Masghouf fish, one of Iraq's national dishes, a Mesopotamian cuisine dating back to ancient times, typically fish caught from the rivers of Euphrates and Tigris, and grilled near the river bed.
Masghouf fish, one of Iraq's national dishes, a Mesopotamian cuisine dating back to ancient times, typically fish caught from the rivers of Euphrates and Tigris, and grilled near the river bed.

Iraqi cuisine (Arabic: المطبخ العراقي) or Mesopotamian Cuisine[1][2] is a Middle Eastern cuisine that has its origins from Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians and the other groups of the region.[3]

Tablets found in ancient ruins in Iraq show recipes prepared in the temples during religious festivals—the first cookbooks in the world.[3][4] Ancient Mesopotamia, was home to a sophisticated and highly advanced civilization, in all fields of knowledge, including the culinary arts.[3]

However, it was in the Islamic Golden Age when Baghdad was the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate (750–1258 AD) that the Iraqi kitchen reached its zenith.[3] Throughout history, the cuisine of Iraq has made extensive contact with the cuisines of its neighbouring regions including Caucasian cuisine, Greek Cuisine, Central Asian cuisine, Persian cuisine, and Turkish cuisine, among others. Today, the cuisine of Iraq reflects this rich inheritance as well as strong influences from the culinary traditions of neighbouring Iran, Turkey, and the Caucasus region.[3]

Mesopotamian cuisine varies across the country. The cooking of Northern Iraq is known for adding pomegranate to the dolma juice prominently to give it a unique taste. In Southern Iraq, fish is used extensively. While in the middle region, in Baghdad and the surrounding cities is known for its variety of rice dishes and sweets.

Contemporary Iraq reflects the same natural division as ancient Mesopotamia,[5][6][7][8] which consisted of Assyria in the arid northern uplands and Babylonia in the alluvial plain.[8] Upper Mesopotamia grows wheat and crops requiring winter chill such as apples and stone fruits.[8] Lower Mesopotamia grows rice and barley, citrus fruits, and is responsible for Iraq's position as one of the world's largest producer of dates.

Dates, apricots, figs, and prunes are processed to make dried fruits
Dates, apricots, figs, and prunes are processed to make dried fruits

History

See also: History of Mesopotamia and History of Iraq

Archaeologists have found evidence from excavations at Jarmo in northeastern Iraq, that pistachio nuts were a common food as early as 6750 BC.[9] Among the ancient texts discovered in Mesopotamia is a Sumerian-Akkadian bilingual dictionary,[10] recorded in cuneiform script on 24 stone tablets about 1900 BC.[10] It lists terms in the two ancient Iraqi languages for over 800 different items of food and drink.[10] Included are 20 different kinds of cheese, over 100 varieties of soup and 300 types of bread, each with different ingredients, filling, shape or size.[10]

The world's oldest recipes are found in Mesopotamia of modern-day ancient Iraq, written in cuneiform tablets.[11][4] One of three excavated cuneiform clay tablets written in 1700 BC in Babylon,[12][11] 50 miles south of present-day Baghdad, contains 24 recipes for stew cooked with meat and vegetables,[12] enhanced and seasoned with leeks, onion, garlic, and spices and herbs like cassia, cumin, coriander, mint, and dill.[12] Stew has remained a mainstay in the cuisine.[12] Extant medieval Iraqi recipes and modern Iraqi cuisine attest to this.[12]

Iraqi cuisine/Mesopotamian cuisine

Ingredients

Kleicha is sometimes considered the national cookie of Iraq and is served during religious holidays.
Kleicha is sometimes considered the national cookie of Iraq and is served during religious holidays.

Some characteristic ingredients of Iraqi cuisine include:

Other Iraqi culinary essentials include olive oil, sesame oil, tamarind, vermicelli, tahini, honey, date syrup, yogurt and rose water.

Lamb is the favorite meat, but chicken, beef, goat and fish are also eaten. Most dishes are served with rice—usually timman anbar, a yellowish, very aromatic, long-grain rice grown in the Middle Euphrates region.[13]

Bulghur wheat is used in many dishes, having been a staple in the country since the days of the ancient Assyrians.[3] Flatbread is a staple that is served with a variety of dips, cheeses, olives, and jams, at every meal.

Mêzzä

Meals begin with appetizers and salads, known as mezza. Mezza is a selection of appetizers or small dishes often served with a beverage, like anise-flavored liqueurs such as arak, ouzo, rakı, sambuca, pastis, or various wines, similar to the tapas of Spain, or finger food.

Mezza may include:

Samoon, type of Iraqi bread.
Samoon, type of Iraqi bread.

