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Located on the bank of the Arabian Sea in Karachi, Port Grand is one of the largest food streets of Asia.[1]
Food street located on Stadium road, Sargodha

Pakistani cuisine (Urdu: پاکستانی پکوان, romanized: pākistānī pakwān) can be characterized as a blend of regional cooking styles and flavours from across South, Central and Western Asia. Pakistani cuisine is influenced by Persian, Indian, and Arab cuisine. The cuisine of Pakistan also maintains certain Mughal influences within its recipes and cooking techniques.[2][3] Pakistan's ethnic and cultural diversity, diverse climates, geographical environments, and availability of different produce lead to diverse regional cuisines.

Pakistani cuisine, as in the food culture of most Muslim nations, is structured around halal principles, which, for example, forbid pork and alcohol consumption in accordance with Sharia, the religious laws of Islam. Many more details of halal regulations apply to meats, which types of animals are acceptable or “clean” for human consumption.

International cuisine and fast food are popular in major cities such as Islamabad[4] and Karachi;[5] blending local and foreign recipes (fusion food), such as Pakistani Chinese cuisine, is also common in large urban centres. As a result of lifestyle changes, health trends, and new dietary research being published, traditional ingredients such as masala (pre-mixed and ready-to-use) and ghee (clarified butter)—with its health benefits and high smoke point—have been increasingly popular.

Historical influences

Main article: History of Pakistani cuisine

Pakistan's national cuisine directly inherits both Indo-Aryan and Iranic culture coupled with Muslim culinary traditions. Evidence of controlled preparatory cuisine in the region can be traced back to as early as the Bronze Age with the Indus Valley Civilization. Around 3000 BCE, sesame, eggplant, and humped cattle were domesticated in the Indus Valley;[6] spices like turmeric, cardamom, black pepper and mustard were harvested in the region concurrently.[7] For a thousand years, wheat and rice served as basic comestibles in the Indus Valley.[8]

The arrival of Islam in South Asia and intermittent conquests influenced the local cuisine of the region to a great degree. Due to its Muslim-majority population, Pakistan's cuisine sees a strict observance of Islamic dietary laws. Most prominently, forbiddance on the consumption of pork and alcohol by Islamic regulation has shifted the focus of Pakistani cuisine to other types of meat, such as beef, lamb, chicken, and fish, alongside a variety of fruits, vegetables, and dairy.

Elements

Main articles: Origins of Pakistani foods, List of Pakistani spices, and List of plants used in Pakistani cuisine

Pakistani dishes are known for being aromatic and spicy. Some dishes contain liberal amounts of oil, contributing to a richer, fuller mouthfeel and flavour. Brown cardamom, green cardamom, cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, mace, star anise and black pepper are the most commonly used spices in the making of a wide variety of dishes throughout Pakistan. Cumin seeds, chili powder, turmeric, and bay leaves are also very popular. In the Punjab province, spice blends are characterized by their use of coriander powder. Garam masala (a mixture of aromatic spices) is a popular blend of spices used in several Pakistani dishes including Bannu Pulao.

Regional cuisines

Balochistan

Main article: Balochi cuisine

Balochi cuisine belongs to the Balochistan region of Pakistan. Baloch food has a regional variance in contrast to the many cuisines of Pakistan.[9][10] Among the most popular Balochi dishes are Balochi sajji (skewered lamb or chicken filled with rice), mutton rosh (mutton chops) and dampukht (meat slow-cooked in fats).

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Main article: Pashtun cuisine

Rice dishes and kebabs feature prominently in Pashtun cuisine. Lamb is eaten more often in Pashtun cuisine than any other Pakistani cuisines. Kabuli palaw, Bannu Pulao, Chapli kabab, tika, and mutton karahi are the most famous dishes of the region. Historical variations include Peshawari cuisine. The Pashtun and Balochi cuisines are traditionally non-spicy.

Kalash

Main article: Kalash cuisine

Kalashi people have a rich food culture that includes various types of breads and cheese. The famous bread is made with flour and different types of nuts. Some breads are bilili (walnut bread), jã'u, (walnut bread), and kurau (flour kindled in crushed grape juice).

Punjab

Main article: Punjabi cuisine

Since Punjabi identity is considered geographical and cultural, almost all inhabitants of Punjab follow some variations within the cuisine, but on the other hand show many similarities together. This cuisine then falls into the broad category of Punjabi cuisine. Regional cuisine is mutual with some differences in many regions, including the South Punjab regions. Paye/kharoray (made from legs and joints of cow, goat, buffalo or sheep), pulao, saag (mustard leaves), makai roti (maizeflour tortilla) and murgh cholay (chicken and chickpeas slow-cooked) are considered authentic Punjabi specialties in Pakistani cuisines. The most popular Punjabi drink is Lassi.

