Location of Catalonia in Spain
Location of Catalonia in Spain
Location of Catalonia in Spain and Europe. The majority of the Catalan territory is part of the Mediterranean Basin, and its cuisine mainly belongs to the culinary tradition of this area.
Location of Catalonia in Spain and Europe. The majority of the Catalan territory is part of the Mediterranean Basin, and its cuisine mainly belongs to the culinary tradition of this area.

Catalan cuisine is the cuisine from Catalonia. It may also refer to the shared cuisine of Roussillon and Andorra, the second of which has a similar cuisine to that of the neighbouring Alt Urgell and Cerdanya comarques and which is often referred to as "Catalan mountain cuisine".[1] It is considered a part of western Mediterranean cuisine.[2]

History

There are several Catalan language cookbooks from the Middle Ages that are known to modern scholars. The Llibre de Coch [es] (1520) was one of the most influential cookbooks of Renaissance Spain.[3] It includes several sauce recipes made with ingredients such as ginger, mace powder (flor de macis), cinnamon, saffron, cloves (clauells de girofle), wine and honey.[4][5] Salsa de pagó took its name from the peacock (Catalan: el paó) that it was intended to be served with, but could accompany any type of poultry, and was part of the medieval Christmas meal.[6] Salsa mirraust (or mirausto alla catalana as it's called in the Cuoco Napoletano) was half-roasted (mi-raust) poultry that was finished in a salsa thickened with egg yolks, toasted almonds and breadcrumbs. In the version of the recipe from the 14th-century Llibre de Sent Soví [ast], the sauce is thickened with mashed poultry liver instead of egg yolks.[7]

Hippocras (pimentes de clareya) was spiced wine made with cinnamon, cloves, ginger, pepper, honey and wine pressed through a manega, a pastry bag shaped cloth that was originally designed by Hippocrates to filter water.[8]

Basic ingredients

Catalan cuisine relies heavily on ingredients popular along the Mediterranean coast, including fresh vegetables (especially tomato, garlic, eggplant (aubergine), capsicum, and artichoke), wheat products (bread, pasta), Arbequina olive oils, wines, legumes (beans, chickpeas), mushrooms (particularly wild mushrooms), nuts (pine nuts, hazelnuts and almonds), all sorts of pork preparations (sausage from Vic, ham), sheep and goats' cheese, poultry, lamb, and many types of fish like sardine, anchovy, tuna, and cod.[9]

Traditional Catalan cuisine is quite diverse, ranging from pork-intensive dishes cooked in the inland part of the region (Catalonia is one of the main producers of swine products in Spain) to fish-based recipes along the coast.[10] These meat and seafood elements are frequently fused together in the Catalan version of surf and turf, known as mar i muntanya. Examples include chicken with lobster (pollastre amb llagosta), chicken with crayfish (pollastre amb escarmalans), and rice with meat and seafood (arròs mar i muntanya).

The cuisine includes many preparations that mix sweet and savoury and stews with sauces based upon botifarra (pork sausage) and the characteristic picada (ground almonds, hazelnuts, pine nuts, etc. sometimes with garlic, herbs, biscuits).[9]

Savoury dishes

Coques
Sausage from Vic
Sausage from Vic

Sauces and condiments

Calçots with Romesco sauce for dipping
Calçots with Romesco sauce for dipping

Sweets and desserts

A crema catalana
A crema catalana
A xuixo
A xuixo
A tray of panellets, as they are typically served
A tray of panellets, as they are typically served

Wines

Cava wine aging
Cava wine aging

Main articles: Catalan wine and Spanish wine regions

There are 11 Catalan wine-growing regions qualified by the INCAVI (The Catalan Institute of Wine): Priorat, Penedès, Catalunya, Costers del Segre, Conca de Barberà, Montsant, Alella, Tarragona, Empordà, Pla del Bages and Terra Alta.

The sparkling wine cava, made mainly in the Penedès and Anoia regions, is the Catalan equivalent to champagne. It is widely exported.

"Moscatell" (Empordà), is a sweet Catalan wine which have similar varieties in other countries such as France, Italy, Portugal, Albania, Slovenia, Greece, Romania and Turkey, as well as other regions of Spain. However, Catalan moscatell is thicker than French muscat and is not drunk before the meal (aperitiu) but after it, either with or after dessert.

