Beijing cuisine
Peking duck is a famous duck dish from Beijing
Jing cuisine
Literal meaningCuisine of the capital
Beiping cuisine
Beijing cuisine in Menkuang Hutong, which is a century-old restaurant

Beijing cuisine, also known as Jing cuisine, Mandarin cuisine and Peking cuisine and formerly as Beiping cuisine, is the local cuisine of Beijing, the national capital of China.


As Beijing has been the capital of China for centuries, its cuisine is influenced by culinary traditions from all over China, but the style that has the greatest influence on Beijing cuisine is that of the eastern coastal province of Shandong.[1][2][3][4] Beijing cuisine has itself, in turn, also greatly influenced other Chinese cuisines, particularly the cuisine of Liaoning, the Chinese imperial cuisine and the Chinese aristocrat cuisine.[1][2][3][4]

Another tradition that influenced Beijing cuisine (as well as influenced by the latter itself) is the Chinese imperial cuisine that originated from the "Emperor's Kitchen" (御膳房; yùshànfáng), which referred to the cooking facilities inside the Forbidden City, where thousands of cooks from different parts of China showed their best culinary skills to please the imperial family and officials. Therefore, it is sometimes difficult to determine the actual origin of a dish as the term "Mandarin" is generalised and refers not only to Beijing, but other provinces as well. However, some generalisation of Beijing cuisine can be characterised as follows: Foods that originated in Beijing are often snacks rather than main courses, and they are typically sold by small shops or street vendors. There is emphasis on dark soy paste, sesame paste, sesame oil and scallions, and fermented tofu is often served as a condiment. In terms of cooking techniques, methods relating to different ways of frying are often used.[1][4] There is less emphasis on rice as an accompaniment as compared to many other regions in China, as local rice production in Beijing is limited by the relatively dry climate.

Many dishes in Beijing cuisine that are served as main courses are derived from a variety of Chinese Halal foods, particularly lamb and beef dishes,[5] as well as from Huaiyang cuisine.

Huaiyang cuisine has been praised since ancient times in China and it was a general practice for an official travelling to Beijing to take up a new post to bring along with him a chef specialising in Huaiyang cuisine. When these officials had completed their terms in the capital and returned to their native provinces, most of the chefs they brought along often remained in Beijing. They opened their own restaurants or were hired by wealthy locals.[1][4] The imperial clan of the Ming dynasty, the House of Zhu, who had ancestry from Jiangsu Province, also contributed greatly in introducing Huaiyang cuisine to Beijing when the capital was moved from Nanjing to Beijing in the 15th century, because the imperial kitchen was mainly Huaiyang style. The element of traditional Beijing culinary and gastronomical cultures of enjoying artistic performances such as Beijing opera while dining directly developed from the similar practice in the culture of Jiangsu and Huaiyang cuisines.[1][2][3][4][6]

Chinese Islamic cuisine is another important component of Beijing cuisine and was first prominently introduced when Beijing became the capital of the Yuan dynasty. However, the most significant contribution to the formation of Beijing cuisine came from Shandong cuisine, as most chefs from Shandong Province came to Beijing en masse during the Qing dynasty. Unlike the earlier two cuisines, which were brought by the ruling class such as nobles, aristocrats and bureaucrats and then spread to the general populace, the introduction of Shandong cuisine begun with serving the general populace, with much wider market segment, from wealthy merchants to the working class.


The Qing dynasty was a major period in the formation of Beijing cuisine. Before the Boxer Rebellion, the foodservice establishments in Beijing were strictly stratified by the foodservice guild. Each category of the establishment was specifically based on its ability to provide for a particular segment of the market. The top ranking establishments served nobles, aristocrats, and wealthy merchants and landlords, while lower ranking establishments served the populace of lower financial and social status. It was during this period when Beijing cuisine gained fame and became recognised by the Chinese culinary society, and the stratification of the foodservice was one of its most obvious characteristics as part of its culinary and gastronomic cultures during this first peak of its formation.[1][2][3][4]

The official stratification was an integral part of the local culture of Beijing and it was not finally abolished officially after the end of the Qing dynasty, which resulted in the second peak in the formation of Beijing cuisine. Meals previously offered to nobles and aristocrats were made available to anyone who could afford them instead of being restricted only to the upper class. As chefs freely switched between jobs offered by different establishments, they brought their skills that further enriched and developed Beijing cuisine. Though the stratification of food services in Beijing was no longer effected by imperial laws, the structure more or less remained despite continuous weakening due to the financial background of the local clientele. The different classes are listed in the following subsections.[1][2][3][4][6]


