Cornbread is a staple Cajun starch.

Cajun cuisine (French: cuisine cadienne [kɥi.zin ka.dʒɛn], Spanish: cocina acadiense) is a style of cooking developed by the CajunAcadians who were deported from Acadia to Louisiana during the 18th century and who incorporated West African, French and Spanish cooking techniques into their original cuisine.

Cajun cuisine is sometimes referred to as a 'rustic cuisine', meaning that it is based on locally available ingredients and that preparation is relatively simple.

An authentic Cajun meal is usually a three-pot affair, with one pot dedicated to the main dish, one dedicated to steamed rice, specially made sausages, or some seafood dish, and the third containing whatever vegetable is plentiful or available. Crawfish, shrimp, and andouille sausage are staple meats used in a variety of dishes.

The aromatic vegetables green bell pepper (piment doux), onion, and celery are called "the trinity" by chefs in Cajun and Louisiana Creole cuisines. Roughly diced and combined in cooking, the method is similar to the use of the mirepoix in traditional French cuisine which blends roughly diced carrot, onion, and celery. Additional characteristic aromatics for both the Creole and Cajun versions may include parsley, bay leaf, thyme, green onions, ground cayenne pepper, and ground black pepper. Cayenne and Louisiana-style hot sauce are the primary sources of spice in Cajun cuisine, which usually tends towards a moderate, well-balanced heat, despite the national "Cajun hot" craze of the 1980s and 1990s.[1]

History

The Acadians were a group of French colonists who lived in Acadia, what is today Eastern Canada. In the mid-18th century, they were deported from Acadia by the British during the French and Indian War in what they termed le Grand Dérangement, and many of them ended up settling in Southern Louisiana.[2]: 6 

Due to the extreme change in climate, Acadians were unable to cook their original dishes.[3]: 20  Soon, their former culinary traditions were adapted and, in time, incorporated not only Indigenous American traditions, but also African-American traditions—as is exemplified in the classic Cajun dish "Gumbo", which is named for its principal ingredient (Okra) using the West African name for that very ingredient: "Gumbo," in West Africa, means "Okra".

Many other meals developed along these lines, adapted in no small part from Haiti, to become what is now considered classic Cajun cuisine traditions [3]: 19–20  (not to be confused with the more modern concept associated with Prudhomme's style).[4]

Up through the 20th century, the meals were not elaborate but instead, rather basic.[3]: 23  The public's false perception of "Cajun" cuisine was based on Prudhomme's style of Cajun cooking, which was spicy, flavorful, and not true to the classic form of the cuisine.[4]

Cajun and Creole cuisine have been mistaken to be the same, but the origins of Creole cooking began in New Orleans, and Cajun cooking came 40 years after the establishment of New Orleans.[5] Today, most restaurants serve dishes that consist of Cajun styles, which Paul Prudhomme dubbed "Louisiana cooking".[6] In home-cooking, these individual styles are still kept separate.[6] However, there are fewer and fewer people cooking the classic Cajun dishes that would have been eaten by the original settlers.[3]: 30 

Cajun cooking methods

Deep-frying of turkeys or oven-roasted turduckens entered southern Louisiana cuisine more recently. Also, blackening of fish or chicken and barbecuing of shrimp in the shell are excluded because they were not prepared in traditional Cajun cuisine. Blackening was actually an invention by chef Paul Prudhomme in the 1970s, becoming associated with Cajun cooking, and presented as such by him, but is not a true historical or traditional Cajun cooking process.[15]

Ingredients

The following is a partial list of ingredients used in Cajun cuisine and some of the staple ingredients of the Acadian food culture.

Grains

Fruits and vegetables

Meat and seafood

Cajun foodways include many ways of preserving meat, some of which are waning due to the availability of refrigeration and mass-produced meat at the grocer. Smoking of meats remains a fairly common practice, but once-common preparations such as turkey or duck confit (preserved in poultry fat, with spices) are now seen even by Acadians as quaint rarities.

Game (and hunting) are still uniformly popular in Acadiana.

The recent increase of catfish farming in the Mississippi Delta has brought about an increase in its usage in Cajun cuisine in place of the more traditional wild-caught trout.

Seafood

Also included in the seafood mix are some so-called trash fish that would not sell at the market because of their high bone to meat ratio or required complicated cooking methods. These were brought home by fishermen to feed the family. Examples are garfish, black drum also called gaspergou or just "goo", croaker, and bream.

