptian films are typically spoken in the Egyptian Arabic dialect.



A limited number of silent films were made in Egypt beginning in 1896. The first Egyptian film was released on 20 June 1907, a short documentary film about the visit of Khedive Abbas II to the Institute of Mursi Abul-Abbas in Alexandria. In 1917, the director Mohammed Karim established a production company in Alexandria. The company produced two films: Dead Flowers and Honor the Bedouin, which were shown in the city of Alexandria in early 1918. In 1923, director Mohamed Bayoumi produced Barsoum Looking for a Job, the film starred Bishara Wakim.

Bishara Wakim in the Egyptian film Barsoum Looking for a Job (1923)

Five years later, Aziza Amir produced Laila (1927), the first feature-length Egyptian film in history.[10] Cairo's film industry became a regional force with the coming of sound. Between 1930 and 1936, various small studios produced at least 44 feature films. In 1936, Studio Misr, financed by industrialist Talaat Harb, emerged as the leading Egyptian equivalent to Hollywood's major studios, a role the company retained for three decades.[11]

Aziza Amir in the Egyptian film Laila (1927)

Since then, more than 4,000 films have been produced in Egypt, three quarters of the total Arab production. Historian Samir Kassir notes (2004) that Studio Misr in particular, "despite their ups and downs, were to make Cairo the third capital of the world’s film industry, after Hollywood and Bombay but ahead of Italy’s Cinecittà."[12] Egypt is the most productive country in the Middle East and Africa in the field of film production, and the one with the most developed media system.[13]

The Golden Age

The 1940s, 1950s and the 1960s are generally considered the Golden Age of Egyptian cinema. In the 1950s, Egypt's cinema industry was the world's third largest.[14]

Publicity still for the Egyptian film Yahya el hub (1938)

As in the West, films responded to the popular imagination, with most falling into predictable genres (happy endings being the norm), and many actors making careers out of playing strongly typed parts. In the words of one critic, "If an Egyptian film intended for popular audiences lacked any of these prerequisites, it constituted a betrayal of the unwritten contract with the spectator, the results of which would manifest themselves in the box office."[15]

In 1940,[16] the entrepreneur and translator Anis Ebeid established "Anis Ebeid Films", as the first subtitling company in Egypt and the rest of the Middle East, bringing hundreds of American and World movies to Egypt. Later he entered the movie distribution business too.[17]

Publicity still for the Egyptian film Berlanti (1944)

In 1950, Studio Misr produced the film Baba Aris, the first Egyptian film entirely in natural color, starring Naima Akef, Fouad Shafik, Camelia, and Shoukry Sarhan. In 1951, Mohamed Fawzi experimented with coloring two of his films: Love in Danger and The End of a Story. Unfortunately, the two films burned on their way from France to Egypt, and the black-and-white copies remained on Egyptian television.[18] It was said that Mohamed Fawzi was not satisfied with the quality. The colors in the first film were poor, so he had to re-shoot it, which caused him huge financial losses. In 1956, the film Dalila was produced in Scope colours, starring Abdel Halim Hafez and Shadia. Afterwards, many Egyptian-colored Egyptian films were produced on a limited basis in the 1950s and 1960s, and in the 1970s, specifically after the 1973 October War, colors became prevalent in most films.

Currently, ancient Egyptian classic films, in addition to the latest cinematic productions, are shown on private Arab channels, some of which are "free viewing" that can be benefited from through promotional segments or advertisements, and some of them are for a fee through the pay-per-view service on closed networks. Political changes in Egypt after the overthrow of King Farouk in 1952 initially had little effect on Egyptian film. The Nasser regime sought control over the industry only after turning to socialism in 1961.[19]

In the 1960s, the General Cinema Foundation was established to produce feature films, which is affiliated with the public sector in Egypt. This led to a decrease in the average number of films from 60 to 40 films per year, and by 1966 the number of theaters also decreased from 354 in 1954 to 255 houses. By 1966, the Egyptian film industry had been nationalized. As with all matters in that period, diametrical opinions can be found about the cinema industry then. In the words of Ahmed Ramzi, a leading man of the era, "it went to the dogs".[20] In this era, an emerging generation of film stars came to prominence such as: Shoukry Sarhan, Soad Hosny, Salah Zulfikar, Rushdy Abaza, Nadia Lutfi, Faten Hamama, Omar Sharif, Kamal El-Shennawi, Shadia, Mariam Fakhr Eddine, Lobna Abdel Aziz, Abdel Halim Hafez, Huda Sultan, Hind Rostom, Farid Shawqi, Zubaida Tharwat, Ismail Yassine, Magda, Laila Fawzi, Ahmed Mazhar, and Sabah.