Zhuang (; ; zhuāng; 'village'), or zhuang zihao (庄字号; 莊字號; zhuāng zìhào; 'village brand') were the top-ranking foodservice establishments, not only in providing foods, but entertainment as well. The form of entertainment provided was usually Beijing opera, and establishments of this class always had long-term contracts with an opera troupe to perform onsite or contracts with famous performers, such as national-treasure-class performers, to perform onsite, though not on a daily basis. Establishments of this category only accepted customers who came as a group and ordered banquets by appointment, and the banquets provided by establishments of this category often included most, if not all tables, at the site. The bulk foodservice business was catering at customers' homes or other locations, often for birthdays, marriages, funerals, promotions and other important celebrations and festivals. When catering, these establishments not only provided what was on the menu, but fulfilled customers' requests.

Leng zhuangzi (冷庄子; 冷莊子; lěng zhuāngzǐ; 'cold village') lacked any rooms to host banquets, and thus their business was purely catering.


Tang (; táng; 'auditorium'), or tang zihao (堂字号; 堂字號; táng zìhào; 'auditorium brand'), are similar to zhuang establishments, but the business of these second-class establishments were generally evenly divided among onsite banquet hosting and catering (at customers' homes). Establishments of this class would also have long-term contracts with Beijing opera troupes to perform onsite, but they did not have long-term contracts with famous performers, such as national-treasure-class performers, to perform onsite on regular basis; however these top performers would still perform at establishments of this category occasionally. In terms of catering at the customers' sites, establishments of this category often only provided dishes strictly according to their menu.


Ting (; ; tīng; 'foyer'), or ting zihao (厅字号; 廳字號; tīng zìhào; 'foyer brand') are foodservice establishments which had more business in onsite banquet hosting than catering at customers' homes. For onsite banquet hosting, entertainment was still provided, but establishments of this category did not have long-term contracts with Beijing opera troupes, so that performers varied from time to time, and top performers usually did not perform here or at any lower-ranking establishments. For catering, different establishments of this category were incapable of handling significant catering on their own, but generally had to combine resources with other establishments of the same ranking (or lower) to do the job.


A Jing Jiang Yuan (京醬園) near Beihai, circa 1879.

Yuan (; ; yuán; 'garden'), or yuan zihao (园字号; 園字號; yuán zìhào; 'garden brand') did nearly all their business in hosting banquets onsite. Entertainment was not provided on a regular basis, but there were stages built onsite for Beijing opera performers. Instead of being hired by the establishments like in the previous three categories, performers at establishments of this category were usually contractors who paid the establishment to perform and split the earnings according to a certain percentage. Occasionally, establishments of this category would be called upon to help cater at customers' homes, but had to work with others, never taking the lead as establishments like the ting.


Lou (; ; lóu; 'story', 'floor'), or lou zihao (楼字号; 樓字號; lóu zìhào; 'story brand') did the bulk of their business hosting banquets onsite by appointment. In addition, a smaller portion of the business was in serving different customers onsite on a walk-in basis. Occasionally, when catering at customers' homes, establishments of this category would only provide the few specialty dishes they were famous for.


Ju (; ; 'residence'), or ju zihao (居字号; 居字號; jū zìhào; 'residence brand') generally divided their business evenly into two areas: serving different customers onsite on a walk-in basis, and hosting banquets by appointment for customers who came as one group. Occasionally, when catering at the customers' homes, establishments of this category would only provide the few specialty dishes they were famous for, just like the lou. However, unlike those establishments, which always cooked their specialty dishes on location, establishment of this category would either cook on location or simply bring the already-cooked food to the location.


Zhai (; ; zhāi; 'study'), or zhai zihao (斋字号; 齋字號; zhāi zìhào; 'study brand') were mainly in the business of serving different customers onsite on a walk-in basis, but a small portion of their income did come from hosting banquets by appointment for customers who came as one group. Similar to the ju, when catering at customers’ homes, establishments of this category would also only provide the few specialty dishes they are famous for, but they would mostly bring the already-cooked dishes to the location, and would only cook on location occasionally.


