Governorates of Iraq
المحافظات العراقية (Arabic)
پارێزگاکانی عێراق (Kurdish)
  • Also known as:
  • Muḥāfażah
    محافظة (Arabic)
    پارێزگا (Kurdish)
A clickable map of Iraq exhibiting its eighteen governorates, and partially recognized Halabja.
A clickable map of Iraq exhibiting its governorates.Halabja GovernorateNinawa GovernorateDohuk GovernorateArbil GovernorateSulaymaniyah GovernorateKirkuk GovernorateDiyala GovernorateSalah ad Din GovernorateAl Anbar GovernorateBaghdad GovernorateBabil GovernorateKarbala GovernorateWasit GovernorateAl Najaf GovernorateAl-Qādisiyyah GovernorateMaysan GovernorateDhi Qar GovernorateAl Muthanna GovernorateBasra Governorate
A clickable map of Iraq exhibiting its governorates.
CategoryFederated state
LocationRepublic of Iraq
Number18 governorates (19 including partially recognized Halabja)
Areas529 km2 (204.2 sq mi) (Baghdad) – 138,500 km2 (53,476 sq mi) (Al Anbar)
Government
Subdivisions

Iraq consists of 18 recognized governorates (Arabic: محافظة, romanizedmuḥāfażah; Sorani Kurdish: پارێزگا, romanized: parêzgeh), also known as "provinces" and 1 partially recognized governorate (Halabja). Per the Iraqi constitution, governorates can form an autonomous region.[1] Four governorates, Erbil, Sulaymaniyah, Halabja and Duhok, constitute the autonomous Kurdistan Region. Baghdad (which is the most populous) and Basra are the oldest governorates. The second most-populous one, Ninawa (or Nineveh) is in the upland region and has a cooler climate of the north-west.

There have been numerous calls to recognize Halabja Governorate since 1999.[2] It was recognized as an official governorate of the Kurdistan Region in 2014,[3][2] and the Council of Ministers approved a bill twice in 2013,[4][5] and 2023.[6] However, the only legislature in Iraq that can implement new governorates is the Council of Representatives of Iraq, which has had delayed hearings regarding Halabja numerous times.[7][8][9][10]

Throughout early 2014, the Council of Ministers of Iraq approved proposals to add the three newly proposed governorates:[11]

In 2013, activists and political parties called for the conversion of Hawija from a province into a governorate, but the Kirkuk government blocked the proposal.[15]

Shortly after the approval of the proposals, the Islamic State attacked the cities, towns and villages of the Nineveh Plains. Upon the eventual withdrawal of ISIS, the initial decision by the Council of Ministers was dishonored by Kurdistan, Baghdad and Iranian-connected political entities, as they began pushing security forces into different parts of the Nineveh Plains to try and lay claim to different parts of the territory, asserting that the demographics had changed due to ISIS and that the original inhabitants could no longer be representatives of their indigenous land.[16] Part of the reason for the demographic shift was that squatters were encouraged to occupy Christian homes. Without enough paperwork to prove ownership, some of those homes became extremely challenging to reclaim. Initiatives are underway to help reclaim families' homes.[17]

Another proposal exists to add a 19th governorate: Fallujah, from part of the Al Anbar.[11] This largely did not occur due to the ISIS insurgency. Following the defeat of ISIS in the Battle of Fallujah (2016), the proposal may resurface or Al-Anbar may remain undivided.

Governorates

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Governorates of Iraq
Governorate Postal
code
ISO
code
Total area
in miles2
Total area
in km2
Population
1 July 2018[18]
Population
Density
in miles
Population
Density
in km
Capital
Al-Anbar 31 AN 53,476 138,501 1,771,656 29.1 11.2 Ramadi
Babil 51 BB 1,976 5,603 2,065,042 921.4 324.9 Hillah
Baghdad 10 BG 204.2 529 8,126,755 4,620.09 1,548.8 Baghdad
Basra 61 BA 7,360 19,070 2,908,491 344.0 132.7 Basra
Dhi Qar 64 DQ 5,000 12,900 2,095,172 367.2 142.3 Nasiriyah
Al-Qādisiyyah 58 QA 3,148 8,153 1,291,048 360.3 139.1 Al Diwaniyah
Diyala 32 DI 6,828 17,685 1,637,226 211.3 81.6 Baqubah
Duhok (Dahūk) (IKR) a.k.a. Dihok 42 DA 2,530 6,553 1,292,535 445.5 172.2 Dihok
Erbil (IKR) a.k.a. Hewlêr 44 AR 5,820 15,074 1,854,778 277.0 106.9 Hewlêr
Karbala 56 KA 1,944 5,034 1,218,732 548.6 211.8 Karbala
Kirkuk 36 KI 3,737 9,679 1,597,876 373.4 144.1 Kerkûk
Maysan 62 MA 6,205 16,072 1,112,673 156.5 60.4 Amarah
Muthanna 66 MU 19,980 51,740 814,371 35.9 13.8 Samawah
Najaf 54 NA 11,129 28,824 1,471,592 115.5 44.5 Najaf
Ninawa 41 NI 14,410 37,323 3,729,998 226.9 87.6 Mosul
Salah Al-Din 34 SD 9,556 24,751 1,595,235 147.3 56.8 Tikrit
Sulaymaniyah (IKR) (With Halabja) a.k.a. Silêmanî 46 SU 6,573 17,023 2,053,305 285.8 110.3 Silêmanî
Wasit 52 WA 6,623 17,153 1,378,723 182.7 70.5 Kut

