A cart displaying food produced in Switzerland.

Swiss cuisine (German: Schweizer Küche, French: cuisine suisse, Italian: cucina svizzera, Romansh: cuschina svizra) is an ensemble of national, regional and local dishes, consisting of the ingredients, recipes and cooking techniques developed in Switzerland or assimilated from other cultures, particularly neighboring countries. The diversity and comprehensiveness of Swiss gastronomy reflects the linguistic, cultural and geographical diversity. The climate of Switzerland allows for a large variety of terroirs, and therefore a wide range of indigenous food, from simple cereals to refined products like cheese and wine.[1][2]

Switzerland is historically an agricultural country, with many regions being isolated from each other by the Alps. Therefore, one of the main characteristics of Swiss cuisine is its simplicity, with many dishes made up of few but hearty ingredients, often of dairy origin. Swiss cuisine evolved dramatically during the last centuries. Probably the most significant changes occurred after colonization of the Americas and the introduction of now-widely-used ingredients such as potatoes, maize and cocoa. The increase in purchasing power and a certain homogenization of taste have allowed the emergence of some emblematic national dishes such as fondue and rösti.

Well-known products exported worldwide include cheese, wine and chocolate. A large number of them are protected by a geographical indication (AOP). A strong food industry, often related to chocolate, has developed over the past centuries in Switzerland.[3]

Agriculture and foods

See also: Agriculture in Switzerland

The climatic and cultural diversity of Switzerland is reflected in the diversity of its food products. Various cereals and fruits are cultivated in the lower regions, while the warmest and sunniest areas in the south lend themselves to growing grapes, chestnuts, and even olives. The other most common fruits cultivated in Switzerland are apples, pears, apricots, cherries, plums and strawberries.[4] The mountainous and coldest areas feature the perhaps most emblematic agricultural practices of Switzerland: dairy farming and alpine transhumance.

Swiss cuisine comprises a variety of staple foods. These typically include bread, potatoes, pasta, rice and polenta. Potatoes are particularly ubiquitous in Swiss cuisine, although it is only the case since the late 18th century.[5] They are notably used in rösti, a popular dish that is eaten all over Switzerland, and originally a breakfast food.[6] Bread and cereals are eaten on a daily basis in Switzerland. Muesli, which is commonly eaten for breakfast goes by the name of "Birchermüesli" ("Birchermiesli" in some regions). For breakfast, most Swiss enjoy sliced bread with butter and jam; bread also accompanies most meals. There is a wide variety of breads made in Switzerland, from pain de seigle to Zopf. Tarts and quiches are also traditional Swiss dishes. Tarts in particular are made with all sorts of toppings, from sweet apple to onion.[7]

Pork, poultry and beef are the most consumed meats in Switzerland.[8] Pork is particularly omnipresent in Swiss cuisine; is it both consumed as cooked and cured meat. Swiss meat specialties are highly diversified: all sorts of pork sausages, bratwursts, smoked ham, salami, prosciutto, etc. Famous meat products include Grisons Meat (air-dried beef) and the "national sausage", cervelat. Fish is eaten in moderation, traditionally once in a week. Swiss lakes and rivers provide a small fraction of fish and shellfish consumed in the country. These include the popular perch and fera, which are served in lakeshore restaurants.[9]

Foods associated with Switzerland often use milk as an essential ingredient; butter and cream are classic ingredients in Swiss cuisine.[10][11] They notably include hard cheeses and chocolate. Swiss cheeses, in particular Emmental, Gruyère, Vacherin, and Appenzeller, are famous Swiss products.[12] Two of the most popular Swiss dishes are fondue and raclette, which essentially consist of melted cheese accompanied with bread or potatoes. Chocolate is also strongly associated with Switzerland since the existence of milk chocolate, the Swiss chocolate industry being very flourishing since then.

Food preferences vary within Switzerland, often reflecting languages: the German-speaking north and east (the predominant linguistic area) has strong ties with Central Europe, whereas the French-speaking west and the Italian-speaking south tend to have more ties with Western and Mediterranean Europe.[13] This applies notably to starchy foods, dairy products and fish. While potatoes, rice and pasta are commonly eaten everywhere in Switzerland, the proportion of pasta and rice is larger in the Italian-speaking regions.[14] Conversely, fats like cream and butter are eaten in larger proportions in the German-speaking regions.[15] Fish is also more commonly eaten in French- and Italian-speaking Switzerland.[13] Those differences are also noticeable in wine and beer drinking habits.