Sindh

Main articles: Sindhi cuisine and Cuisine of Karachi

Sindhi cuisine refers to the native cuisine of the Sindhi people from Sindh, Pakistan. Sindhi Cuisine is considered to be very meaty (not many vegetarian dishes) and consists of a variety of chicken dishes. Karhi, daal pakwan, Palo fish and many other. They usually eat less spicy food.

The capital of Sindh Karachi is mixture of all regions. However the same is heavily dominated by the Mughlai, Deccani and other cuisines of Muslims who migrated from present day India post partition of British India in 1947.

Gilgit-Baltistan

Main articles: Gilgiti cuisine and Balti (food)

Gilgit Baltistan is rich in unique food and dishes, each district of Gilgit Baltistan has their cultural dish that symbolizes the people.

Gilgiti cuisine is the cuisine of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan. Prominent Gilgiti dishes, such as the Chapshoro have gained massive popularity among different parts of Pakistan. Dumplings (Locally called Mumtu) are often served with yogurt and parsley and black pepper, vinegar, chili sauce.

Hunza

Staple foods like barley, wheat, and millet form the foundation of dishes such as chapshuro and thukpa, hearty soups that provide warmth in the cold climate. Fresh fruits like apricots and cherries are transformed into jams, dried fruits, and juices, while dairy products like yogurt and cheese play a significant role in both savory and sweet offerings. Dishes like buckwheat bread, rosehip oil bread, and almond bread are commonly prepared in Hunza.

Nagar

Chapshuro is the local alternative of pizza in Nagar. Initially a local product of only Nagar valley, now it is widely prepared in Hunza and other localitises on the Karakoram.

Ghizer

Ghizer is famous for kelawo (also spelled kilao), walnuts dipped in honey and mulberry juice.

Gilgit

Dumplings locally called mumtu are well known in Gilgit cuisine. As Gilgit itself is a blend of cultures from neighboring districts like Hunza, Ghizer and Chilas, the cuisines of these regions is also widely found here.

Baltistan

See also: Hunza diet

Meal structure

A Sindhi/Punjabi-style woven plate for chapati (flat bread)

Pakistanis generally eat three meals a day, i.e. breakfast, lunch, and dinner. During the evening, many families have tea with snacks. During the Islamic holy month of Ramadan, the eating patterns change to suhur, pronounced “Sehari” in Pakistan, and iftar. It is considered proper to eat only with the right hand, per Islamic tradition (also a tradition in many other Asian cultures). Many Pakistani families, particularly when guests are too many to fit at a table, eat sitting at a cloth known as Dastarkhān, which is spread out on the floor. In Pakistan, many street eateries serve food on a takht, in a style similar to what is seen in Afghanistan. A takht is a raised platform, where people eat their food sitting cross-legged, after taking tith sauce with a piece of baked bread (naan) or rice.

Breakfast

Having nihari and halwa puri in breakfast is popular among people living in Lahore.

A typical Pakistani breakfast, locally called nāshtā (ناشتہ), consists of eggs (boiled/scrambled/fried/omelette), a slice of loaf bread or roti, parathas, sheermal with tea or lassi, kulcha with chole, qeema (minced meat), fresh seasonal fruits (mangoes, apples, melons, bananas, etc.), milk, honey, butter, jam, shami kebab or nuts. Sometimes breakfast includes baked goods like bakarkhani and rusks. During holidays and weekends, halwa poori and chickpeas are sometimes eaten. In Punjab, sarson ka saag (mustard leaves) and maakai ki roti (cornbread) are local favourites. Punjabi people also enjoy khatchauri, a savory pastry filled with cheese. Pakistan is not unlike many other Asian nations, in the sense that meat dishes are eaten as breakfast, especially on holidays. A traditional Sunday breakfast might be Siri-Payay (the head and feet of lamb or cow) or Nihari (نہاری) (a dish which is cooked overnight to get the meat extremely tender. The name "Nihari" comes from the Arabic word "Nahar", meaning "Day" or "Daybreak".) Many people used to eat "Bong" (Shank curry) in their Sunday brunch.

Lunch

A typical Pakistani lunch consists of meat curry or shorba (depending on the region) along with a carbohydrate such as rice or roti. Daal chawal is among the most commonly served dishes at lunch. Breads such as roti or naan are usually served for dinner, but have become more common during the day; rice may be served for dinner as well. Popular lunch dishes may include aloo gosht (meat and potato stew) or a vegetable and mutton salan (stew). Chicken dishes like chicken karahi are also popular. Alternatively, roadside food stalls often sell just lentils and tandoori rotis, or masala stews with chapatis. People who live near the main rivers also eat fish for lunch, which is sometimes cooked in the tandoori style.