Former governorates

Iraqi governorates in 1990
Governorate Today part of
Mosul Ninawa Governorate
Duhok Governorate
Diwaniya Al-Qādisiyyah Governorate
Muthanna Governorate
Najaf Governorate
Dulaim (−1962)
Ramadi (1962–1976)
Al Anbar Governorate
Muntafiq (−1976) Dhi Qar Governorate
Amara (−1976) Maysan Governorate
Kut (−1976) Wasit Governorate
Baghdad Baghdad Governorate
Saladin Governorate
Kirkuk (−1976)
At-Ta'mim (1976–2006)
Kirkuk Governorate
Kuwait Governorate

(Military occupation between 1990 and 1991)

State of Kuwait

Flags

Flag Use Description
Flag of Al Anbar Governorate[19] Ratio: 2:3
Flag of Babil Governorate Ratio: 2:3
Flag of Baghdad Governorate[20][21] Ratio: 2:3
Flag of Basra Governorate[22] Ratio: 2:3
Flag of Diyala Governorate[23] Ratio: 2:3
Flag of Dhi Qar Governorate Ratio: 2:3
Flag of Duhok Governorate Ratio: 2:3
Seal of Erbil Governorate[24] Ratio: 2:3
Emblem of Karbala Governorate Ratio: 2:3
Seal of Maysan Governorate[25] Ratio: 2:3
Flag of Muthanna Governorate Ratio: 2:3
Seal of Najaf Governorate[26] Ratio: 2:3
Flag of Nineveh Governorate[27] White flag charged with the emblem of the governorate. The emblem depicts the leaning minaret of the Great Mosque of al-Nuri, Mosul surrounded by olive branches.
Ratio: 2:3
Flag of Saladin Governorate[28][29] Ratio: 2:3
Flag of Kirkuk Governorate[30] Ratio: 2:3
Flag of Al-Qādisiyyah Governorate[31] Ratio: 2:3
Flag of Sulaymaniyah Governorate[32] Ratio: 1:2
Flag of Wasit Governorate Ratio: 2:3