History

The agrarian regions began to specialize towards the end of the Middle Ages, thus developing their own food pattern: in the Alpine regions, breeders fed on dairy products, cheese, nuts, berries, mushrooms, vegetables and fruits; on the Plateau, ploughmen fed on porridge, soups, bread, legumes, vegetables and, from time to time, wine. The diet varied greatly according to the seasons. Fresh garden vegetables gave way in winter to dried fruit and sauerkraut. The occasional famines forced the consumption of more acorns, beets, roots and breads made of substitutes.[16]

The population boom of the early modern period led, while agricultural productivity stagnated, to an impoverishment of the diet (essentially based on porridge) and a decline in meat consumption. The supply was irregular, shortages and high prices frequent. However, the European colonization of the Americas led to the introduction of new food products, such as sugar and various fruits and vegetables. The 18th century finally experienced the food revolution which notably saw the introduction of potato, maize and cocoa. Maize spread to Ticino, the St. Gallen Rheintal and a few valleys in Graubünden, which adopted polenta for breakfast. Meanwhile, the potato was adopted as staple food in most regions of the country.[16]

National dishes

A few dishes have become emblematic of Swiss cuisine and highly popular throughout the country.[17][18] All of them have also become popular outside Switzerland's borders.

Muesli

Muesli with berries

Muesli, known in Switzerland as Birchermüesli, is a breakfast or snack consisting of cereal (oat) flakes, chopped fruit and milk. There are many ways of making a muesli, for example with honey, yoghurt and nuts. Muesli was created by the Swiss nutritionist Max Bircher-Benner in the early 20th century. His 'apple diet dish', developed as part of a raw food diet, was originally served to sanatorium patients as an easily digestible evening meal. After the Second World War, muesli became very popular throughout Switzerland thanks to home cooking courses and being served to the armed forces. Nowadays muesli is a staple in Western breakfast culture and is especially popular among athletes as a nutritional supplement.[19]

Rösti

Rösti is a kind of fried potato cake served as a main course or side dish. As a main dish, rösti is usually accompanied with cheese, onions and cold meat or eggs. This dish, originally from Zürich, was first simply made by frying grated raw potatoes in a pan. It has then spread towards Bern where it is made with boiled potatoes instead. This is where it took the name Rösti.[20] There are many variants in Switzerland and outside the borders.[21] This culinary specialty gives its name to the röstigraben, which designates the cultural differences between the German- and French-speaking parts of the country.

Fondue and raclette

Fondue

Fondue is a dish of usually several hard cheeses, such as Gruyère and Vacherin, which are melted with white wine and eaten hot with bread. It is served in a caquelon in which each guest dips their piece of bread using a special fork. At the base of the fondue pot is the heat source (stove or candles). Fondue was first described in 1699 in a Zürich manuscript by Albert Hauser. It is entitled To cook cheese with wine and resembles the recipe of today. Fondue was also promoted by the Swiss Cheese Union in the early 20th century.[22] Today, it is often considered to be the national dish.[23]

Raclette is also a dish of melted cheese, originating from Valais. Traditionally, half a cheese wheel is heated on the cut side and, as it melts, the cheese is scraped off onto a plate. Now, this is often performed using an electric appliance. Raclette is served with skin-on potatoes and mixed pickles, and often accompanied by Fendant as a drink. Melting cheese in front of a fire is attested in the 16th century. Since 1875, the French term raclette is commonly used for this dish. At the 1909 Cantonal Exhibition of Sion, raclette was promoted as a national dish of Valais. Raclette eventually gained national (and international) popularity from the 1964 National Exhibition.[24]

Contrary to muesli and rösti, fondue and raclette are not meant to be staple foods, but rather convivial dishes intended for special occasions. Both fondue and raclette are especially popular during cold weather and have become associated with mountain culture and winter sports.

