Kadhi
Kadhi with red chilli as garnish
CourseLunch or dinner
Place of originIndia
Region or stateRajasthan[1]
Serving temperatureHot or Warm
Main ingredientsDahi (yogurt), gram flour, vegetables, water
VariationsRajasthani kadhi, Gujarati Kadhi, Punjabi Kadhi, Sindhi Kadhi, Maharashtrian Kadhi

Kadhi or karhi (Rajasthani: कढ़ी) is a yogurt-based dish originating from Rajasthan, india.[2] It's made by simmering yogurt with besan (gram flour) and indian spices until it forms a thick, tangy gravy. Sometimes, it's also mixed with pakoras (deep-fried fritters). It is often eaten with cooked rice or roti.[3]

Etymology

The word Kadhi is derived from the Sanskrit root kvathita (क्वथित)[4] which refers to a decoction or a gruel of curcuma, asafoetida and buttermilk. In Sanskrit literature, Kadhi has been referred to with the name kvathika (क्वथिका).[5]

Origin

The kadhi is believed to be originated in the arid landscapes of Rajasthan, where cooks incorporated dairy products to compensate for the limited availability of vegetables.[6][7]

Although Punjabis may have a strong association with kadhi-chawal, its origins trace back to Rajasthan, according to Celebrity Chef Kunal Kapur. Historically, kadhi was first crafted in Rajasthan before spreading to Gujarat and Sindh regions. Chef Kunal elaborates that kadhi was traditionally concocted when households had surplus milk, which was churned into butter, leaving behind buttermilk (chaas) to be used in preparing kadhi.[8]

India

Kadhi is generally considered a staple everyday food in many parts of India[9] and is thought to aid in digestion.[10] In Gujarat and Rajasthan, it is usually served with khichdi, roti, paratha, or rice. Gujarati and Rajasthani kadhi differ from the Uttar Pradesh variety. Gujarati kadhi is a little sweeter than the other variants because sugar or jaggery is added to it, but it can be made without sugar for a more sour taste. It is eaten without pakoras, and its consistency is slightly thinner. Gujarati kadhi may be made from buttermilk, which gives it a smoother texture compared to yogurt. Variations of this basic dish include the addition of certain vegetables, notably bhindi (okra); kadhi containing okra is known as bhinda ni kadhi. In Punjab, kadhi is a simple and quick winter meal. Unlike the rest of India, yogurt is not added — full-fat buttermilk is used instead. Depending on the region, kadhi is commonly tempered with red chili peppers, cumin, coriander seeds, asafoetida, and fenugreek seeds.[10]

In Western India, especially in coastal Maharashtra and in the Konkan region, kadhi is made with kokum, creating a variant called solkadhi. Other variants of kadhi in Maharashtra are made with kacchi kairi (raw mango), which is known as aambyachi kadhi (raw mango kadhi). Another variant of kadhi in Maharashtra is made with curd and buttermilk; this is known as takachi kadhi.

In Haryana, a popular variation is called haryanvi hara choley kadhi, made with besan and hare choley (raw green chickpeas) plus pure ghee, which is added during serving. Haryanvi kadhi is sometimes cooked with additional ingredients, such as seasonal farm-fresh green bathua leaves or kachri, a kind of small, wild melon.

In Purvanchal (eastern Uttar Pradesh) and Bihar, it is called kadhi-badi because of the addition of pakoras, small badi (or vadi) made out of chickpea flour, with no vegetables added (unlike standard pakora).

The name kadhi is also derived from several Indo-Aryan languages spoken in northern India, in which काढ़ना kadhna means 'to take out,' which, in this context, means to reduce, so the yogurt and chickpea curry is cooked for a very long time until it is reduced and the consistency changes from runny to thick and creamy.

In Southern states, it is seasoned with sauteed asafoetida, mustard seeds, cumin, and fenugreek. The soup is thickened in a different way by the addition of pureed split chickpeas soaked overnight with whole coriander seeds and dry red chili pepper. Squash, okra, tomato, Chinese spinach, carrots, and sweet peas are some of the vegetables that are added to the seasoning before bringing the soup to a boil. Pakoras (gram flour fritters) are added for special occasions like ceremonies. It is called majjige huli in Kannada, majjiga pulusu in Telugu, and mor kuzhambu in Tamil; all of these names have similar meanings. In Kerala, it is called kaalan.

The Sindhi diaspora in India usually make kadhi by roasting the chickpea flour and adding vegetables to the chickpea gravy. It is called kadhi because of the use of curry leaves, which are called kadhi patta in Sindhi. Instead of yogurt, tamarind pulp is used to give it a sour taste. An alternate method is to make a liquid mixture of chickpea flour instead of roasting chickpeas.

Pakistan

Popular in Southern Pakistan, Karachi, and Hyderabad. It can be made with the addition of vegetables such as drumstick beans.
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In Pakistan, kadhi is usually served with steamed rice and naan. Thari people commonly refer to kadhi as raabro or khaatiyo.

In Northern Pakistan, in and around the Hazara region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province, kadhi can be prepared with a variety of additives such as chicken, pumpkin, and sarson ka saag.

In Karachi and Hyderabad, Sindh, in addition to plain kadhi, a variety of vegetables such as okra, aubergine, and drumstick beans may be added. In Pakistan, kadhi is generally understood to always include fritters.

See also

References

  1. ^ Minwalla, Shabnam (23 July 2020). "Kadhi is India's comfort food". BusinessLine. Retrieved 28 April 2024. It is widely believed that the kadhi originated in the deserts of Rajasthan, where cooks started using dairy products to supplement scarce vegetables.
  2. ^ Minwalla, Shabnam (23 July 2020). "Kadhi is India's comfort food". BusinessLine. Retrieved 28 April 2024.
  3. ^ "Besan Kadhi". NDTV Food. Retrieved 11 May 2024.
  4. ^ Turner, R. L. (Ralph Lilley) (1962–1966). "A Comparative Dictionary of Indo-Aryan Languages". dsal.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 15 April 2023.
  5. ^ "क्वथिका - Dictionary Definition". TransLiteral Foundation. Retrieved 15 April 2023.
  6. ^ Minwalla, Shabnam (23 July 2020). "Kadhi is India's comfort food". BusinessLine. Retrieved 28 April 2024. It is widely believed that the kadhi originated in the deserts of Rajasthan, where cooks started using dairy products to supplement scarce vegetables.
  7. ^ Tirmizi, Bisma (14 April 2015). "Food Stories: Karhi". DAWN.COM. Retrieved 28 April 2024.
  8. ^ "History Of Kadhi: Where Did This Popular Indian Dish Come From - Chef Kunal Kapur Shares". NDTV Food. Retrieved 28 April 2024.
  9. ^ "History Of Kadhi: Where Did This Popular Indian Dish Come From - Chef Kunal Kapur Shares". NDTV Food. Retrieved 15 December 2022.
  10. ^ a b Chatterjee, Priyadarshini (12 October 2019). "Kadhi tales: From regional flavours to gourmet experiences". livemint.com. Retrieved 15 December 2022.