Poultry

Pork

Beef and dairy
Though parts of Acadiana are well suited to cattle or dairy farming, beef is not often used in a pre-processed or uniquely Cajun form. It is usually prepared fairly simply as chops, stews, or steaks, taking a cue from Texas to the west. Ground beef is used as is traditional throughout the US, although seasoned differently.

Dairy farming is not as prevalent as in the past, but there are still some farms in the business. There are no unique dairy items prepared in Cajun cuisine. Traditional Cajun and New Orleans Creole-influenced desserts are common.

Other game meats

Cajun woman reaching for strings of garlic suspended from rafters. Near Crowley, Louisiana, 1938.

Seasonings

Thyme, sage, mint, marjoram, savory, and basil are considered sweet herbs. In Colonial times a herbes de Provence would be several sweet herbs tied up in a muslin.[18]

Blended

Cajun seasonings consist of a blend of salt with a variety of spices, most common being cayenne pepper and garlic. The spicy heat comes from the cayenne pepper, while other flavors come from bell pepper, paprika, green onions, parsley and more.[19]

Cooking bases

Preparation of a dark roux is probably the most involved or complicated procedure in Cajun cuisine,[20] involving heating fat and flour very carefully, constantly stirring for about 15–45 minutes (depending on the color of the desired product), until the mixture has darkened in color and developed a nutty flavor. The temperature should not be too high, as a burnt roux renders a dish unpalatable.
A light roux, on the other hand, is better suited for strictly seafood dishes and unsuitable for meat gumbos for the reason that it does not support the heavier meat flavor as well. Pairing roux with protein follows the same orthodox philosophy as pairing wine with protein.

Cajun dishes

Primary favorites

Boudin that has been smoked
Seafood gumbo

Boudin—a type of sausage made from pork, pork liver, rice, garlic, green onions and other spices. It is widely available by the link or pound from butcher shops. Boudin is typically stuffed in a natural casing and has a softer consistency than other, better-known sausage varieties. It is usually served with side dishes such as rice dressing, maque choux or bread. Boudin balls are commonly served in southern Louisiana restaurants and are made by taking the boudin out of the case and frying it in spherical form.

Gumbo—High on the list of favorites of Cajun cooking are the soups called gumbos. Contrary to non-Cajun or Continental beliefs, gumbo does not mean simply "everything in the pot". Gumbo exemplifies the influence of French, Spanish, African and Native American food cultures on Cajun cuisine.

There are two theories as to the etymological origins of the name. "Some believe that gumbo gets its name from the Choctaw word for filé powder, kombo; others suggest it's taken from the West African Bantu name for okra, ki ngombo."[22] Both filé and okra can be used as thickening agents in gumbo. Historically, large amounts of filé were added directly to the pot when okra was out of season. While a distinction between filé gumbo and okra gumbo is still held by some, many people enjoy putting filé in okra gumbo simply as a flavoring. Regardless of which is the dominant thickener, filé is also provided at the table and added to taste.

Many claim that gumbo is a Cajun dish, but gumbo was established long before the Acadian arrival.

Its early existence came via the early French Creole culture in New Orleans, Louisiana, where French, Spanish and Africans frequented and also influenced by later waves of Italian, German and Irish settlers.

The backbone of a gumbo is roux, as described above. Cajun gumbo typically favors darker roux, often approaching the color of chocolate or coffee beans. Since the starches in the flour break down more with longer cooking time, a dark roux has less thickening power than a lighter one. While the stovetop method is traditional, flour may also be dry-toasted in an oven for a fat-free roux, or a regular roux may be prepared in a microwave oven for a hands-off method. If the roux is for immediate use, the "trinity" may be sauteed in it, which stops the cooking process.

A classic gumbo is made with chicken and andouille, especially in the colder months, but the ingredients vary according to what is available. Seafood gumbos are also very popular in Cajun country.

Jambalaya—The only certain thing that can be said about jambalaya is that it contains rice, some sort of meat (often chicken, ham, sausage, or a combination), seafood (such as shrimp or crawfish), plus other items that may be available. Usually, it will include green peppers, onions, celery, tomatoes and hot chili peppers. This is also a great pre-Acadian dish, established by the Spanish in Louisiana. Jambalaya may be a tomato-rich New Orleans-style "red" jambalaya of Spanish Creole roots, or a Cajun-style "brown" jambalaya which draws its color and flavor from browned meat and caramelized onions. Historically, tomatoes were not as widely available in Acadiana as the area around New Orleans, but in modern times, both styles are popular across the state. Brown is the style served at the annual World Jambalaya Festival in Gonzales.[23]

Rice and gravyRice and gravy dishes are a staple of Cajun cuisine[24] and is usually a brown gravy based on pan drippings, which are deglazed and simmered with extra seasonings and served over steamed or boiled rice.