Regional cuisine

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From the German-speaking part of Switzerland

Älplermagronen
Berner Platte
Magenbrot
Vermicelles
Zürcher Geschnetzeltes with rösti
Zopf

From the French-speaking part of Switzerland


From the Italian-speaking part of Switzerland

The Italian-speaking part of Switzerland essentially coincides with Ticino, but also with the southern valleys of Graubünden. Popular dishes are polenta and risotto, often accompanied by the Luganighe and Luganighetta, a type of artisan sausages. Typical food from Ticino can be found in a Grotto, the local type of restaurant.[27] Chestnut is also a historical staple food of southern Switzerland. The chestnut tree, introduced there 2000 years ago, was referred to as the "bread tree".[28] Another specific product of Ticino is olive oil; olive cultivation was revived in the late 20th century.[29]

From the canton of Graubünden

A dish of maluns accompanied by various specialties of the canton

Restaurants and haute cuisine

See also: List of restaurants in Switzerland

Haute cuisine served in a Geneva restaurant

A large variety of restaurants can be found in Switzerland. The Stube, Stübli or Stiva (German and Romansh), Brasserie (French) and Osteria (Italian) typically serve simple and traditional dishes. This is even more the case in mountain restaurants or mountain huts.

A unique type of restaurant is found in Ticino: the Grotto. Grottoes are rustic eateries, offering traditional food, such as polenta. Authentic grottoes are old wine caves re-functioned into restaurants. Due to their nature they are mostly found in or around forests and built against a rocky background. Typically, the facade is built from granite blocks and the outside tables and benches are made of the same stone as well. Grottoes are popular with locals and tourists alike, especially during the hot summer months.[27]

As a culinary hotspot in the middle of Europe where high-quality ingredients are readily available,[37] Switzerland boasts a high number of luxury restaurants. It also has a long tradition of hospitality, which is reflected in the palace hotels found in numerous localities.[38] In the 2018 Michelin Guide, Switzerland ranked first worldwide in terms of Michelin-starred restaurants per capita.[39] As of 2022, four restaurants were awarded 3 stars: the Restaurant de l'Hôtel de Ville in Crissier, the Schloss Schauenstein in Fürstenau, the Cheval Blanc in Basel and the Memories in Bad Ragaz.[40] Among famous Swiss chefs are Frédy Girardet and Anton Mosimann.

Beverages

See also: Beer in Switzerland and Swiss wine

Wine shop in the Lavaux

Wine is produced in many regions of Switzerland, particularly the Valais, the Vaud, the Geneva, the Ticino, the Neuchâtel and the Zürich cantons. Wine economy notably shaped the landscapes of Valais and the Lavaux, which have the most extensive terraced vineyards. Riesling X Sylvaner is a common white wine produced in German-speaking parts of the country, while Chasselas is the most common white wine in the French-speaking parts of the country, where it can also be known as Fendant (in the Valais) and Perlan (in Geneva). Pinot noir is the most popular red grape in both the French-speaking and the German-speaking part, while this position is held by Merlot in the Italian-speaking part.[41]

Beer is second to wine in terms of consumption among Swiss.[42] The country has a long tradition of brewing, with significant domestic beer production and a growing craft brewing sector.[43][44] Most contemporary large-scale breweries are in German-speaking Switzerland. The Feldschlösschen brewery in Rheinfelden dwarfs all others in the country in terms of output. Calanda brewery in Chur is the largest in Graubünden. Zürich hosts the country's largest beer festival annually, and has a number of microbreweries.[45][46]

Beer served at a mountain restaurant

Absinthe is perhaps the most famous Swiss spirit. It is legally distilled again in its Val-de-Travers birthplace, in the Jura region of Switzerland. Long banned by a specific anti-Absinthe article in the Swiss Federal Constitution, it was legalized again in 2005, with the adoption of the new constitution. Swiss absinthe is exported to many countries, with Kübler and La Clandestine Absinthe amongst the first new brands to emerge. Wine and beer can legally be purchased by youths aged 16 and up. Spirits and beverages containing distilled alcohol (including wine coolers like Bacardi Breezer) can be bought at age 18.

Damassine is a liqueur produced by distillation of the Damassine prune from the Damassinier tree and is produced in the canton of Jura.

Bon Père William is a famous regional Swiss pear brandy containing 43% ABV. It is usually paired with fondue or raclette dishes or drunk after dinner, and sometimes poured into coffee alongside dessert. Some bottles are available with the full-size pear inside the bottle, grown with the bud placed in the bottle.[47] There are many other types of regional brandies made from local fruit, the most popular being cherries (kirschwasser).