Salah Zulfikar and Nadia Lutfi in the Egyptian film Saladin the Victorious (1963)

Egyptian films shown in the 1960s can be divided into three sections: films that deal with the subject of poverty, raising the value of work, and praising socialist society, such as the film Soft Hands directed by Mahmoud Zulfikar, films that condemned opportunistic models and social diseases such as bribery, corruption, and theft crimes, such as Miramar, and films that dealt with issues of people's political participation, condemned negativity, and also addressed topics of democracy, connection to the land, and resistance, such as the film The Rains Dried. The "heavy government hand" that accompanied nationalization of Egyptian film "stifled innovative trends and sapped its dynamism".[21] However, most of the 44 Egyptian films featuring in the best 100 Egyptian films list of all time were produced during that period. Notable titles includes; The Night of Counting the Years, Aghla Min Hayati, Cairo Station, The Second Man, My Wife, the Director General, Saladin the Victorious, A Taste of Fear, The Postman, Back Again, Soft Hands, and The Land.

By the 1970s, Egyptian films struck a balance between politics and entertainment. Films such as 1972's Khalli Balak min Zouzou (Watch Out for ZouZou), starring "the Cinderella of Arab cinema", Soad Hosny, sought to balance politics and audience appeal. Zouzou integrated music, dance, and contemporary fashions into a story that balanced campus ferment with family melodrama. In mid-1971, the General Cinema Foundation was liquidated and a public body was established that included cinema, theater and music. The Authority stopped film production, contenting itself with financing the private sector, and the state's role in cinema began to decline until it completely ended novel production. Only two companies remained with the state, one for studios and the other for distribution and theaters. However, the average number of films produced remained 40 films until 1974, then it rose to 50. films, and the number of theaters continued to decline until it reached 190 in 1977. Notable 1970s titles include; Sunset and Sunrise, Chitchat on the Nile, The Other Man, The Bullet is Still in My Pocket, Karnak, The Guilty, I Want a Solution, Whom Should We Shoot?, Alexandria... Why?, Shafika and Metwali.[22] Hassan Ramzi's 1975 Egyptian film Al-Rida’ al-Abyad (The White Gown) was released in the Soviet Union in 1976, selling 61 million tickets in the country. This made it the highest-grossing foreign film of the year and the seventh highest-grossing foreign film ever in the Soviet Union.[23][24] This also made it the highest-grossing Egyptian film of all time, with its Soviet ticket sales surpassing the worldwide ticket sales of all other Egyptian films, achieving revenue over $28,700,000 in 1975.[25]

Transitional period

The 1980s saw the Egyptian film industry in decline, however, the industry saw huge box-office jumps. A new wave of young directors emerged who were able to overcome the prevailing production traditions and create serious cinema. They were called the Neo-Realism Movement or the generation of the eighties.

Soad Hosny and Nour El Sherif in People on the Top (1981)

From this generation were Atef El Tayeb, Khairy Beshara, Mohamed Khan, Raafat Al-Mihi Ali Abdelkhalek and others. Also, a new generation of films stars such as: Ahmed Zaki, Nour El-Sherif, Adel Imam, Mahmoud Abdel Aziz, Nabila Ebeid, Nadia El Gendy, Yousra, Laila Elwi, Elham Shahin, and Sherihan, emerged during that period. In the 1980s, Egyptian cinema produced notable films, such as; The Shame, An Egyptian Story, The Bus Driver, The Peacock, The Innocent, The Collar and the Bracelet, A Moment of Weakness, The Wife of an Important Man, and Escape. In the mid-eighties, specifically at the beginning of 1984, the number of films produced suddenly increased to 63 films.