Dips

 
Tzatziki is made of strained yogurt (usually sheep's milk or goat's milk in Greece and Turkey) with cucumbers, garlic, salt, usually olive oil, pepper, dill, sometimes lemon juice and parsley, or mint added. The cucumbers are either puréed and strained, or seeded and finely diced. Olive oil, olives, and herbs are often used as garnishes.

Soups and stews

Various stews served over rice form a major part of Iraqi cuisine.

A prepared masgouf
A prepared masgouf
Iraqi kebab, usually served with khubz or samoon
Iraqi kebab, usually served with khubz or samoon
Quzi
A plate of Parda blaw
A plate of Parda blaw
Iraqi dolma
Iraqi dolma
Tepsi baytinijan
Potato slices are placed on top of the mixture, and the dish is baked. Like many other Iraqi dishes it is usually served with rice, along with salad and pickles.

Dumplings and meatballs

Vegetarian varieties include lauki kofta,[24] shahi aloo kofta,[25] and malai kofta.[26]
 
Mosul kibbeh
Shawarma in a pita
Shawarma in a pita
Iraqi shakarlama with almond
Iraqi shakarlama with almond

Processed meat

Rice dishes

Long-grain rice is a staple in Iraqi cuisine.[17][20]

Iraqi rice cooking is similar to the method used for Iranian chelow,[13] a multistep process intended to produce just-tender, fluffy grains.[13] A prominent aspect of Iraqi rice cooking is the hikakeh, a crisp bottom crust.[13] It differs slightly from the Iranian tahdig, which is a single thick piece; the hikakeh contains some loose rice as well.[13] Before serving, the hikakeh is broken into pieces so that everyone is provided with some along with the fluffy rice.[13]

The Assyrians of Iraq may either call it dolma or yaprekh which is the Syriac term for stuffed grape leaves.
 
Iraqis usually serve dolma without yoghurt. Often chicken or beef ribs are added to the cooking pot, and sometimes served with the dolma instead of masta or khalwah. Iraqi dolma is usually cooked and served in a tomato-based sauce.
Dolma is very popular in Iraq. In Mosul they include courgettes (zucchini), tomatoes, onions, peppers and grape leaves. They are occasionally smoked.

Sandwiches and wraps

Dairy

Breads and pastries

Lahm b'ajeen, garnished with parsley, tomato, red onion, and a wedge of lemon
Lahm b'ajeen, garnished with parsley, tomato, red onion, and a wedge of lemon
Sfiha are much like dolma, ground lamb, lightly spiced, wrapped in brined grape leaves.

Condiments, sauces and spices

Sweets

The earliest known recipe for cake comes from ancient Mesopotamia. Believed to be primarily for consumption at the palace or temple, the cake was made from fat, white cheese, dates and raisins. Another recipe dating to the reign of Hammurabi (1792 BCE–1750 BCE) includes similar basic ingredients with the addition of grape syrup, figs and apples.[30]

The traditional Iraqi kleicha cookies are believed to have their roots in Mesopotamian qullupu—date filled pastries baked in a wood-fired oven called tannour. In modern times, other types of cookies (biskit) and cakes (ka'ak) are made at home, usually flavored with cardamom or rose water. Some variations include the disc-shaped khfefiyyat, half-moon shaped kleichat joz made with nuts, and date-filled kleichat tamur.[30]

"White baklava", osh el bulbul (bird's nests) and other traditional sweets in Iraq
"White baklava", osh el bulbul (bird's nests) and other traditional sweets in Iraq

Cookbooks dating to the Abbasid Caliphate between the 10th and 13th centuries include recipes for hundreds of desserts. The tradition continues into the modern day, but the rich, syrupy desserts like baklava are usually prepared for special occasions or religious celebrations, as most daily meals are usually followed by a simple course of seasonal fruit, especially dates, figs, cantaloupes, nectarines, apricots, pomegranates, peaches, mulberries, grapes or watermelons.[30]

Lokma, a common Iraqi pastries. It is one of the most popular sweet pastries in the Mesopotamian cuisine.
Lokma, a common Iraqi pastries. It is one of the most popular sweet pastries in the Mesopotamian cuisine.

Though not as recognizable as baklava, the fried pastry called lauzeenaj, flavored with mastic and rose water, was a specialty in imperial Baghdad.

Rosette-shaped fritters called zalabia are a local specialty, believed to take their name from Ziryab, a well-known Kurdish-Iraqi musician in the Caliphate of Cordoba.