Rivella, a carbonated Swiss drink based on lactose, is one of the most popular drinks in Switzerland. Apple juice, both still and sparkling, is popular in many areas of Switzerland, as is apple cider. The chocolate drink Ovomaltine (also known as "Ovaltine") originates in Switzerland and enjoys ongoing popularity, particularly with young people. Aside from being a beverage, the powder is also eaten sprinkled on top of a slice of buttered bread.

Switzerland has the seventh highest per capita coffee consumption worldwide.[48]

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ "Swiss cuisine". Retrieved 13 December 2022.
  2. ^ Tourismus, Schweiz. "Typical food". Switzerland Tourism. Retrieved 2020-08-06.
  3. ^ OECD Rural Studies Enhancing Innovation in Rural Regions of Switzerland. OECD. 2022. p. 124. ISBN 9789264807648.
  4. ^ "Rapport agricole 2022 - Fruits". Federal Office of Agriculture. Retrieved 7 January 2023. Parmi les principaux types de fruits frais cultivés en Suisse (pommes, poires, abricots, cerises, pruneaux/prunes, fraises ; sans les fruits à cidre et le raisin)... [Among the main types of fresh fruit grown in Switzerland (apples, pears, apricots, cherries, plums, strawberries; excluding cider fruit and grapes)...]
  5. ^ Meyer, Benedikt (13 May 2019). "Étrange tubercule". Swiss National Museum. Retrieved 17 January 2023. Ce n'est qu'avec les disettes de 1770/71 et 1816/17 que le tubercule commença à se faire une réputation: les gens se rendirent compte qu'il était moins fragile que les céréales et qu'il offrait un rendement supérieur. [...] Devenue un classique, elle s'éleva au rang de symbole identitaire de la cuisine suisse. [It was not until the food shortages of 1770/71 and 1816/17 that potatoes began to gain a reputation: people realized that it was less fragile than cereals and that it offered a higher yield. [...] Having become a classic, it rose to the rank of an identity symbol of Swiss cuisine.]
  6. ^ Field, Michael; Field, Frances (1971). A quintet of cuisines. New York: Time-Life Books. p. 11.
  7. ^ "Geliebte Wähe: Die besten Rezepte und Tipps von Betty Bossi". Betty Bossi. Retrieved 7 January 2023. Die Wähe ist eine Klassikerin der Schweizer Küche. Chueche, Dünne, Flade, Tüle oder Wäie werden sie in der Deutschschweiz genannt, Gâteau, Tarte oder Quiche in der Romandie. [The tart is a classic of Swiss cuisine. They are called Chueche, Dünne, Flade, Tül or Wäie in German-speaking Switzerland, Gâteau, tarte or quiche in French-speaking Switzerland.]
  8. ^ Baumann, Kurt (20 May 2020). "Consommation de viande en hausse ?". Revue UFA. Retrieved 17 January 2023. Ces dix dernières années, la consommation de viande par habitant est restée stable. En 2019, elle était de 51 kg par personne. La viande de bœuf (22%), de veau (5%), de porc (41%) et de volaille (28%) représentent 96% de la consommation totale de viande. La viande de mouton, de cheval, de chèvre, de lapin et de chasse ne représentent qu'une part infime de la consommation totale (env. 4%). [Over the past ten years, meat consumption per capita has remained stable. In 2019, it was 51 kg per person. Beef (22%), veal (5%), pork (41%) and poultry (28%) account for 96% of total meat consumption. Mutton, horse, goat, rabbit and game meat represent only a tiny part of total consumption (approx. 4%).]
  9. ^ "Le poisson suisse : une niche de marché en devenir". Paysans Suisses. Retrieved 17 January 2023. Les Suisses consomment de plus en plus de poisson. Néanmoins, la part indigène de poissons et de crustacés n'est que de 2,4 %. Pas étonnant, vu que la Suisse ne dispose pas d'accès à la mer. Cependant, certains Suisses pratiquent la pêche non seulement comme hobby, mais aussi comme métier sur certains lacs. Les pêcheurs professionnels pêchent toutes sortes de poissons : perches, féras, sandres et brochets. [The Swiss consume more and more fish. Nevertheless, the indigenous share of fish and shellfish is only 2.4%. No wonder, since Switzerland does not have access to the sea. However, some Swiss people practice fishing not only as a hobby, but also as a job on certain lakes. Professional fishermen catch all kinds of fish: perch, whitefish, zander and pike.]