Fang (; fǎng; 'workshop'), or fang zihao (坊字号; 坊字號; fǎng zìhào; 'workshop brand'). Foodservice establishments of this category generally did not offer the service of hosting banquets made by appointment for customers who came as one group, but instead, often only offered to serve different customers onsite on a walk-in basis. Establishments of this category or lower would not be called upon to perform catering at the customers' homes for special events.


Guan (; ; guǎn; 'restaurant'), or guan zihao (馆字号; 館字號; guǎn zìhào; 'restaurant brand'). Foodservice establishments of this category mainly served different customers onsite on a walk-in basis, and in addition, a portion of the income would be earned from selling to-goes.


Dian (; diàn; 'shop'), or dian zihao (店字号; 店字號; diàn zìhào; 'shop brand'). Foodservice establishments of this category had their own place, like all previous categories, but serving different customers to dine onsite on a walk-in basis only provided half of the overall income, while the other half came from selling to-goes.


Pu (; ; ; 'store'), or pu zihao (铺字号; 鋪字號; pù zìhào; 'store brand'). Foodservice establishments of this category ranked next to the last, and they were often named after the owners' last names. Establishments of this category had fixed spots of business for having their own places, but smaller than dian, and thus did not have tables, but only seats for customers. As a result, the bulk of the income of establishments of this category was from selling to-goes, while income earned from customers dining onsite only provided a small portion of the overall income.


Tan (; ; tān; 'stand'), or tan zihao (摊字号; 攤字號; tān zìhào; 'stand brand'). The lowest ranking foodservice establishments without any tables, and selling to-goes was the only form of business. In addition to name the food stand after the owners' last name or the food sold, these food stands were also often named after the owners' nicknames.

Notable dishes and street foods

Meat and poultry dishes

Bao du (top)
Hot and sour soup
Jing jiang rou si
Lǔzhǔ huǒshāo
Moo shu pork
Prepared and sliced Peking duck
Shao yang rou, a mutton dish
Stir-fried tomato and scrambled eggs
English Traditional Chinese Simplified Chinese Pinyin Notes
Beef wrapped in pancake 門釘肉餅 门钉肉饼 méndīng ròubǐng
Beggar's Chicken 富貴雞 富贵鸡 fùguì jī The dish's name literally means "rich chicken" or "wealthy chicken". It is also known as jiaohua ji (叫化鸡; 叫化雞; jiàohuā jī).[7]
Cold pig's ears in sauce 拌雙脆 拌双脆 bàn shuāngcuì
Dried soy milk cream in tight roll with beef fillings 炸卷果 炸卷果 zhá juǎnguǒ
Fried dry soybean cream with diced meat filling 炸響鈴 炸响铃 zhá xiǎnglíng
Fried meatballs 炸丸子 炸丸子 zhá wánzǐ
Fried pig's liver wrapped in Chinese small iris 炸卷肝 炸卷肝 zhá juǎngān
Fried triangle 炸三角 炸三角 zhá sānjiǎo
Fried wheaten pancake with meat and sea cucumber fillings 褡褳火燒 褡裢火烧 dālián huǒshāo
Glazed fried egg cake 金絲糕 金丝糕 jīnsīgāo
Goat/sheep's intestine filled with blood 羊霜腸 羊霜肠 yáng shuāngcháng
Hot and sour soup 酸辣湯 酸辣汤 suānlà tāng
Instant-boiled mutton 涮羊肉 涮羊肉 shuàn yángròu A variant of hot pot which usually features boiled water as base (no additional spices) and mutton as the main type of meat.
Lard with flour wrapping glazed in honey 蜜汁葫蘆 蜜汁葫芦 mìzhī húlú
Lotus ham 蓮棗肉方 莲枣肉方 liánzǎo ròufāng
Lotus-shaped cake with chicken 蓮蓬雞糕 莲蓬鸡糕 liánpéng jīgāo
Meatball soup 清湯丸子 清汤丸子 qīngtāng wánzǐ
Meat in sauce 醬肉 酱肉 jiàngròu
Meat wrapped in thin mung bean flour pancake 煎餅餜子 煎饼馃子 jiānbǐng guǒzǐ
Moo shu pork 木須肉 木须肉 mùxūròu Literally "wood shavings meat"
Napa Cabbage Hot pot 酸白菜火鍋 酸白菜火锅 suān báicài huǒguō A variant of hot pot of Northeast China origin. Its main ingredients are pickled Napa cabbage, cooked pork belly and other meats, and other typical dishes include leaf vegetables, mushrooms, wontons, egg dumplings, tofu, and seafood. The cooked food is usually eaten with a dipping sauce.
Peking barbecue 北京烤肉 北京烤肉 Běijīng kǎoròu
Peking duck 北京烤鴨 北京烤鸭 Běijīng kǎoyā Usually served with pancakes
Peking dumpling 北京餃子 北京饺子 Běijīng jiǎozǐ
Peking wonton 北京餛飩 北京馄饨 Běijīng húndùn
Pickled Chinese cabbage with blood-filled pig's intestines 酸菜血腸 酸菜血肠 suāncài xuěcháng
Pickled meat in sauce 清醬肉 清酱肉 qīngjiàngròu
Plain boiled pork 白肉 白肉 báiròu
Pork in broth 蘇造肉 苏造肉 sūzào ròu
Pork shoulder 水晶肘子 水晶肘子 shuǐjīng zhǒuzǐ
Quick-fried tripe 爆肚 爆肚 bàodù
Roasted meat 燒肉 烧肉 shāoròu Could be either beef, pork or mutton
Shredded mung bean skin salad 拌皮絲 拌皮丝 bànpísī
Soft fried tenderloin 軟炸里脊 软炸里脊 ruǎnzhá lǐjī
Stewed pig's organs 燉吊子 炖吊子 dùn diàozǐ
Stir-fried tomato and scrambled eggs 西紅柿炒雞蛋 西红柿炒鸡蛋 xīhóngshì chǎo jīdàn
Sweet and sour spare ribs 糖醋排骨 糖醋排骨 tángcù páigǔ
Sweet stir-fried mutton / lamb 它似蜜 它似蜜 tāsìmì
Wheaten cake boiled in meat broth 滷煮火燒 卤煮火烧 lǔzhǔ huǒshāo
Pea Flour Cake 碗豆黄 碗豆黄 wǎn dòu huáng

