Poutines rapées being made.
Poutines rapées being made.

Acadian cuisine (French: Cuisine acadienne) is the traditional dishes of the Acadian people.[1][2][3] It is primarily seen in the present-day cultural region of Acadia.Note 1 Acadian cuisine has been influenced by many things throughout its history, mostly the Deportation of the Acadians, proximity to the ocean, the Canadian winter, bad soil fertility, the cuisine of Quebec, American cuisine, and English cuisine.

Acadian cuisine is not very well known in Canada or internationally. It has much in common with Québécois cuisine because of shared history and heritage as well as geographical proximity. The two often feature the same dishes, but the cuisine of Acadia puts more emphasis on seafood. Acadian cuisine has notably served as the base for Cajun cuisine because the Cajun are descendants of Acadians who were deported to Louisiana.Note 2[4] Its also believed that Acadians are responsible for normalizing potato consumption in France—a vegetable the French once considered poisonous.

History

In the 17th century, French colonists who settled on lands they named Acadia adapted their 16th-century French cuisine to incorporate the crops, seafood and animals that flourished in the region. Their descendants became the Acadian people and their ingenuity created Acadian cuisine.

After the English conquered Acadia during the 18th century, they decided to deport the Acadians and take their settlements, which were often built on the most fertile earth in the colony. Most Acadians did not manage to escape the deportation. But, of those who did, most fled to the east and north of New BrunswickNote 3. As such, Acadian cuisine in the 18th century was refocused around what could be grown, hunted and fished in the less fertile lands of the East Coast of New Brunswick and the Upper St. John River Valley.[5]

Ingredients

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Acadian cuisine often features fish and seafood, especially cod and Atlantic herring, but also mackerel, berlicoco, lobster, crab, salmon, mussels, trout, clams, flounder, smelt and scallops. Most fish is consumed fresh, but some are boucané (smoked), marinated or salted.

The most commonly used meat is pork, followed by chicken and beef. As with the rest of North America, turkey is commonly consumed during the Holidays. Game like deer, hares, ruffed grouse and moose is consumed regularly in some regions. Game will replace livestock meat if present and can be given as a gift. In some regions, for example Caraquet and the Îles-de-la-Madeleine, more unusual game is or was caught like seal, bear and seagull.

The vegetables of Acadian cuisine are the potato, onion, carrot, turnip, legume, beet, squash and corn. These vegetables were popular because they were easily preserved for the winter in root cellars and jars.

Popular fruits include: blueberries, apples, strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, plums, pears and cranberries.

Some ingredients like rice, molasses, dried raisins and brown sugar make a frequent appearance in Acadian recipes because of historical commerce between Acadia and regions like the Antilles and Brazil.

Dishes

A poutine à trou smothered in maple syrup.
A poutine à trou smothered in maple syrup.
Ployes are extremely popular in the Madawaska region.
Ployes are extremely popular in the Madawaska region.
Rappie pie or râpure is a dish whose name comes from patates râpées, meaning "grated potatoes".
Rappie pie or râpure is a dish whose name comes from patates râpées, meaning "grated potatoes".

Some examples of traditional Acadian dishes are:

See also

Notes

1.^ When one speaks about Acadia before the Deportation of the Acadians, they are referring to the Acadia colony owned by France, which is today the Maritime region of Canada. When one refers to Acadia in the present tense or after the Deportation of the Acadians, they are referring to the regions where Acadians live today. The Acadia of today is the north and east of New Brunswick, and some small parts of Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia. Acadia, while not always recognized as such, can be considered a nation because of the language, culture, institutions, symbols, territory and history its people share.[citation needed]
2.^ Louisiana is not the only place outside of Canada where many people of Acadian descent can be found; there is also France, the Falkland Islands, the Antilles, New England and Texas.[citation needed]
3.^ A few Acadians also fled to sections of Cape Breton, western Nova Scotia and south Prince Edward Island. Because of their relative distance from New Brunswick, these communities experienced their own challenges and developed some unique dishes. Some also escaped to New France (now Québec) and assimilated to the Canadien population.[citation needed]

References

  1. ^ "9 Acadian Foods You Have to Try in New Brunswick". Tourism New Brunswick. 2018-05-18. Retrieved 2020-05-19.
  2. ^ "Acadian Culture in Maine".
  3. ^ "13 Classic Acadian Recipes | Food Network Canada". foodnetwork.ca. Retrieved 2020-05-19.
  4. ^ "La Deportation des Acadiens" (consulted 14 January 2021)
  5. ^ "Madawaska, "Acadian Food"".
  6. ^ "Lobster Butter". Dining and Cooking. 2015-07-18. Retrieved 2021-03-18.
  7. ^ "History and Culture: Bouilli". 18 October 2017.
  8. ^ "Le Québec Cuisine | Depuis 12 000 ans !". www.quebecuisine.ca. Retrieved 2021-03-18.
  9. ^ "Coques en bouillon d'herbes et petits légumes". Marie Claire (in French). Retrieved 2021-03-18.
  10. ^ "How to Make Coquilles Saint-Jacques". Allrecipes. Retrieved 2021-03-18.
  11. ^ "Cretons".
  12. ^ "Pain à l'ail". Cuisinez! (in Canadian French). Retrieved 2021-03-18.
  13. ^ "Morue et pommes de terre poêlées au beurre". recettessimples.fr (in French). Retrieved 2021-03-18.
  14. ^ Lamoureux, Mélodie. "Cette poutine aux bleuets est l'ultime raison pour faire une virée au Saguenay". Recettes du Québec. Retrieved 2021-03-18.
  15. ^ "Tchaude" (consulted 11 February 2021)

Bibliography