In the 1990s, However, with the rise of what came to be called "contractor movies". Actor Khaled El Sawy has described these as films "where there is no story, no acting and no production quality of any kind... basic formula movies that aimed at making a quick buck." the number of films produced also declined: from nearly 100 films a year in the industry's prime to about a dozen in 1995. This lasted until summer 1997, when Ismailia Rayeh Gayy (translation: Ismailia back and forth) shocked the cinema industry, enjoying unparalleled success and large profits for the producers, introducing Mohamed Fouad (a famous singer) and Mohamed Henedi, then a rather unknown actor who later became the number one comedian star. Building on the success of that movie, several comedy films were released in the following years. The 1990s notable titles include; the industry presented notable films such as; Alexandria Again and Forever, War in the Land of Egypt, The Kit Kat, The Shepherd and the Women, Terrorism and Kebab, The Terrorist, Five-Star Thieves, Road to Eilat, The Emigrant, Nasser 56, Destiny, Land of Fear, and The City.


Since mid 1990s, Egypt's cinema has gone in separate directions. Smaller art films attract some international attention, but sparse attendance at home. Popular films, often broad comedies such as What A Lie!, and the extremely profitable works of comedian Mohamed Saad, battle to hold audiences either drawn to Western films or, increasingly, wary of the perceived immorality of film.[19]

Mona Zaki, Egyptian film star

With the beginning of the 21st century, a new generation of film stars appeared, the most famous of whom were Mona Zaki, Ahmed El Sakka, Menna Shalabi, Karim Abdel Aziz, Hend Sabry, Ghada Adel, Ahmed Ezz, Ahmed Helmy, Yasmine Abdulaziz, Mohamed Henedi, Mohamed Saad, Tamer Hosny, Mai Ezz Eldin, Nour, Hany Ramzy, Nelly Karim, Basma, and Dalia El Behery. They starred in many films and were able to achieve success and fame within a short period of time during that period. A few productions, such as 2003's Sleepless Nights, intertwined stories of four bourgeois couples[26] and 2006's Imarat Yacoubian (The Yacoubian Building) bridge this divide through their combination of high artistic quality and popular appeal.

In 2006, the film Leisure Time was released. A social commentary on the decline of Egyptian youth, the film was produced on a low budget and had attendant low production values. The film, however, became a success. Its controversial subject matter, namely, the sexual undertones in today's society, was seen as confirmation that the industry was beginning to take risks. A major challenge facing Egyptian and international scholars, students and fans of Egyptian film is the lack of resources in terms of published works, preserved and available copies of the films themselves, and development in Egypt of state and private institutions dedicated to the study and preservation of film. The Egyptian National Film Centre (ENFC), which theoretically holds copies of all films made after 1961, is according to one Egyptian film researcher, "far from being a library, houses piles of rusty cans containing positive copies."[27]The year 2007, however, saw a considerable spike in the number of Egyptian films made. In 1997, the number of Egyptian feature-length films created was 16; 10 years later, that number had risen to 40. Box office records have also risen significantly, as Egyptian films earned around $50 million.[28][29]

In the 2010s new films stars entered the Egyptian box, such as: Ahmed Mekky, Ruby, Asser Yassin, Donia Samir Ghanem, Amina Khalil, Ahmed El-Fishawy, Mohamed Emam, Yasmin Raeis, Amr Saad, Hana El Zahed, Bayoumi Fouad, Maged El Kedwany, Amir Karara, Yasmine Sabri, Mohamed Ramadan, Dina El Sherbiny, Hesham Maged, Shiko, and Ahmed Fahmy. There are notable films released in this period, such as; 678, Microphone, Asmaa, The Deal, Decor, Bebo and Beshir, The Blue elephant, Excuse My French, Hepta, Gunshot, X-Large, Papa, After the Battle, Diamond Dust, The Blue elephant 2, The Treasure, Sons of Rizk, The Originals, The Treasure 2, Sheikh Jackson, Casablanca, Sons of Rizk 2, 122, The Crime and others.[30] During Eid al-Fitr (which is the season of new films in Egypt) for the year 2016, several films were shown in Egyptian theaters, many of them comedies, namely: Crash, Hell in India, Abu Shanab. The film 30 Years Ago was also shown, which is an action and drama film starring a large number of Egyptian artists, including: Ahmed El Sakka, Mona Zaki, Mervat Amin, Sherif Mounir, Nour in the starring roles. In 2017, many films were shown, including: The Cell, Ali, the Goat and Ibrahim, Emergency escape, Brooks, Meadows and Lovely Faces, Lucky Bank, and others.[31]