Dinner

A variety of Pakistani dinner dishes – Starting from the left: gobi aloo, seekh kebab, and beef karahi

Dinner is considered the main meal of the day as the whole family gathers for the occasion. Food which requires more preparation and which is more savoury (such as biryani, nihari, Bannu pulao, kofte, kebabs, qeema, korma) is prepared. Lentils are also a dinnertime staple. These are served with a bread such as roti or naan or rice, along with yogurt, pickle and salad. The dinner may sometimes be followed by fresh fruit, or on festive occasions, traditional desserts like kheer, gulab jamun, shahi tukray, gajraila, qulfi or ras malai.

Snacks and fast foods

A typical bun kabab with ketchup and chutney

Pakistani snacks comprise food items that are quick to prepare, spicy, usually fried,[11] and eaten in the evening or morning with tea or with any one of the meals as a side dish. A given snack may be part of a local culture, and its preparation and popularity can vary from place to place. These snacks are often prepared and sold by hawkers on footpaths, railway stations and other such places, although they may also be served at restaurants. Some typical snacks are dahi bhala, vutlass (aloo tikki), chaat and samosa chaat, bun kebab, chana masala, chapli kebab, shami kebab, seekh kebab, malai tikka kebab (meat and yogurt), reshami kebab, pakora, and papar. Others include katchauri, gol gappay, samosas (vegetable or beef), bhail puri, daal seu, panipuri, and egg rolls. Nuts, such as pistachios and pine nuts, are also often eaten at home.

Main courses

Lahori Beef Karahi, usually served with freshly made tandoori naan

In Pakistan, main courses are usually served with wheat bread (either roti or naan) or rice. Salad is generally taken as a side dish with the main course, rather than as an appetizer beforehand. Assorted fresh fruit or sometimes desserts are consumed at the end of a meal.[citation needed] Meat plays a much more dominant role in Pakistani food, compared to other South Asian cuisines. According to a 2003 report, an average Pakistani consumed three times more meat than an average Indian.[12] Of all the meats, the most popular are goat, lamb and mutton, beef and chicken, which are particularly sought after as the meats of choice for kebab dishes or the classic beef shank dish nihari. Seafood is generally not consumed in large amounts, though it is[13] very popular in the coastal areas of Sindh and the Makran coast of Balochistan and was a dominant element of the cuisine of the former East Pakistan (now Bangladesh).

Dishes, with or without meat, combined with local vegetables, such as bitter gourd, cauliflower, eggplant, okra, cabbage, potatoes, rutabaga, saag, and chili peppers are most common and cooked for everyday consumption. A typical example is aloo gosht (literally "potatoes and meat"), a homestyle recipe consisting of a spiced meat and potato stew, prepared in many households. Korma is a classic dish of Mughlai origin made of either chicken or mutton, typically eaten with naan or other bread, and is very popular in Pakistan.

Vegetable and legume dishes

Main article: Pakistani vegetable dishes

There are plenty of vegetarian-friendly vegetable and legume dishes popular in Pakistan. These are often cooked using traditional spices and flavoring agents such as chilis, turmeric, garlic, ginger, cumin, cloves, cinnamon, and fennel seeds. Dishes such as baingan bartha and sarson da saag are typical examples eaten in most homes. Aloo mutter is made with potatoes and peas.

There are plenty of vegetables which are grown seasonally in Pakistan, which are cooked into curries which are eaten for lunch or dinner. Some vegetable dishes, such as aloo paratha and channa puri, are also consumed for breakfast.

Meat dishes

The meat dishes in Pakistan include bovine, ovine, poultry and seafood dishes. Chicken karahi is a famous poultry dish. The meat is usually cut in 3 cm cubes and cooked in a stew. Minced meat is used for kebabs, qeema, and other dishes. Meat dishes may also be cooked with pulses, legumes and rice. In Sindh poultry, beef and mutton meat are also consumed. The camel, rabbit, many birds like Aari (Fulica atra), Kunj (Demoiselle crane), Titar (Grey francolin), Jhirkri (Sparrow), Duck meat is also consumed.

Further important points declare precisely how animals are to be slaughtered; it must be done quickly and with minimal suffering, with the animal's awareness of the situation being extremely brief (preferably nonexistent, as stress releases cortisol and adrenaline, potentially spoiling meat quality). The animals must also be healthy as halal principles forbid the consumption of sick, abused, cancerous or otherwise unhealthy animals. Additionally, animals that are killed inadvertently, or during accidents are forbidden, as the intention was not slaughter in those cases.