The dish is traditionally made from cheaper cuts of meat and cooked in a cast-iron pot, typically for an extended time period to let the tough cuts of meat become tender.[25] Beef,[26] pork, chicken or any of a large variety of game meats are used for its preparation.[27] Popular local varieties include hamburger steak, smothered rabbit,[28] turkey necks,[29] and chicken fricassee.[30]

Food as an event

Crawfish boil

Louisiana-style crawfish boil

The crawfish boil is a celebratory event where Cajuns boil crawfish, potatoes, onions and corn in large pots over propane cookers. Lemons and small muslin bags containing a mixture of bay leaves, mustard seeds, cayenne pepper, and other spices, commonly known as "crab boil" or "crawfish boil" are added to the water for seasoning.

The results are then dumped onto large, newspaper-draped tables and in some areas covered in Creole/Cajun spice blends, such as REX, Zatarain's, Louisiana Fish Fry, or Tony Chachere's. Also, cocktail sauce, mayonnaise, and hot sauce are sometimes used. The seafood is scooped onto large trays or plates and eaten by hand.

During times when crawfish are not abundant, shrimp and crabs are prepared and served in the same manner.[31]

Attendees are encouraged to "suck the head" of a crawfish by separating the head from the abdomen of the crustacean and sucking out the fat and juices from the head.[32]

Often, newcomers to the crawfish boil or those unfamiliar with the traditions are jokingly warned "not to eat the dead ones." This comes from the common belief that when live crawfish are boiled, their tails curl beneath themselves, but when dead crawfish are boiled, their tails are straight and limp. Seafood boils with crabs and shrimp are also popular.[33]

Family boucherie

A traditional boucherie near Eunice, Louisiana

The traditional Cajun outdoor food event is hosted by a farmer in the rural areas of Acadiana. Family and friends of the farmer gather to socialize, play games, dance, drink, and have a copious meal consisting of hog and other dishes.[2]: 111  Men have the task of slaughtering a hog, cutting it into usable parts, and cooking the main pork dishes while women have the task of making boudin.[2]: 110 

Cochon de lait

Similar to a family boucherie, the cochon de lait is a food event that revolves around pork but does not need to be hosted by a farmer. Traditionally, a suckling pig was purchased for the event, but in modern cochon de laits, adult pigs are used.[2]: 111 

Unlike the family boucherie, a hog is not butchered by the hosts and there are generally not as many guests or activities.[2]: 112  The host and male guests have the task of roasting the pig (see pig roast) while female guests bring side dishes.

Rural Mardi Gras

The traditional Cajun Mardi Gras (see: Courir de Mardi Gras) is a Mardi Gras celebration in rural Cajun Parishes. The tradition originated in the 18th century with the Cajuns of Louisiana, but it was abandoned in the early 20th century because of unwelcome violence associated with the event. In the early 1950s the tradition was revived in Mamou in Evangeline Parish.[2]: 112 

The event revolves around male maskers on horseback who ride into the countryside to collect food ingredients for the party later on. They entertain householders with Cajun music, dancing, and festive antics in return for the ingredients. The preferred ingredient is a live chicken in which the householder throws the chicken to allow the maskers to chase it down (symbolizing a hunt), but other ingredients include rice, sausage, vegetables, or frozen chicken.[2]: 112 

Unlike other Cajun events, men take no part in cooking the main course for the party, and women prepare the chicken and ingredients for the gumbo.[2]: 113  Once the festivities begin, the Cajun community members eat and dance to Cajun music until midnight after which is the beginning of Lent.[2]: 113 

Other dishes and sides

Boudin balls

List of Cajun-influenced chefs

In popular culture

Three popular local dishes in Acadiana are noted in the Hank Williams song "Jambalaya", namely "Jambalaya and-a crawfish pie and filé gumbo".