  10. ^ "Butter / Beurre / Burro". Culinary Heritage of Switzerland. Retrieved 17 February 2023. La Suisse, eu égard à la qualité de ses pâturages et au développement précoce de son économie laitière, est reconnue depuis plusieurs décennies comme un haut lieu de l'excellence beurrière. La culture culinaire de ce pays a durablement intégré le beurre comme ingrédient de base de nombreuses spécialités ou préparations, quoiqu'il n'ait pas toujours été une denrée abondante. [Switzerland, given the quality of its pastures and the early development of its dairy economy, has been recognized for several decades as a center of butter excellence. The culinary culture of this country has permanently integrated butter as a basic ingredient of many specialties or preparations, although it has not always been an abundant commodity.]
  11. ^ "Crème de Gruyère". Culinary Heritage of Switzerland. Retrieved 17 February 2023. Nul doute que l'utilisation de la crème est aussi ancienne que la production laitière et fromagère, et à ce sujet la réputation de la Gruyère est attestée au moins depuis le 13ème siècle... [There is no doubt that the use of cream is as old as dairy and cheese production, and on this subject the reputation of Gruyère has been attested at least since the 13th century...]
  12. ^ "7 Swiss Cheeses You Should Know". The Cheese Professor. 25 April 2022. Retrieved 2022-09-23.
  13. ^ a b "Bulletin nutritionnel suisse 2021". Swiss Confederation. Federal Food Safety and Veterinary Office. Retrieved 17 January 2023. Les différences régionales correspondent bien pour certains groupes de denrées alimentaires, notamment pour le poisson et les produits laitiers. Il ressort clairement que l'on vend, achète et consomme plus de poisson dans la région lémanique, la région francophone de l'espace Mittelland et au Tessin que dans les régions de Suisse alémanique. Par contre, on vend, achète et consomme plus de produits laitiers en Suisse alémanique. [...] Avec 18 % de l'apport énergétique total, la part d'énergie qu'apporte le petit-déjeuner en Suisse est donc comparable à celle des pays nordiques. Pour le dîner (27 %), la Suisse, un peu comme l'Allemagne, se situe entre les pays nordiques (22 %), l'Europe centrale (22 %) et les pays méditerranéens (41 %), où ce repas semble avoir une importance beaucoup plus grande. L'apport énergétique via le souper est de 33 % de l'apport journalier en Suisse, ce qui est comparable au reste de l'Europe (30 à 33 %). [...] La Suisse est un pays multiculturel et les apports alimentaires sont fortement liés à la culture régionale, par exemple les influences méditerranéennes au Tessin. [The regional differences correspond well for certain food groups, notably for fish and dairy products. It is clear that more fish are sold, bought and consumed in the Lake Geneva region, the French-speaking region of the Mittelland area and in Ticino than in the regions of German-speaking Switzerland. On the other hand, more dairy products are sold, bought and consumed in German-speaking Switzerland. [...] With 18% of the total energy intake, the share of energy provided by breakfast in Switzerland is therefore comparable to that of the Nordic countries. For dinner (27%), Switzerland, much like Germany, is between the Nordic countries (22%), Central Europe (22%) and the Mediterranean countries (41%), where this meal seems have a much greater importance. The energy intake via dinner is 33% of the daily intake in Switzerland, which is comparable to the rest of Europe (30 to 33%).[...] Switzerland is a multicultural country and dietary intake is strongly linked to regional culture, for example Mediterranean influences in Ticino.]
  14. ^ "Fiche thématique sur la nutrition - Consommation de céréales, de pommes de terre et de légumineuses en Suisse en 2014 et 2015". Swiss Confederation. Retrieved 7 January 2023. Tant en Suisse alémanique qu'en Suisse italienne, la consommation quotidienne de féculents se chiffre à 301 g par personne. L'on relève toutefois des différences entre les catégories. Alors que la consommation de pain est plus d'un quart supérieure en Suisse alémanique, les Suisses italiens mangent davantage de riz (50% de plus) et de pâtes (20% de plus). Dans l'ensemble, les Suisses romands consomment légèrement moins de féculents (289 g par personne). [In both German-speaking Switzerland and Italian-speaking Switzerland, the daily consumption of starches amounts to 301 g per person. However, there are differences between the categories. While bread consumption is more than a quarter higher in German-speaking Switzerland, Italian Swiss eat more rice (50% more) and pasta (20% more). Overall, French-speaking Swiss consume slightly less starchy foods (289 g per person).]
