Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt
Full text
Constitution of Egypt at Wikisource

The Constitution of the Arab Republic of Egypt is the fundamental law of Egypt.

The Egyptian Constitution of 2014 was passed in a referendum in January 2014.[1] The constitution took effect after the results were announced on 18 January 2014. A constitutional amendments referendum was held from 20 to 22 April 2019.[2]


In July 2013, after the ousting of former President Mohammed Morsi, the military announced the schedule for the development of the constitution, with the vote to occur around the end of November 2013.[3] Two different committees were involved in amending the 2012 constitution.[4][5] The constitution replaces the Egyptian Constitution of 2012 which came into effect under Morsi.[6]


The constitution adopted in 2014, like the constitution drafted under Morsi, is based on the Egyptian Constitution of 1971.[7]

The 2014 constitution sets up a president and parliament.[6] The president is elected to a four-year term and may serve 2 terms.[6] The parliament may impeach the president.[6] Under the constitution, there is a guarantee of equality between the sexes and an absolute freedom of belief, but Islam is the state religion.[6] The military retains the ability to appoint the national Minister of Defense for the next 8 years.[6] Under the constitution, political parties may not be based on "religion, race, gender or geography";[6] the law regarding Egyptian political parties that regulated the 2011-2012 parliamentary elections included a similar clause prohibiting religious parties, though it was not enforced.[8] The document, whilst it does proclaim an absolute freedom of expression, that freedom is often subject to exceptions leading to legal consequences often targeting public supporters of the LGBT community.[9][10][11] The constitution protects texts pertaining to presidency terms, freedoms and equality from being amended in an entrenched clause in article 226, except with more guarantees.[12]


In 2014, the constitution was criticized by the Revolutionary Socialists[13] and the Road of the Revolution Front,[14] who perceived it as leaving too much power in the hands of the military.

See also


  1. ^ "Egypt constitution 'approved by 98.1 percent'". Al Jazeera English. 18 January 2014. Retrieved 18 January 2014.
  2. ^ "UPDATE 6: 98.1% approves post-June 30 constitution". Ahram Online. 18 January 2014. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
  3. ^ "Egypt's timetable for transition to elections". Associated Press. 9 July 2013. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
  4. ^ "Amended draft of Egyptian constitution passed to president". Egypt Independent. 21 August 2013. Archived from the original on 28 September 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  5. ^ "Mansour receives amended constitution". Daily News Egypt. 3 December 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g "BBC News – Egypt referendum: '98% back new constitution'". BBC Online. BBC. 18 January 2014. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
  7. ^ "What's in Egypt's proposed new constitution?". Al Jazeera English. 14 January 2014. Archived from the original on 22 January 2014. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
  8. ^ Yussef Auf (25 November 2014). "Political Islam's Fate in Egypt Lies in the Hands of the Courts". Atlantic Council. Retrieved 20 January 2015.
  9. ^ "Cairo Court Sentences Talk Show Host Ahmed Moussa To Prison | Egyptian Streets". 17 March 2015. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
  10. ^ "Egyptian TV Presenter Sentenced to 3 Years in Prison on Charges of 'Outraging Public Decency' | Egyptian Streets". 3 November 2017. Retrieved 27 July 2021.
  11. ^ Kirkpatrick, David (17 January 2014). "Egypt's Crackdown Belies Constitution as It Nears Approval". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
  12. ^ The Constitution of Egypt. p. 62.
  13. ^ "Revolutionary Socialists call for "no" vote on constitution". Aswat Masriya. 18 December 2013. Retrieved 19 January 2014.
  14. ^ "Way of the Revolution Front to vote no to constitution". Ahram Online. 8 January 2014. Retrieved 19 January 2014.