Main article: Cairo International Film Festival

Since 1952, Cairo has held The Catholic Center film festival. It is the oldest film festival in the Middle East and Africa. It is specialized in Egyptian Cinema. Since 1976, Cairo has held the annual Cairo International Film Festival, which has been accredited by the International Federation of Film Producers Associations.[6] Other film festivals are held in Egypt including:

Notable films

Title Transliteration Year Director
My Father above the Tree[32] Abi foq al-Shagara 1969 Hussein Kamal
Afarit el-asphalt[33] Afarit el-asphalt 1996 Oussama Fawzi
Ali Baba and The Forty Thieves[34] Ali Baba wa Al Arbaeen harami 1942 Togo Mizrahi
I Am Free Ana Horra 1959 Salah Abu Seif
Date Wine[35] Arak el-balah 1998 Radwan El-Kashef
The Land Of Fear[36] Ard El-Khof 1999 Daoud Abdel Sayed
Al-Go'a Al-Go'a 1986 Ali Badrakhan
The Land[37] El Ard 1969 Youssef Chahine
The Sparrow[38] Al Asfour 1972 Youssef Chahine
The Return of the Prodigal Son[39] Awdat al ibn al dal 1976 Youssef Chahine
Sons of Egypt[40] Awlad Masr 1933 Togo Mizrahi
The Days of Sadat Ayam El-Sadat 2001 Mohamed Khan
The Soft Hands Al Ayde Al Na'ema 1963 Mahmoud Zulfikar
The Will[41] El Azima 1939 Kamal Selim
Dearer than My Life Aghla Min Hayati 1965 Mahmoud Zulfikar
The Gate of Sun Bab el shams 2004 Yousry Nasrallah
Cairo Station Bab El-Hadid 1958 Youssef Chahine
I Love Cinema Baheb el cima 2004 Oussama Fawzi
My Wife, the Director General Mirati Modeer Aam 1966 Fatin Abdel Wahab
The Innocent El Baree' 1988 Atef El-Tayeb
Barsoum Looking for a Job Barsoum Yabhas Aen Wazifa 1923 Mohamed Bayoumi
A Beginning and an End Bidaya wa Nihaya 1960 Salah Abu Seif
The Postman Al Boustaguy 1968 Hussein Kamal
Fools Alley Darb al-mahabil 1955 Tawfik Saleh
The Nightingale's prayer Doaa al-Karawan 1959 Henry Barakat
Traffic Light Eisharit morour 1995 Khairy Beshara
In the Land of Tutankhamun Fi bilad Tout Ankh Amoun 1923 Mohamed Bayoumi
The Paradise of the Fallen Angels Gannat al shayateen 1999 Oussama Fawzi
Money and Women Mal wa Nessaa 1960 Hassan al-Imam
The Island El Geezera 2007 Sherif Arafa