Barbecue and kebabs

Main articles: Pakistani meat dishes, Kebab, Barbecue, and Rotisserie

Meat and grilled meat have played an important role in Pakistan for centuries. Kebabs are a staple item in Pakistani cuisine today, and one can find countless varieties all over the country. Each region has its own varieties, but some, like seekh kebab, chicken tikka, and shami kebab are especially popular throughout the country and in some other parts of South Asia.

Pulses

Various kinds of pulses or legumes make up an important part of Pakistani cuisine. While lentils (called daal) and chickpeas (called channa/chanay ki daal) are popular ingredients in homestyle cooking, they are traditionally considered to be inexpensive food sources. As such, they are typically not served to guests who are invited for dinner or during special occasions. Meat may be combined with lentils and pulses, whether in simple preparations or in elaborate dishes such as haleem.

Beans such as black-eyed peas (lobia) and kidney beans (rajma) are sometimes served in a tomato-based masala sauce, especially in Punjab.

Chickpeas, red kidney beans, and other legumes are also popular in Pakistani cooking. They are usually cooked in a spicy gravy and served with rice or traditional flatbread (roti). Chickpeas, known as channa, are also a common breakfast food when served with puri. Channa chaat is another favorite street food and iftaar dish; it is made of chickpeas, chopped onions, tomatoes, and chillies, and seasoned with spices (chaat masala) and tamarind paste.

A wide variety of lentils is consumed in Pakistan and frequently with rice. Daal chawaal (lentils and rice) is known as a popular comfort food in many Pakistani households.

Rice dishes

Main article: Pakistani rice dishes

Sindhi biryani

Pakistan is a major exporter and consumer of rice. Basmati is the most popular type of rice consumed in Pakistan.

Dishes made with rice include many varieties of pulao:

Biryani is a very popular dish in Pakistan, and has many varieties, such as Lahori and Sindhi biryani. Tahiri, which is a vegetarian form of biryani, is also popular. All of the main dishes (except those made with rice) are eaten alongside bread. To eat, a small fragment of bread is torn off with the right hand and used to scoop and hold small portions of the main dish. Pickles made out of mangoes, carrots, lemon, etc. are also commonly used to further spice up the food.

In the Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa, feasts using mountains of spiced rice combined with pieces of slowly roasted lamb are often served for guests of honour. These kind of pulaos often contain dried fruit, nuts, and whole spices such as cloves, saffron and cardamom. Kabuli Palaw is very popular in Pashtun dominated regions in Western Pakistan. Such rice dishes have their origins in Central Asia and the Middle East. Pulaos featuring aromatic spices, such as Bannu Pulao, are also popular in the province, particularly in the southern region.

Varieties of bread

Chapati (bread) with a piece of chicken meat
Peshwari naans freshly made in the tandoor (open oven)

Main article: List of Pakistani breads

Pakistanis eat breads made of wheat flour as a staple part of their diet. Pakistan has a wide variety of breads, often prepared in a tandoor. The tandoori style of cooking is common throughout rural and urban Pakistan, and also has strong roots in neighboring India, Iran and Afghanistan. Some of these are:

Desserts

Main articles: List of Pakistani desserts and Pakistani sweets

Gulab jamun

Popular desserts include Peshawari ice cream, sheer khurma, qulfi, falooda, kheer, Firni, zarda, shahi tukray and rabri. Sweetmeats are consumed on various festive occasions in Pakistan. Some of the most popular are gulab jamun, barfi, ras malai, kalakand, jalebi and panjiri. Pakistani desserts also include a long list of halva, such as Multani Halwa, hubshee, Gajar ka halwa, sohan halvah, Ugham Halwo, Sindhi Halwo, Seero.

Kheer made of roasted seviyaan (vermicelli) instead of rice is popular during Eid ul-Fitr. Gajraila is a sweet made from grated carrots, boiled in milk, sugar, cream and green cardamom, topped with nuts and dried fruit. It is popular in Pakistan, as well as in other parts of South Asia, including Afghanistan.

Tea varieties

Main article: Pakistani tea culture

Pakistanis drink a great deal of tea, locally called "chai". Both black (with milk) and green teas are popular and there are different varieties common in different parts of Pakistan. [citation needed]

Beverages

Besides tea, there are other drinks that may be included as part of the Pakistani cuisine. All of them are non-alcoholic as the consumption of alcohol is prohibited by Islam. During the 20th century, beverages such as coffee and soft drinks have also become popular in Pakistan. It is very common to have soft drinks nowadays with Pakistani meals.

