It has been suggested that this article be merged with Local Government in Egypt. (Discuss) Proposed since December 2022.

Egypt is divided, for the purpose of public administration, according to a three-layer hierarchy and some districts are further subdivided, creating an occasional fourth layer.

The top-level of the hierarchy are 27 governorates (singular: محافظة muḥāfẓa, plural: محافظات muḥāfẓat). The second-level, beneath and within governorates, are marakiz (singular: مركز markaz, plural: مراكز marakiz) or aqsam (singular: قسم qism, plural: أقسام aqsam). The third-level is composed of districts (singular: حي ḥay, plural: أحياء aḥya') and villages (singular: قرية qarya, plural: قرى qura). There is a governing structure at each of these levels.[1][2] Districts may be further divided into sub-districts as a fourth level.

There are also seven economic regions used for planning purposes, defined by the General Organization for Physical Planning (GOPP).

Provincial divisions

Main article: Governorates of Egypt

Egypt is divided into 27 governorates (muhāfazāt) and each has a capital and at least one city.[3] Each governorate is administered by a governor, who is appointed by the President of Egypt and serves at the president's discretion. Most governorates have a population density of more than one thousand per km2, while the three largest have a population density of less than two per km2.[4] The governorates of Egypt are:

Municipal divisions

Map of Egypt's municipal divisions.
Map of Egypt's municipal divisions.

At the municipal-level are markaz, kism, police-administered areas, and new cities. Generally, rural areas are divided into markaz whereas urban areas are divided into kism. As of 2013, there were 351 subdivisions, of which 177 were kism, 162 markaz, 9 new cities, and 3 police-administered areas. There are also unorganized areas in the Alexandria, Aswan, Asyut, Beheira, Beni Suef, Cairo, Dakahlia, Damietta, Faiyum, Giza, Ismailia, Kafr El Sheikh, Luxor, Minya, Port Said, Qalyubia, Qena, Sharqia, Sohag, and Suez governorates.[6][7]

k - kism m - markaz n - new city p - police-administered

Map of Egypt's Municipal districts.
Map of Egypt's Municipal districts.

Submunicipal divisions

The village is the smallest local unit in rural communities, and is the equivalent of a district in urban areas. However, villages differ from each other in terms of legal status. The heads of villages or districts are appointed by the respective governors.[8] In addition to this, districts are occasionally further divided into sub-district neighborhoods called sheyakha in rural areas, or residential districts (singular: حي سكني ḥay sakani, plural: أحياء سكنية aḥya' sakaniya) in urban areas.[9]

See also


  1. ^ "Egypt: The Basic Village Services Program" (PDF). USAID. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 October 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
  2. ^ Metz, Helen Chapin, ed. (1990). Egypt: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1990. Archived from the original on 3 November 2016. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
  3. ^ "Governorates of Egypt". Statoids. Archived from the original on 14 October 2016. Retrieved 16 October 2016.
  4. ^ "Inhabited Population Density By Governorate 1/7/2014" (PDF). CAPMAS Egyptian Figures 2015. Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 October 2015. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
  5. ^ "Seat of a first-order administrative division". Geonames. Archived from the original on 20 January 2017. Retrieved 20 October 2016.
  6. ^ "Egypt Markazes". Statoids. Archived from the original on 8 April 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
  7. ^ Law, Gwillim (November 23, 1999). Administrative Subdivisions of Countries: A Comprehensive World Reference, 1900 Through 1998. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-6097-7. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
  8. ^ "Governor appoints first woman to head municipality in Egypt's Alexandria". Ahram Online. June 20, 2015. Archived from the original on 19 October 2016. Retrieved 19 October 2016.
  9. ^ Broadband Networks in the Middle East and North Africa: Accelerating High-Speed Internet Access. World Bank Publication. February 11, 2014. p. 33. ISBN 9781464801136. Archived from the original on 26 November 2017. Retrieved 19 October 2016.