Fish and seafood dishes

English Traditional Chinese Simplified Chinese Pinyin Notes
Abalone with peas and fish paste 蛤蟆鮑魚 蛤蟆鲍鱼 hāmǎ bàoyú The dish's name literally means "toad abalone".
Boiled fish in household-style 家常熬魚 家常熬鱼 jiācháng áoyú
Braised fish 酥魚 酥鱼 sūyú
Egg and shrimp wrapped in corn flour pancake 糊餅 糊饼 húbǐng
Fish cooked with five kinds of sliced vegetable 五柳魚 五柳鱼 wǔlǐu yú
Fish cooked with five-spice powder 五香魚 五香鱼 wǔxiāng yú
Fish in vinegar and pepper 醋椒魚 醋椒鱼 cùjiāo yú
Fish soaked in soup 乾燒魚 干烧鱼 gānshāo yú
Sea cucumber with quail egg 烏龍吐珠 乌龙吐珠 wūlóng tǔzhū The dish's name literally means "the black dragon spits out pearls".
Shrimp chips with egg 金魚戲蓮 金鱼戏莲 jīnyú xìlián The dish's name literally means "the goldfish playing with the lotus".
Soft fried fish 軟炸魚 软炸鱼 ruǎnzhá yú

Noodles (both vegetarian and non-vegetarian)

English Image Traditional Chinese Simplified Chinese Pinyin Notes
Naked oats noodle 莜麵搓魚 莜面搓鱼 yóumiàn cuōyú
Noodles with thick gravy 打滷麵 打卤面 dǎlǔmiàn
Sesame Sauce Noodles 麻醬麵 麻醬面 májiàngmiàn A popular noodle dish in Northern China. The sesame sauce is mainly made of sesame paste and sesame oil. In American cooking, the sesame paste is often substituted by peanut butter.
Zhajiangmian 炸醬麵 炸酱面 zhájiàngmiàn


English Image Traditional Chinese Simplified Chinese Pinyin Notes
Fried butter cake 奶油炸糕 奶油炸糕 nǎiyóu zhágāo
Fried cake with fillings 燙麵炸糕 烫面炸糕 tàngmiàn zhágāo
Fried sesame egg cake 開口笑 开口笑 kāikǒuxiào The dish's name literally means "open mouth and laugh/smile".
Fried tofu with egg wrapping 鍋塌豆腐 锅塌豆腐 guōtà dòufǔ
Jiaoquan 焦圈 焦圈 Jiāoquān Shaped like a fried doughnut, but has a crispier texture
Steamed egg cake 碗糕 碗糕 wǎngāo
Sachima 沙琪瑪 沙琪玛 sàqímǎ Chinese pastry of Manchu origin similar looking to Rice Krispies Treats but different in taste