Halal

Main article: Halal

Observant Muslims follow the Islamic law that lists foods and drinks that are halal, permissible to consume. The criteria specify both what foods are allowed and how the food must be prepared. The foods addressed are mostly types of meat. [citation needed]

Foreign influences

In addition to the traditional food, fast food is also very popular across the country.[14] In big cities, there are many international fast food restaurants, such as KFC, McDonald's, Pizza Hut, Subway, Domino's, Burger King, Hardee's, Papa John's Pizza, Dunkin' Donuts, Baskin-Robbins and Taco Bell.[15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23]

Occasionally, people in Pakistan dine out at restaurants with foreign-influenced food, such as Western, Arab and Chinese dishes. There are many westernized, Chinese restaurants and fast food outlets in urban parts of Pakistan. In the Punjab and Sindh provinces, the majority of urban chains of many American, European and British restaurants have opened in many metropolitan cities, such as Karachi, Lahore, Faisalabad, Islamabad-Rawalpindi, Gujranwala, Peshawar, Multan, Hyderabad, Quetta, Sargodha, Bahawalpur, Sialkot, Sukkur, Larkana and many others. Marketing and advertisements have attracted Pakistanis to try them out.

Outside Pakistan, Pakistani cuisine is prevalent in countries where there are large Pakistani communities present.

Pakistani food makes use of fresh, hand-pounded masalas. Ghee is used, but the main component of the meal or a dish is meat (beef, lamb, chicken, goat, or fish), and vegetables are sparingly used. Surprisingly, Pakistani food also makes extensive use of olive oil. Sparingly used vegetables does not mean there is no vegetarian food on the menu. Since the cuisine is very similar to Punjabi-style of cooking, tikka, simmered dals, tawa sabzi, and chaat feature here.[24]

See also

References

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  2. ^ Taus-Bolstad, S (2003), Pakistan in Pictures. Lerner Publishing Group. ISBN 978-0-8225-4682-5
  3. ^ Jonathan H. X. Lee, Kathleen M. Nadeau Encyclopedia of Asian American Folklore and Folklife, Volume 1 page 973 ABC-CLIO, 2011 ISBN 0313350663, 9780313350665
  4. ^ Arshad, Nabiha (24 October 2023). "Top 15 Fast Food Restaurants in Islamabad". Menu Point. Retrieved 15 January 2024.
  5. ^ "Top 15 Fast Food Restaurants in Karachi". Menu Point. 28 October 2023. Retrieved 15 January 2024.
  6. ^ Jared Diamond (1997). Guns, Germs and Steel: A short history of everybody for the last 13,000 years. Viking. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-09-930278-0.
  7. ^ "Curry, Spice & All Things Nice: Dawn of History". Menumagazine.co.uk. Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 7 February 2011.
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  10. ^ "Food | Baloch Culture". balochculture.net. Archived from the original on 12 March 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
  11. ^ Usman, Miysha (29 April 2020). "18 Popular Pakistani Food Favorites To Get You Hooked". CurryFlow. Archived from the original on 13 August 2020. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  12. ^ Global Production and Consumption of Animal Source Foods Archived 6 March 2007 at the Wayback Machine, The American Society for Nutritional Sciences J. Nutr. 133:4048S-4053S, November 2003. Retrieved on 27 March 2007
  13. ^ "Bawarchi, Indian Food Recipes, Indian Cooking Recipes, Veg Recipes, Non Veg Recipes". bawarchi.com. Archived from the original on 20 September 2008.
  14. ^ "The fried chicken turnaround". The Nation. 17 December 2017. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
  15. ^ "Crunchy farm-fresh vegetables". McDonalds.com.pk. Archived from the original on 20 November 2018. Retrieved 11 April 2020.
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  17. ^ "Baskin Robbins". www.baskinrobbins.pk. Archived from the original on 11 September 2019. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
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  19. ^ "SUBWAY - Pakistan". www.subway.com. Archived from the original on 1 May 2019. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
  20. ^ "Domino's Pizza". dominos.com.pk. Archived from the original on 24 June 2019. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
  21. ^ "Pizza Hut Pakistan". www.pizzahut.com.pk. Archived from the original on 22 March 2020. Retrieved 22 April 2020.
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  23. ^ "Papajohns". www.papajohns.com.pk. Archived from the original on 3 June 2020.
  24. ^ "Beyond the border". The Hindu. 27 February 2007. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 15 September 2018 – via www.thehindu.com.