See also

References

  1. ^ "Cajun Restaurant Lake Charles – 3 Cajun Food Myths You Shouldn't Believe". 21 September 2019.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Gutierrez, Paige C. (1992). Cajun Foodways. University Press of Mississippi. ISBN 0-8780-5563-0. Retrieved 2014-04.
  3. ^ a b c d Bienvenu, Marcelle; Brasseaux, Carl A.; Brasseaux, Ryan A. (June 2008). Stir the Pot: The History of Cajun Cuisine. Hippocrine Books. ISBN 978-0-7818-1212-2. Retrieved 2014-04.
  4. ^ a b Read, Mimi. "Real Cajun Food, From Swamp to City: [Dining In, Dining Out / Style Desk]". New York Times. ProQuest 434010916.
  5. ^ Gonsoulin, Brandy (February 5, 2015). "70 Miles of Distinction; Exploring the differences between Cajun and Creole cuisines". No. 4pp. Orland. Tribune Newspapers.
  6. ^ a b Prudhomme, Paul (1984). Chef Paul Prudhomme's Louisiana Kitchen. William and Morrow Company, Inc. p. 16. ISBN 0-6880-2847-0. Retrieved 2014-04.
  7. ^ "Food Network names Lafayette's Johnson's Boucaniere top barbecue restaurant in Louisiana".
  8. ^ "Ville Platte Barbecue Sauce, passion fruit juice recipes from Exchange Alley".
  9. ^ "About Jack Millers – BBQ Sauces and Cajun Products".
  10. ^ "Pig Stand Bar-B-Q Sauce".
  11. ^ W, Wendy (2004). "EGGPLANT ETOUFFEE".
  12. ^ "Smothered Round Steak & Gravy".
  13. ^ "Pork Chops and Andouille in Roux Gravy". 10 January 2022.
  14. ^ "Old Fashioned Cajun Chicken Fricassée (Stew) Recipe".
  15. ^ "Blacken fish and recipe a la Prudhomme"". Astray.com. Retrieved 2014-09-21
  16. ^ "Smoked Andouille Sausage 1#".
  17. ^ "Smoked Pure Pork Sausage".
  18. ^ herbs and spices- Retrieved 2014-09-25
  19. ^ Peterson, Jenny (July 2014). "Louisiana Life". Chachere's Creole Foods. 34 (6): 8.
  20. ^ Les Vingt, Quatre Club (1954). First-- you make a roux. Lafayette, La: Les Vingt Quatre Club. p. 47.
  21. ^ Hand, Edie (2007). Cajun and Creole cooking with Miss Edie and the Colonel: The folklore and art of Louisiana cooking. Nashville, Tenn.: Cumberland House Pub. pp. 1–281.
  22. ^ "The Best Gumbo in New Orleans". Serious Eats. Retrieved 2022-04-08.
  23. ^ "Welcome to the Gonzales Jambalaya Festival Website!". Jambalaya Festival Association. Retrieved 9 March 2023.
  24. ^ "Eat". Lafayettetravel.com. Retrieved 2012-11-24.
  25. ^ Reed, David W. "Smothered Meat With Rice and Gravy". Texas A&M University. Retrieved 2012-11-24.
  26. ^ "Smothered seven steaks". WAFB. Retrieved 2012-11-26.
  27. ^ "Rice and Gravy". Realcajunrecipes.com. Retrieved 2012-11-24.
  28. ^ "Smothered rabbit with mushrooms". Louisiana Public Broadcasting. Archived from the original on 2013-02-07. Retrieved 2012-11-26.
  29. ^ "Smothered Turkey Necks in Onion Gravy". Chef John Folse & Company. Retrieved 2012-11-26.
  30. ^ "Chicken Fricassee". Allrecipes.com. Retrieved 2012-11-28.
  31. ^ Barton, Eric. "How to Throw a Louisiana Crawfish Boil (Even If You're Landlocked)". Food & Wine. Meredith Corporation Allrecipes Food Group. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  32. ^ McCarthy, Amy (6 April 2017). "To Suck or Not to Suck? A Definitive Guide to the Most Controversial Crawfish Question". Eater.com. Vox Media, Inc. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  33. ^ "Crawfish Myths: Can You Eat Straight-Tail Crawfish?". cajuncrawfish.com. Cajun Crawfish. 7 September 2016. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  34. ^ Stern, Michael (2009). 500 Things to Eat Before It's Too Late: And the Very Best Places to Eat Them. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 141. ISBN 978-0-547-05907-5. Retrieved 2009-11-24.
  35. ^ "Isaac Toups". Emeril Lagasse Foundation. Retrieved 2021-03-31.