Odia Cuisine is the cuisine of the state of Odisha. It has developed over time with local culture and agriculture and hence has its distinct items and practices. Odisha borders both north Indian states and south Indian states and consequently is similar to the cuisines of South and North India. [1]

Enduri Pitha, a typical Odia sweet
Enduri Pitha, a typical Odia sweet

Compared to other regional Indian cuisines, Odia cuisine uses less oil and is less spicy while nonetheless remaining flavourful.[2][3] Rice is the staple food of this region. Mustard oil is used in some dishes as the cooking medium, but ghee (made of cow's milk) is preferred in temples.[3] In old times food was traditionally served on banana leaves or disposable plates made of sal leaves.[4]

Odia cooks, particularly from the Puri region, were much sought after due to their ability to cook food in accordance with Hindu scriptures. During the 19th century, many Odia cooks were employed in Bengal and they took many Odia dishes with them.[5] This period also saw a heavy demand for Brahmin cooks, leading many Odia cooks to fake their castes.[6]

Yoghurt is used in dishes. Many sweets of the region are based on chhena (cheese).[7]

Ingredients and seasoning

Rice is a major crop of Odisha, bhumin is the best.[8] Lentils such as pigeon peas and moong beans are another major ingredients.

Indigenous vegetables used in Odia cuisine are Pumpkin, Gourd , plantains, jackfruit, and papaya. Vegetables such as chilies, potatoes, cauliflowers, and cabbages are also used alongside local vegetables.

The curries are garnished with dried raw mango (ambula).[9]

Pancha phutana is a blend of five spices that is widely used in Odia cuisine. It contains mustard, cumin, fenugreek, aniseed and kalonji(onion seeds). Garlic, onion and ginger are used in most of the food. Temple food preparation doesn't allow the use of garlic or onion. Turmeric and red chillies are used regularly[3]

Local variation

The food in the region around Puri-Cuttack is greatly influenced by the Jagannath Temple. On the other hand, kalonji and mustard paste are used mostly in the region bordering Bengal and curries tend to be sweeter. In the region closer to Andhra Pradesh, curry tree leaves and tamarind are used more. The Brahmapur region has influences of South Indian cuisine and the Telugu people living there have invented new Odia dishes.[10]

Temple food

Abadha, the afternoon meal of the Jagannath Temple served on a plantain leaf.
Abadha, the afternoon meal of the Jagannath Temple served on a plantain leaf.

Temples in the region make offerings to the presiding deities. The prasada of the Jagannath Temple is well known and is specifically called Maha Prasad meaning greatest of all prasadas. It consists of 56 recipes, so it is called chhapan bhoga. It is based on the legend that Krishna missed his eight meals for seven days while trying to save a village from a storm holding up the Govardhan hill as a shelter.[7]

Fish and seafood

Fish and other seafoods are eaten mainly in coastal areas. Several curries are prepared from prawn and lobster with spices.[3][11] Freshwater fish is available from rivers and irrigation canals.[5] Rohu, Catla and Ilishi are the famous freshwater fishes used in curries.

List of dishes

Rice dishes and rotis

See also: Roti

Pakhala served with wads of lemon, yoghurt and a slice of tomato.
Pakhala served with wads of lemon, yoghurt and a slice of tomato.

Dal

Dalma

Curries

Odia cooking has some different type of curries based on the overall preparation style. Tarakari, Santula, Rai, Rasa.

Khattas and chutneys

Dhania-Patra Chutney
Dhania-Patra Chutney
Dahi Baigana

Khatta refers to a type of sour side dish or chutney usually served with Odia thalis.[23]

Saaga (salad greens)

See also: Saag

In Odia cuisine, sāga is one of the most important vegetables. It is popular all over the state. A list of the plants that are used as sāga is as below. Odias typically eat many cooked green leaves. They are prepared by adding "pancha phutana", with or without onion/garlic, and are best enjoyed with pakhala.

One of the most popular is lali koshala saaga made from green leaves with red stems. Other saagas that are eaten are pita gahama, khada, poi, koshala, and sajana. Some items are as follows:

Pithas (sweet cakes)

Kakara Pitha
Kakara Pitha
EnduriPitha
EnduriPitha

Pithas and sweets are types of traditional Odia dishes.[29][30]

Egg, chicken and mutton

Fish and other sea food

Ilishi maachha tarkari
Ilishi maachha tarkari

Smoked Dry sardine after cleaning mix with garlic,green chilly, salt using moter & pistel or mixture grinder. Dry White bait fish (ଚାଉଳି ଶୁଖୁଆ ), dry shrimp (ଚିଙ୍ଗୁଡ଼ି ଶୁଖୁଆ, ତାଂପେଡା ) etc also prepared like this Flake/powdered.

Fritters and fries

For example- jack fruit pithau fry, Brinjal pithau fry, Gourd pithau fry, Kaddu/kakharu flower pithou fry Etc.