The Flirtation of Girls Ghazal Al Banat 1949 Anwar Wagdi
The Sin Al Haram 1965 Henry Barakat
Chafika et Metwal Shafika w Metwally 1978 Ali Badrakhan
Hassan and Marcus Hassan wi Mor'os 2008 Ramy Emam
Life or Death Haya aw Maut 1954 Kamal El Sheikh
The Choice Al Ikhtiyar 1970 Youssef Chahine
Terrorism and Kebab Al Irhab wal kabab 1992 Sherif Arafa
Alexandria... Why? Iskanderija ... lih? 1978 Youssef Chahine
Karnak Al Karnak 1975 Ali Badrakhan
The Kit Kat El Kit Kat 1991 Daoud Abdel Sayed
The Lady's Puppet Laabet el sitt 1946 Waley-ElDin Sameh
Laila Laila 1927 Aziza Amir
Angel of Mercy Malak al-Rahma 1946 Youssef Wahbi
The City[42] El Medina 1999 Yousry Nasrallah
The Night of Counting the Years Al Mummia 1975 Shadi Abdel Salam
The Impossible El Mustahil 1965 Hussein Kamal
Saladin The Victorious El Nasser Salah El-Din 1963 Youssef Chahine
Yaaqubian building Omaret yakobean 2006 Marwan Hamed
A Bullet in the Heart Rossassa Fel Qalb 1944 Mohammed Karim
Return My Heart Back Rudda Kalbi 1958 Ezz-El-Din Zulfikar
Salama is Okay Salama fi khair 1938 Niazi Mostafa
Salamah Sallamah 1945 Togo Mizrahi
The Bus Driver Sawaq El-Autobis 1983 Atef El-Tayeb
Some of the Fear Shey min el khouf 1969 Hussein Kamal
Struggle of the Heroes Sira' Al Abtal 1962 Tawfik Saleh
Black Market Suq al-Soda, Al 1945 Kamel El-Telmissany
Adrift on the Nile Tharthara Fawq Al Neel 1971 Hussein Kamal
The Collar and the Bracelet El Tooq wal Eswera 1986 Khairy Beshara
Adieu Bonaparte Weda'an Bonapart 1985 Youssef Chahine
The Two Orphans[43] Al Yateematain 1949 Hassan Al Imam
The Sixth Day[44] Al Yawm al-Sadis 1986 Youssef Chahine
Happy Day[45] Yawm Saeed 1940 Mohammed Karim
Sweet Day, Bitter Day[46] Yom mor ... Yom helw 1988 Khairy Beshara
The Wife of an Important Man Zawgat Ragol Mohim 1988 Mohamed Khan
Zeinab[47] Zainab 1950 Mohammed Karim
The Second Wife El Zouga El Tania 1967 Salah Abu Seif
The Cursed Palace 'Al Qasr Al Malaoon 1962 Hassan Reda
The White Gown Al-Rida’ al-Abyad 1975 Hassan Ramzi
People on the Top Ahl el qema 1981 Ali Badrakhan
The Blazing Sun Ṣira‘ Fī al-Wādī 1954 Youssef Chahine
Love and Tears Hob wa Dumoo` 1955 Kamal El Sheikh