Baklava and zalabia are typical offerings during the Eid al-Fitr celebrations that follow Ramadan. Halqoum (commonly known as Turkish delight) are traditionally given as gifts during the holiday.[30]

Others include:

Beverages

Alcoholic beverages

Alcoholic beverages in Iraq are widely available everywhere with certain exceptions in Karbala and Najaf for religious reasons.[citation needed] Iraqis are great consumers of all kinds of alcohol except for those who follow the religious code.[citation needed]

Alulu beer receipt – This records a purchase of "best" beer from a brewer, c. 2050 BC from the Sumerian city of Umma in ancient Iraq.[31]
Alulu beer receipt – This records a purchase of "best" beer from a brewer, c. 2050 BC from the Sumerian city of Umma in ancient Iraq.[31]

Non-alcoholic beverages

Iraqi tea is renowned for being considerably stronger, richer and sweeter than those found in neighbouring countries, and is usually brewed with heil (cardamom)
Iraqi tea is renowned for being considerably stronger, richer and sweeter than those found in neighbouring countries, and is usually brewed with heil (cardamom)

Related cuisines

 

See also

References

  1. ^ "Tasty Ancient Recipes from Mesopotamia – History et cetera". Retrieved 2021-12-27.
  2. ^ "Iraqi Cuisine". worldfood.guide. Retrieved 2021-12-27.
  3. ^ a b c d e f http://www.thingsasian.com/stories-photos/3592 Foods of Iraq: Enshrined With A Long History. Habeeb Salloum.
  4. ^ a b "Inspired by the oldest clay tablet 'cookbook' in the world (1700 BC) | Foodpairing / blog". Foodpairing. 2015-09-15. Retrieved 2020-05-29.
  5. ^ "Tasty Ancient Recipes from Mesopotamia – History et cetera".
  6. ^ "The Ancient Mesopotamian Tablet as Cookbook | Roundtable". Lapham’s Quarterly.
  7. ^ "Iraqi Cuisine". worldfood.guide.
  8. ^ a b c Davidson, Alan; Jaine, Tom (2006). The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford University Press. p. 405. ISBN 978-0-19-280681-9.
  9. ^ "History and Agriculture of the Pistachio Nut". IRECO. Archived from the original on 13 July 2006. Retrieved 27 February 2012.
  10. ^ a b c d Lawton, John. "Mesopotamian Menus". Saudi Aramco World, March/April 1988. Saudi Aramco. Retrieved 30 March 2012.
  11. ^ a b Winchester, Ashley. "The world's oldest-known recipes decoded". www.bbc.com. Retrieved 2020-05-29.
  12. ^ a b c d e Albala, Ken (2011). Food Cultures of the World Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 251–252. ISBN 978-0-313-37627-6.
  13. ^ a b c d e f Marks, Gil (2010). Encyclopedia of Jewish Food. John Wiley & Sons. p. 585. ISBN 978-0-470-39130-3.
  14. ^ "Iraqi Sumac Salad (Summaq salad)". 14 January 2016.
  15. ^ "Fasolia Yabsa (Iraqi White Bean Stew)". 22 September 2020.
  16. ^ Wikipedia https://www.kosher.com/recipe/bazha-georgian-walnut-sauce-2695
  17. ^ a b c d e ʻAlī Akbar Mahdī, (2003) p.40 -41
  18. ^ Jacob (2007) p.4
  19. ^ Fair, (2008) p.72
  20. ^ a b c d Taus-Bolstad, Stacy (2003) Iraq in Pictures, Twenty-First Century Books, p.55, ISBN 0-8225-0934-2
  21. ^ a b c Jacob (2007) p.2
  22. ^ Nasrallah, Nawal (2003). Delights from the Garden of Eden: A Cookbook and a History of the Iraqi Cuisine. 1stBooks. p. 221. ISBN 978-1-4033-4793-0.
  23. ^ Fair, (2008), p.71
  24. ^ "Lauki Kofta Curry Recipe / Dudhi Kofta Curry / Bottle Gourd Kofta". 27 February 2019.
  25. ^ "Shahi Aloo kofta curry Recipe". 6 March 2020.
  26. ^ "Malai kofta recipe | How to make malai kofta curry | Paneer kofta". 27 August 2017.
  27. ^ Albala, Ken (2011-05-25). Food Cultures of the World Encyclopedia [4 volumes]: [Four Volumes]. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-37627-6.
  28. ^ Nasrallah, Nawal (2013). Delights from the Garden of Eden: A Cookbook and History of the Iraqi Cuisine. Equinox Pub. ISBN 978-1-84553-457-8.
  29. ^ "Chicken and rice (Tibeat)". 15 November 2011.
  30. ^ a b c d Roufs, Timothy G.; Roufs, Kathleen Smyth. Sweet Treats Around the World. pp. 179–183.
  31. ^ "Looking for oldest pump". World Pumps. 2010 (11): 11. November 2010. doi:10.1016/s0262-1762(10)70355-2. ISSN 0262-1762.
  32. ^ "IRAQ: Happy hour". January 30, 2008.
  33. ^ Zeed, Adnan Abu (October 12, 2018). "Arak distillery promotes ambitious new brand in defiance of alcohol ban". Al-Monitor.

Bibliography