A bowl of douzhi (left) with breakfast items
Nai lao (Beijing yogurt)
Traditional tangyuan with a sweet sesame filling
Xi gua lao
Zongzi both ready to eat (left) and still wrapped in a bamboo leaf (right)
English Traditional Chinese Simplified Chinese Pinyin Notes
Baked sesame seed cake 燒餅 烧饼 shāobǐng
Baked wheaten cake 火燒 火烧 huǒshāo
Bean jelly 涼粉 凉粉 liángfěn
Bean paste cake 涼糕 凉糕 liánggāo
Beijing yoghurt 奶酪 奶酪 nǎilào
Buckwheat cake 扒糕 扒糕 pāgāo
Cake with bean paste filling 豆餡燒餅 豆馅烧饼 dòuxiàn shāobǐng
Candied fruit 蜜餞 蜜饯 mìjiàn
Chatang / Miancha / Youcha 茶湯 / 麵茶 / 油茶 茶汤 / 面茶 / 油茶 chátāng / miànchá / yóuchá
Chestnut broth 栗子羹 栗子羹 lìzǐ gēng
Chestnut cake with bean paste 栗子糕 栗子糕 lìzǐ gāo
Chinese cabbage in mustard 芥末墩 芥末墩 jièmò dūn
Crisp fritter 麻頁 麻页 máyè
Crisp fritter with sesame 薄脆 薄脆 báocuì
Crisp noodle 饊子 馓子 sǎnzǐ
Crisp thin fritter twist 排叉 排叉 páichā
Deep-fried dough cake 油餅 油饼 yóubǐng
Dried fermented mung bean juice 麻豆腐 麻豆腐 má dòufǔ
Dried soy milk cream in tight rolls 腐竹 腐竹 fǔzhú
Fermented mung bean juice 豆汁 豆汁 dòuzhī
Freshwater snail-shaped cake 螺螄轉 螺蛳转 luósī zhuǎn
Fried cake 炸糕 炸糕 zhágāo
Fried cake glazed in malt sugar 蜜三刀 蜜三刀 mìsāndāo
Fried dough twist 麻花 麻花 máhuā
Fried ring 焦圈 焦圈 jiāoquān
Fried sugar cake 糖耳朵 糖耳朵 táng ěrduō
Fuling pancake sandwich 茯苓夾餅 茯苓夹饼 fúlíng jiábǐng
Glazed / candied Chinese yam 拔絲山藥 拔丝山药 básī shānyào
Glazed steamed glutinous rice cake 水晶糕 水晶糕 shuǐjīng gāo
Glazed thin pancake with Chinese yam and jujube stuffing 糖卷果 糖卷果 táng juǎnguǒ
Glutinous rice ball 艾窩窩 艾窝窝 àiwōwō
Glutinous rice cake 切糕 切糕 qiēgāo
Glutinous rice cake roll 卷糕 卷糕 juǎngāo
Hawthorn cake 京糕 京糕 jīnggāo
Honeycomb cake 蜂糕 蜂糕 fēnggāo
Iced fruit 冰果 冰果 bīngguǒ
Jellied beancurd 豆腐腦 豆腐脑 dòufǔ nǎo
Kidney bean roll 芸豆卷 芸豆卷 yúndòujuǎn
Lama cake 喇嘛糕 喇嘛糕 lǎmā gāo
Millet zongzi 粽子 粽子 zòngzǐ
Mung bean cake 綠豆糕 绿豆糕 lǜdòu gāo
Noodle roll 銀絲卷 银丝卷 yínsījuǎn
Pancake 烙餅 烙饼 làobǐng
Pease pudding 豌豆黃 豌豆黄 wāndòu huáng
Preserved fruit 果脯 果脯 guǒpú
Purple vine cake 藤蘿餅 藤萝饼 téngluó bǐng
Rice and jujube cake 甑糕 甑糕 zènggāo
Rice and white kidney bean cake with jujube 盆糕 盆糕 péngāo
Rice cake with bean paste 花糕 花糕 huāgāo
Shortening cake 牛舌餅 牛舌饼 níushé bǐng
Soybean flour cake 豆麵糕 豆面糕 dòumiàn gāo
Stir fried hawthorn 炒紅果 炒红果 chǎohóngguǒ
Stir-fried starch knots 燒疙瘩 炒疙瘩 chǎo gēdā
Suncake 太陽糕 太阳糕 tàiyáng gāo Not to be confused with Taiwanese suncake, whose name in Chinese is (太阳饼; 太陽餅; tàiyáng bǐng) translates more literally as "sun cookie".
Sweet flour cake 墩餑餑 墩饽饽 dūnbōbō
Sweet hard flour cake 硬麵餑餑 硬面饽饽 yìngmiàn bōbō
Sweet potato starch jelly 粉皮 粉皮 fěnpí
Sweetened baked wheaten cake 糖火燒 糖火烧 táng huǒshāo
Tanghulu 糖葫蘆 糖葫芦 táng húlú
Tangyuan 湯圓 汤圆 tāngyuán
Thin millet flour pancake 煎餅 煎饼 jiānbǐng
Thin pancake 薄餅 薄饼 báobǐng
Thin pancake of lard 油皮 油皮 yóupí
Thousand-layered cake 千層糕 千层糕 qiāncéng gāo
Veggie roll 春餅卷菜 春饼卷菜 chūnbǐng juǎncài Not to be confused with spring rolls.
Watermelon jelly 西瓜酪 西瓜酪 xīguā lào
Wotou 窝头 窝头 wōtóu
Xing ren cha 杏仁茶 杏仁茶 xìngrén chá
Xingren doufu 杏仁豆腐 杏仁豆腐 xìngrén dòufǔ
Yellow cake 黃糕 黄糕 huánggāo