  15. ^ "Fiche thématique sur la nutrition - Consommation d'huiles, de matières grasses et de fruits à coque en Suisse en 2014 et 2015". Swiss Confederation. Retrieved 7 January 2023. La Suisse italienne affiche la consommation d'huiles végétales la plus élevée (16 g par jour), suivie par la Suisse romande (15g) et la Suisse alémanique (13g). L'on constate davantage de différences en ce qui concerne les matières grasses: avec une moyenne de 44 g par personne, la population de Suisse alémanique en consomme plus de deux fois plus que celle de Suisse italienne (20 g), tandis qu'en Suisse romande cette valeur s'élève à 30 g. [Italian-speaking Switzerland has the highest consumption of vegetable oils (16g per day), followed by French-speaking Switzerland (15g) and German-speaking Switzerland (13g). There are more differences with regard to fats: with an average of 44 g per person, the population of German-speaking Switzerland consumes more than twice as much as that of Italian-speaking Switzerland (20 g), while in French-speaking Switzerland this value amounts to 30 g.]
  16. ^ a b "Alimentation". Historical Dictionary of Switzerland. Retrieved 31 March 2023.
  17. ^ "Switzerland's national dishes". Swiss Confederation. Retrieved 7 January 2023. Some traditional Swiss dishes, such as fondue and raclette, are more typically eaten in the winter. Others, such as muesli – also known in Switzerland as Birchermüesli – and rösti are popular all year round and come in many variations.
  18. ^ "Typical food: Custom and Tradition". Swiss Confederation. Switzerland Tourism. Retrieved 18 January 2023. Mind you, many dishes have crossed the local borders and become firm favourites throughout Switzerland. These dishes include, among others: Cheese fondue [...] Raclette [...] Älplermagronen [...] Rösti [...] Birchermüesli
  19. ^ "Birchermüesli". Culinary Heritage of Switzerland. Retrieved 7 January 2023.
  20. ^ Rösti Recipes consulted on June 24, 2008.
  21. ^ Bern tourist guide consulted on June 16, 2008.
  22. ^ The Oxford Companion to Cheese. Oxford University Press. 2016. p. 692. ISBN 978-0-19-933089-8. One highly successful campaign focused on popularizing fondue, formerly a regional dish. Over many decades advertisements and slogans promoted the wholesomeness of fondue and associated fondue parties with stylish living.
  23. ^ Susan Fuller Slack (2001). Fondues and Hot Pots. Penguin Books. p. 1. ISBN 9781557883698. Fondue is Switzerland's national dish. It has become an international friendship dish and symbol of goodwill.
  24. ^ "Raclette du Valais (AOP)". Culinary Heritage of Switzerland (in French). Retrieved 16 January 2023. Le fait de fondre le fromage devant un feu est également attesté dès 1574 en Valais, de manière particulièrement détaillée, dans un document rédigé par Gaspard Ambuel, dit Collinus, médecin et pharmacien à Sion. Concernant les fromages utilisés, on y apprend qu'ils sont "savoureux, gras, doux et tendres". [...] Le terme « raclette », désignant ce mets au fromage rôti, apparaît en de nombreuses sources écrites en langue française dès 1875, ce qui suggère que le terme est déjà bien connu alors. [...] En 1909, elle est présentée comme "mets national valaisan" à l'Exposition cantonale de Sion, qui attire de nombreux visiteurs de l'extérieur du canton. [...] L'événement grâce auquel la raclette gagne une notoriété nationale puis internationale est l'Exposition nationale de 1964 à Lausanne. [Melting the cheese in front of a fire is also attested in 1574 in Valais, in a particularly detailed manner, in a document written by Gaspard Ambuel, known as Collinus, doctor and pharmacist in Sion. Regarding the cheeses used, we learn that they are "tasty, fatty, soft and tender". [...] The term "raclette", designating this roasted cheese dish, appears in numerous sources written in the French language as early as 1875, which suggests that the term was already well known then. [...] In 1909, it was presented as a "national Valais dish" at the Cantonal Exhibition in Sion, which attracted many visitors from outside the canton. [...] The event thanks to which raclette gained national and then international notoriety was the 1964 National Exhibition in Lausanne.]