Notable figures



Actors and actresses

Film critics

Music Composers

See also

In the press


  1. ^ a b "Table 8: Cinema Infrastructure – Capacity". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Archived from the original on 24 December 2018. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
  2. ^ "Table 6: Share of Top 3 distributors (Excel)". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Archived from the original on 24 December 2018. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
  3. ^ "Average national film production". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Archived from the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 5 November 2013.
  4. ^ a b "Table 11: Exhibition – Admissions & Gross Box Office (GBO)". UNESCO Institute for Statistics. Archived from the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  5. ^ "Egyptian Cinema: Hollywood on the Nile – Oxford Islamic Studies Online". Archived from the original on January 29, 2022. Retrieved 2022-01-29.
  6. ^ a b Cairo Film Festival information Archived 2011-12-08 at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ Shafik, Viola (2007). Popular Egyptian Cinema: Gender, Class, and Nation. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-977-416-053-0.
  8. ^ Houissa, Ali. "LibGuides: Middle Eastern & North African Cinema & Film: Egyptian Cinema & Film". Retrieved 2022-01-29.
  9. ^ "The golden age of Egyptian cinema – Focus – Al-Ahram Weekly". Ahram Online. Retrieved 2022-01-29.
  10. ^ "The Egyptian Women as a cinematic figure and her status in Film industry since 1920 and till now". 2019-02-13. Retrieved 2023-11-27.
  11. ^ Darwish, Mustafa, Dream Makers on the Nile: A Portrait of Egyptian Cinema, The American University in Cairo Press, Cairo, 1998, Pp. 12–13.
  12. ^ Kassir, Samir (2013). Being Arab. Verso. ISBN 978-1-84467-280-6. OCLC 866820842.
  13. ^ "The golden age of Egyptian cinema - Focus - Al-Ahram Weekly". Ahram Online. Retrieved 2022-01-29.
  14. ^ A.V. "The rise and fall of Egyptian Arabic". The Economist. Retrieved 1 February 2018.
  15. ^ Farid, Samir, "Lights, camera...retrospection" Archived 2013-05-11 at the Wayback Machine, Al-Ahram Weekly, December 30, 1999
  16. ^ "LAFF – History of Cinema: Egypt". Archived from the original on 2013-09-24. Retrieved 2013-09-24.
  17. ^ "Untitled Document". Archived from the original on 2013-09-28. Retrieved 2013-09-24.
  18. ^ السينما المصرية المعاصرة وتحولاتها في السنوات العشر الأخيرة: مجموعة أبحاث (in Arabic). المجلس الأعلى للثقافة،. 2008. ISBN 978-977-437-661-0.
  19. ^ a b Farid, Samir, "An Egyptian Story" Archived 2013-05-14 at the Wayback Machine, Al-Ahram Weekly, November 23–29, 2006
  20. ^ Khairy, Khaireya, "Ahmed Ramzi: rendezvous at the snooker club" Archived 2007-04-12 at the Wayback Machine, Al-Ahram Weekly, June 22, 2000
  21. ^ Farid, Samir, "Lights, camera... retrospection" Al-Ahram Weekly, December 30, 1999
  22. ^ Anis, Mouna, "Before the public gaze" Archived 2003-05-10 at the Wayback Machine, Al-Ahram Weekly, June 28, 2001
  23. ^ Sergey Kudryavtsev (4 July 2006). "Зарубежные фильмы в советском кинопрокате". LiveJournal (in Russian).
  24. ^ "«Белое платье» (Al-Reda' Al-Abiad, 1973)". KinoPoisk (in Russian). Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  25. ^ "Советский кинопрокат – Империя наносит ответный удар". (in Russian). Archived from the original on 13 May 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  26. ^ "Sahar el Layali", The New York Times, 2004
  27. ^ El-Assyouti, Mohamed, "Forgotten memories" Archived 2013-05-13 at the Wayback Machine,Al-Ahram Weekly, September 2, 1999
  28. ^ "«2007»: صعود وهبوط في السينما المصرية ... ومفاجآت كبيرة وطفرة في الإنتاج". «2007»: صعود وهبوط في السينما المصرية ... ومفاجآت كبيرة وطفرة في الإنتاج. 2008-01-02. Retrieved 2023-10-29.
  29. ^ "What are the 10 highest-grossing movies in the history of Egyptian cinema?". EgyptToday. 2019-11-08. Retrieved 2023-10-29.
  30. ^ "The Best Egyptian Films of the 2010s | Egyptian Streets". 2019-12-26. Retrieved 2023-10-29.
  31. ^ Rashed, Mohamed (2019-12-22). "Our Picks for the Top 10 Egyptian Movies of the Decade!". Scoop Empire. Retrieved 2023-10-29.
  32. ^ "Abi foq al-Shagara". 17 February 1969 – via
  33. ^ "Afarit el-asphalt". 11 August 1996 – via
  34. ^ "Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves" – via
  35. ^ "Date Wine". 1 September 1999 – via
  36. ^ "Land of Fear". 14 March 2007 – via
  37. ^ "The Land". 4 August 2012 – via
  38. ^ "Al-asfour". 28 October 2007 – via
  39. ^ "Awdat al ibn al dal". 5 August 2012 – via
  40. ^ "Sons of Egypt" – via
  41. ^ "The Will". 6 November 1939 – via
  42. ^ "El Medina". 5 July 2000 – via
  43. ^ "The Two Orphans" – via
  44. ^ "Al-yawm al-Sadis". 3 December 1986 – via
  45. ^ "A Happy Day" – via
  46. ^ "Yom mor... yom helw" – via
  47. ^ "Zeinab". 18 May 2018 – via

Further reading