Beijing delicacies

Restaurants known for Beijing cuisine

Numerous traditional restaurants in Beijing are credited with great contributions in the formation of Beijing cuisine, but many of them have gone out of business.[1][2][3][4][6][8][9][10][11][12][13] However, some of them managed to survive until today, and some of them are:

The introduction board at the Bianyifang describes the restaurant's history


  1. ^ a b c d e f g h Wang, Juling, Famous Dishes of Famous Restaurant in Beijing, Golden Shield Publishing House in Beijing, December, 2000, ISBN 7-5082-1400-5
  2. ^ a b c d e f Xu, Chengbei, Ancient Beijing, Customs of the General Populace of Ancient Beijing, Jiangsu Fine Arts Publishing House in Nanjing, September, 1999, ISBN 7-5344-0971-3
  3. ^ a b c d e f Hua Mengyang and Zhang Hongjie, Lives of the residents of Ancient Beijing, Shandong Pictorial Publishing House in Jinan, June, 2000, ISBN 7-80603-452-8
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Du, Fuxiang and Guo, Yunhui, Famous Restaurants in China, China Tourism Publishing House in Beijing, 1982
  5. ^ "Beijing Halal | China Heritage Quarterly". Retrieved 2018-01-23.
  6. ^ a b c Bai, Zhongjian, Legends of Historical Business in Beijing, China Tourism Publishing House in Beijing, 1993, ISBN 7-5032-0887-2
  7. ^ Lo, Eileen Yin-Fei (1999). "Chinese Classics", The Chinese Kitchen, calligraphy by San Yan Wong, 1st Edition, New York, New York: William Morrow and Company, 416. ISBN 0-688-15826-9.
  8. ^ Ma, Jing, Beijing Culinary Guide, China Light Industry Publishing House in Beijing, January 2002, ISBN 7-5019-3559-9/TS.2143
  9. ^ Hou, Shiheng, Historical Business in Beijing, 1st Edition, Chinese Environmental Science Publishing House in Beijing, 1991, ISBN 7-80010-765-5
  10. ^ Hou, Shiheng, Historical Business in Beijing, Chinese Foreign Trade Publishing House in Beijing, 1998, ISBN 7-80004-535-8
  11. ^ Xu, Chengbei, Ancient Beijing, Change of Qianmen, Jiangsu Fine Arts Publishing House in Nanjing, September, 2000, ISBN 7-5344-0969-1
  12. ^ Yin, Qingmin, Historical Business Establishments in Beijing, Shining Daily Publishing House in Beijing, 2004, ISBN 7-80145-812-5
  13. ^ Zhou, Jianduan, Old Memory of Beijing, Social Life and Customs, Southern Cantonese Publishing House in Hong Kong, 1987, ISBN 962-04-0580-3