  25. ^ "Gâteau bullois". Culinary Heritage of Switzerland. Retrieved 1 March 2023.
  26. ^ "Cardon épineux genevois". Union Maraîchère de Genève. Retrieved 27 November 2023.
  27. ^ a b "IL GROTTO TICINESE - Ticino.ch". 27 September 2007. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
  28. ^ Stefano Mazzoleni (2004). Recent Dynamics of the Mediterranean Vegetation and Landscape. John Wiley & Sons. p. 237. ISBN 9780470093702. Thus, for many centuries the chestnut was the "bread tree" par excellence, the principal – if not the only – source of subsistence in the mountains for the local population. Concerning southern Switzerland, we know that the introduction of the chestnut took place 2000 years ago, triggering a revolution in landscape management, namely from a slash-and-burn agricultural approach to chestnut grove and coppice management.
  29. ^ "Olio d'oliva ticinese". Culinary Heritage of Switzerland. Retrieved 9 March 2022. Nel 1494, 1600 e 1709, gli oliveti vennero quasi completamente distrutti dal gelo. Anni dopo, furono accantonati in favore dei gelsi, così da promuovere l'allevamento dei bachi da seta. Verso la fine degli anni '80 del secolo scorso, la coltivazione dell'olivo è stata ripresa [In 1494, 1600 and 1709, frost destroyed almost all the olive trees. Later, they were replaced by mulberry trees to promote the breeding of silkworms. Olive cultivation in Ticino was revived at the end of the 1980s]
  30. ^ Expatica (2022). "The top 10 Swiss foods – with recipes".
  31. ^ a b "Bruscitt con polenta di mais corvino e carciofi croccanti" (in Italian). Retrieved 19 February 2024.
  32. ^ a b "Bruscitti di Busto Arsizio" (in Italian). 29 April 2015. Retrieved 17 February 2024.
  33. ^ a b "Polenta e bruscitt" (in Italian). Retrieved 17 February 2024.
  34. ^ "Ricetta polenta e bruscitt" (in Italian). Retrieved 17 February 2024.
  35. ^ "La favola dei Bruscitti, bontà senza tempo" (in Italian). Retrieved 27 February 2024.
  36. ^ "Bruscitt con purè" (in Italian). Retrieved 17 February 2024.
  37. ^ Reaney, Patricia (15 January 2015). "Netherlands is country with most plentiful, healthy food - Oxfam". Reuters. Retrieved 17 February 2023. The Netherlands nudged past France and Switzerland as the country with the most nutritious, plentiful and healthy food, while the United States and Japan failed to make it into the top 20, a new ranking released by Oxfam on Tuesday showed.
  38. ^ Swiss Office for the Development of Trade Zurich and Lausanne (1945). Directory of Swiss Manufacturers and Producers. Schweizerische Zentrale für Handelsförderung. Noblesse oblige, and Switzerland has remained true to her ancient tradition of hospitality. Her health resorts and watering places, her towns and villages provide all the comforts and attractions which the most fastidious as well as the most frugal visitor could wish for.
  39. ^ "Swiss Gastronomic Week: Seven days of Swissness and unique culinary enjoyment". Swiss Confederation. Retrieved 7 January 2023. Did you know that Switzerland, as a culinary hotspot, boasts the highest number of Michelin-starred restaurants per capita in the world, and its food is enriched by creative influences from neighboring countries and beyond?
  40. ^ "3 stars Michelin restaurants". Retrieved 7 January 2023.
  41. ^ Albala, Ken (2011). Food Cultures of the World Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 370. ISBN 9780313376269.
  42. ^ "GHO | By category | Recorded alcohol per capita consumption, from 2010 - Updated May 2021". WHO. Retrieved 2021-06-01.
  43. ^ "Food and Drink in Switzerland". frommers.com. Retrieved 2021-06-10.
  44. ^ "Swiss drinking culture: popular drinks and tradition". Expatica. Retrieved 2021-06-10.
  45. ^ "Beer from Zurich". inyourpocket.com. Retrieved 2021-06-10.
  46. ^ "Zurich Beer Festival". zuerich.com. Retrieved 2021-06-10.
  47. ^ "Cocktailsspiritsliquors.com". cocktailsspiritsliquors.com. Retrieved 17 March 2018.
  48. ^ Jones, Lora (2018-04-13). "Coffee: Who grows, drinks and pays the most?". BBC News. Retrieved 2018-05-13.