See also

References

  1. ^ "Iraq's Constitution of 2005" (PDF). Constitute Project. Archived (PDF) from the original on 15 May 2019. Retrieved 13 October 2021.
  2. ^ a b "Halabja: City of Peace becomes Kurdistan's fourth province". www.rudaw.net. Archived from the original on 17 January 2024. Retrieved 17 January 2024.
  3. ^ "Iraqi Kurdistan government announces Halabja as its fourth province". www.ekurd.net. Archived from the original on 15 May 2014. Retrieved 17 January 2024.
  4. ^ "Iraq Ministers Agree Turning Halabja into Province". www.rudaw.net. Archived from the original on 7 December 2023. Retrieved 17 January 2024.
  5. ^ "Council of Ministers decisions in Session 54 in 31/12/2013". 31 December 2013. Archived from the original on 6 February 2014. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  6. ^ "Halabja on the cusp of ascension to province on 35th anniversary of chemical attack". www.rudaw.net. Archived from the original on 17 January 2024. Retrieved 17 January 2024.
  7. ^ "Iraqi parliament postpones vote on Halabja's ascension to province". www.rudaw.net. Archived from the original on 17 January 2024. Retrieved 17 January 2024.
  8. ^ "Again, Iraqi parliament postpones voting on the establishment of Halabja governorate". Shafaq News. Archived from the original on 17 January 2024. Retrieved 17 January 2024.
  9. ^ "Halabja Governorate Push: Local Leader Renews Call for Official Recognition". Shafaq News. Archived from the original on 17 January 2024. Retrieved 17 January 2024.
  10. ^ "البرلمان يؤجل مجددا التصويت على استحداث محافظة حلبجة". شفق نيوز (in Arabic). Archived from the original on 17 January 2024. Retrieved 17 January 2024.
  11. ^ a b "Resolutions of Council of Ministers For Session No. 3 on 21/1/2014". 21 January 2014. Archived from the original on 30 October 2016. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
  12. ^ "Iraqi Council of Ministers approved new provinces of Tuz Xurmatu and Tal Afar". Kurd Net. 21 January 2014. Archived from the original on 14 July 2020. Retrieved 23 August 2014.
  13. ^ BetBasoo 1 and Kino 2, Peter 1 and Nuri 2 (22 January 2014). "Assyria: Nineveh Plain To Become Iraqi Province". UNPO – Underrepresented Nations & Peoples Organization. Archived from the original on 26 January 2014.((cite web)): CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  14. ^ Network, Esta Media (13 March 2023). "Iraq recognizes Halabja as its 19th governorate". Esta Media Network. Archived from the original on 18 January 2024. Retrieved 18 January 2024.
  15. ^ "Iraq: What is the strategic importance of Hawija?". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 23 December 2023. Retrieved 18 January 2024.
  16. ^ Lucente, Adam (26 April 2020). "In post-Islamic State northern Iraq, demographic changes raise concerns". Middle East Eye. Archived from the original on 19 June 2023. Retrieved 19 June 2023.
  17. ^ "Iraq: Government cracks down on squatters". Refworld. 8 September 2008. Archived from the original on 27 January 2021.
  18. ^ "Original PDF". doi:10.15438/rr.5.1.7. Archived from the original on 19 May 2018. Retrieved 10 May 2021. ((cite journal)): Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  19. ^ "Anbar governor Ali Farhan al-Dulaimi speaks to AFP at his office in". Archived from the original on 15 October 2023. Retrieved 11 January 2024.
  20. ^ "Baghdad Governorate (Iraq)". Archived from the original on 18 July 2023. Retrieved 11 January 2024.
  21. ^ "محافظ بغداد يؤكد اتخاذ اجراءات مشددة على المولدات الاهلية لمنع رفع الاسعار". 15 June 2021. Archived from the original on 15 October 2023. Retrieved 11 January 2024.
  22. ^ "Gulf 25 inspection team concludes its tour of Basra, holds a press conference – اتحاد كأس الخليج العربي لكرة القدم". Archived from the original on 15 October 2023. Retrieved 11 January 2024.
  23. ^ "Deputy governor of Diyala contracts COVID-19". Archived from the original on 15 October 2023. Retrieved 11 January 2024.
  24. ^ "IRAQ: Ramy Noori appointed mayor of Ankawa District by Erbil Provincial Council". 13 May 2022. Archived from the original on 15 October 2023. Retrieved 11 January 2024.
  25. ^ Arango, Tim (4 May 2013). "A Sadrist Governor is a Folk Hero to Iraqis". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 15 October 2023. Retrieved 11 January 2024.
  26. ^ محافظ النجف الاشرف الدكتور المهندس ماجد الوائلي يستعرض اهم المشاريع في قضاء الكوفة. najaf media. 29 June 2022. Archived from the original on 26 August 2022. Retrieved 21 December 2022 – via YouTube.
  27. ^ "Mosul, Iraq. 2nd July, 2019. New governor of Nineveh Mansour al-Mar'eed speaks to Xinhua in an interview at his office in Nineveh province, Iraq, July 2, 2019. The governor of Iraq's northern province of Nineveh called on the Chinese companies to take part in the reconstruction of its capital Mosul. TO GO WITH: Iraqi governor calls on Chinese companies to take part in reconstruction of Mosul. Credit: Khalil Dawood/Xinhua/Alamy Live News Stock Photo – Alamy". Archived from the original on 15 October 2023. Retrieved 11 January 2024.
  28. ^ "Saladin (Salah ed-Din) Governorate (Iraq)". Archived from the original on 12 August 2022. Retrieved 11 January 2024.
  29. ^ "Chaos prevails in Saladin as two governors lock horns over who runs the governorate". Archived from the original on 15 October 2023. Retrieved 11 January 2024.
  30. ^ "Iraq fires Kirkuk governor in Kurdish referendum stand-off". Financial Times. 14 September 2017. Archived from the original on 10 December 2022.
  31. ^ "الموقع الرسمي لمحافظة الديوانية – النائب الثاني لمحافظ الديوانية يتراس اجتماع غرفة عمليات الطاقة في المحافظة". Archived from the original on 12 August 2022. Retrieved 11 January 2024.
  32. ^ slemani.gov [@SlemaniGov] (14 June 2022). "رەوشی مافەكانی مرۆڤ تاووتوێ‌ دەكرێت https://t.co/iT3fPt3Tui https://t.co/P9ZVqR5vDv https://t.co/xutgAlQztV https://t.co/7M8B9ip87O https://t.co/3JrqGjKZZU https://t.co/xL8fxXDw6I" [The human rights situation will be discussed.] (Tweet) (in Central Kurdish). Archived from the original on 26 August 2022. Retrieved 21 December 2022 – via Twitter.