Alternative views

Some Catalan authors, such as Josep Pla,[14] Jaume Fàbrega[15] or Eliana Thibaut i Comalada,[16] and others like Colman Andrews,[17] have suggested that, besides Catalonia proper, this cuisine takes in the Balearic and Valencian cuisines,[18] but this opinion is challenged as politicised, and is not widespread, nor is it supported by either the Balearic or the Valencian government,[19][20] while the Catalan government itself provides divergent points of view.[21][22] In any case, mutual ties do exist between Catalan gastronomy and other western Mediterranean gastronomies, such as Balearic cuisine, Valencian cuisine, Southern French cuisine, Aragonese cuisine or Murcian cuisine.

Chefs and restaurants

Ferran Adrià was the head chef of El Bulli
Ferran Adrià was the head chef of El Bulli

Catalan cooks and chefs are widely renowned and critically acclaimed all over the world. Three of The World's 50 Best Restaurants are in Catalonia,[23] and four restaurants have three Michelin stars. Barcelona has nine Michelin stars[citation needed] including Cinc Sentits[24] and has been chosen as the best gastronomical city by the American TV network MSNBC in 2009, topping the list of the ten best gastronomical cities in the world. In Province of Girona are two of the best restaurants of the world, El Celler de Can Roca, the best of the world in 2014 and 2015, and elBulli, in Roses, the best one in 2002, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 and 2nd in 2010, before its closure, in 2011.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Sen, Miquel, et al, 2005, La Cuina comarca a comarca: Andorra-Cerdanya, Ciro DL. Barcelona.
  2. ^ [1] The New York Times, Spain: A Catalan Ole
  3. ^ Scholliers, Peter (2012). Writing Food History: A Global Perspective.
  4. ^ Lybre de doctrina Pera ben Servir: de Tallar: y del Art de Coch
  5. ^ Alimentació i societat a la Catalunya medieval. CSIC Press. 1998. ISBN 9788400069209.
  6. ^ "Pollastre o capó rostit amb salsa de pagó". Fundació Institut Català de la Cuina.
  7. ^ Two Ways of Looking at Maestro Martino Gastronomica Spring 2007 Vol. 7 Issue 2
  8. ^ Pedralbes. Universidad de Barcelona.
  9. ^ a b Pujol 2009.
  10. ^ Pujol, Anton (2009). "Cosmopolitan Taste". Food, Culture & Society. 12 (4): 437–455. doi:10.2752/175174409X456737. S2CID 153752556.
  11. ^ Sonso - Departament d'Agricultura, Alimentació i Acció Rural
  12. ^ Mas Ferrà, Xavier i Canyelles Ferrà, Xavier: Peixos de les Illes Balears. Editorial Moll, Palma de Mallorca, 2000. Manuals d'introducció a la naturalesa, 13. ISBN 84-273-6013-4. Planes 213-214.
  13. ^ Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2018). "Gymnammodytes cicerelus" in FishBase. February 2018 version.
  14. ^ PLA, Josep, 1970, 'El Que hem menjat', Barcelona (Catalonia)) (this edition 1997 Premsa catalana); photographs by F. Català Roca were added for the edition of 1981 by Edicions Destino, Barcelona.
  15. ^ Gastroteca.cat Interview with Jaume Fàbrega
  16. ^ THIBAUT I COMALADA, Eliana, 2001, 'La Cuina dels Països Catalans, reflex d'una societat', Editorial Pòrtic, S.A. ISBN 978-84-7306-716-4
  17. ^ ANDREWS, Colman, Catalan cuisine pp. 3-4: "It is, to put it another way, the cooking of the region of Catalonia in northeastern Spain - and, by extension, of the historically and linguistically related països catalans or Catalan lands.."
  18. ^ gastronomy of the Catalan-speaking Countries: Jaume Fàbrega:"Belonging to the nation of Catalans Valencians and Balearics is not just a question of a common language: it is also a way of expressing that culture at table, of a culinary culture." Archived 11 October 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ gastronomy from the Valencian Community Archived 9 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  20. ^ Gastronomy of the Valencian Community Archived 9 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ Generalitat de Catalunya Archived 14 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine
  22. ^ Culturcat Archived 6 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  23. ^ "Spain's El Bulli named best restaurant in world". The Economic Times. India. 21 April 2009. Retrieved 30 April 2012.
  24. ^ "ViaMichelin Barcelona Restaurants: online restaurant guide". Michelin Guide. Michelin. Retrieved 12 February 2012.

References

Further reading