Snacks

Dahibara Aludam
Dahibara Aludam

Desserts and sweets

Chenna Poda
Chenna Poda
Rasagola

Drinks

Bela Pana
Bela Pana

There are many traditional alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks which are unique to Odisha. Some are made during specific festivals or as an offering to gods and others are made all year. The drinks which have a thick consistency are usually called pawṇaa (Odia: ପଣା) and the ones with have a watery consistency are usually known as sarbat.[41][42][43] Many of the ethnic tribes[44] of Odisha have their own indigenous drinks made from forest produce. Any drink that contains alcohol is usually called mad (Odia: ମଦ୍) or madaw (Odia: ମଦ).[45][46]

Alcoholic

Cannabis-based

Non-alcoholic

References

  1. ^ Brien, C.O. (2013). The Penguin Food Guide to India. Penguin Books Limited. ISBN 978-93-5118-575-8. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  2. ^ "The coastal edge". The Telegraph (India). 27 March 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  3. ^ a b c d e "From the land of Jagannath". The Hindu. 28 July 2004. Archived from the original on 11 September 2014. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  4. ^ "Not a stereotyped holiday". The Hindu. 10 March 2002. Archived from the original on 22 September 2002. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Charmaine O' Brien (15 December 2013). "Orissa". The Penguin Food Guide to India. Penguin Books Limited. p. 188. ISBN 978-93-5118-575-8. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
  6. ^ Utsa Ray (30 November 2014). Culinary Culture in Colonial India. Cambridge University Press. p. 126. ISBN 978-1-107-04281-0.
  7. ^ a b Rocky Singh; Mayur Sharma (25 July 2014). Highway on my Plate-II: the Indian guide to roadside eating. Random House India. p. 370. ISBN 978-81-8400-642-1.
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2020-02-22. Retrieved 2019-12-02.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
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  10. ^ "New cookery show on TV soon". The Hindu. 23 December 2010.
  11. ^ "Inside Delhi". The Hindu. 11 January 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2014. While savouring Chingudi malai curry (prawns with rich Oriya spices) and kukuda jhola (chicken cooked with spices and egg), the friend soaked in the atmosphere and was transported back to the sight and smell of his native place.
  12. ^ "Pakhala, a hot favourite in Odisha's summer menu". Zee News. 11 April 2010. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i "Oriya cuisine spices up syllabus". The Telegraph (India). 23 February 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h "Yummy fare at Odia food fest". The Hindu. 26 February 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  15. ^ a b "Women vie for kitchen queen title — Contestants cook up mouth-watering dishes at cookery contest". The Telegraph (India). 9 August 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2014. Oriya dishes like khiri, khichdi, kasha mansa were also prepared by the contestants.
  16. ^ "Khechidi". Oriya Kitchen. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
  17. ^ a b "Potpouri" (The Telegraph (India)). 29 July 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  18. ^ "Palau (pulao)". Oriya Kitchen. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
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  21. ^ Bijoylaxmi Hota; Kabita Pattanaik (2007). Healthy Oriya Cuisine. Rupa & Company. p. 29. ISBN 978-81-291-1118-0.
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  23. ^ a b c d "Tasty treat of tangy khatta & spicy tadka". The Telegraph (India). 12 August 2010. Retrieved 11 September 2014. The Odia thali consists of tangy khatta and proceeds further with traditional dishes such as the green and healthy spinach item saga badi.
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  25. ^ "Recipe: Tomato-khajuri khatta". The Times of India. 1 October 2012. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
  26. ^ a b "It's time to pamper your tastebuds". The Telegraph (India). 16 June 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  27. ^ "Coriander Chutney". FullOdisha. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
  28. ^ Lokesh Dash. "Recipes Methi Saga Recipes". OrissaSpider.com. Archived from the original on 15 September 2012. Retrieved 17 February 2018.
  29. ^ "Poda pithas take the cake". The Telegraph (India). 16 June 2011. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  30. ^ "Traditional 'pitha' undergoes a sea change". The Hindu. 14 April 2008. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  31. ^ "Machha Besara (A spicy dish of Rohu fish)". Five Tastes. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
  32. ^ "Machha Mahura (Fish with Mixed Vegetable Curry)". Bewarchi.
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  40. ^ "Attakali". Odia Recipes. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
  41. ^ "Pana Pani Katha : Tales of Summer Drink". Medium. 14 April 2018.
  42. ^ a b c https://odishasuntimes.com/beat-the-heat-in-odisha-with-these-traditional-summer-drinks/
  43. ^ "10 most popular Drink and Beverage in odisha". 4 September 2019.
  44. ^ List of Scheduled Tribes in Odisha
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  46. ^ "Intoxicating Beverages of The Bonda Highlanders". www.etribaltribune.com.
  47. ^ "The popular adivasi food and drink". www.downtoearth.org.in.
  48. ^ "Raise a toast to beer the heat - Demand soars as tipplers get high on alcoholic drink". www.telegraphindia.com.
  49. ^ a b "Beating The Heat: A Sneak Peek Into Exotic Drinks Of Odisha". outlookindia.com.

Further reading