Murunda dynasty
c. 2nd century CE–c. 3rd century CE
Find spots and places of issue of the Murunda inscriptions
Historical eraClassical India
• Established
c. 2nd century CE
• Disestablished
c. 3rd century CE
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Mahameghavahana dynasty
Nagas of Vindhyatabi
Gupta Empire

The Murunda dynasty ruled in the Utkal region of modern Odisha in eastern India during 2nd and 3rd centuries CE. Their territory included parts of the area around the northern districts of coastal Odisha. They appear to have succeeded the Mahameghavahana dynasty and then replaced by Nagas of Vindhyatabi and the Gupta Empire.


The following members of the Murunda family are known:


The Murunda dynasty likely ruled Utkala around the 2nd century and 3rd century CE.


Much of the information about King Gana is known from the Bhadrak inscription[1][2] which was issued in the 8th regnal year during his reign. The inscription was found near Bhadrakali Temple which brought there from the neighbouring village.[3] The language of the inscription is in Prakrit written in Middle or Kushana Brahmi script. The inscription refers to the land grant given by Maharaja Gana to the residents of Panida.[4]


Dhamadamadhara ruled over the region in around 3rd century CE. Under his reign, it has been noted that there were important diplomatic relations between Kalinga and Funan. The Funan kingdom was co-founded by the merchant Kaundinya I from Kalinga when he married the Funanese princess Soma.[5] During 3rd cen CE, King Dhamadamadhara (Dharmatamadharasya) received the envoy Su-Wu representing King Fan Chan of Funan (225-250 CE) at the port of Tamralipti.[6][7] Dhamadamadhara's rule over Kalinga is also attested from the discovery of a gold coin from Sisupalgarh, on whose obverse his name has been inscribed. The king presented the envoy Su-Wu with four horses and it quite likely there were strong trade and cultural interactions between the two kingdoms.[5]


Find spot Issued by Regnal year Purpose
Bhadrak Gana 8 Grant


  1. ^ Mohanty, Prafulla Kumar (2015), "Growth of Urban Society in Early Odisha", Proceedings of the Indian History Congress, Indian History Congress, 76: 114, JSTOR 44156572
  2. ^ Sircar, Dineshchandra (January 1951), "No. 23 — BHADRAK INSCRIPTION OF GANA ; REGNAL YEAR 8", in Chhabra, Bahadur Chand (ed.), Epigraphia Indica Volume 29, Archaeological Survey of India, pp. 169–174, EAN·UCC-13 5010010006895, retrieved 14 April 2021
  3. ^ Sircar 1951, p. 170.
  4. ^ Sircar 1951, p. 174.
  5. ^ a b Benudhar Patra (November 2011), Kalinga and Funan : A Study in Ancient Relations (PDF), Orissa Review, retrieved 4 April 2021
  6. ^ Pelliot, Paul (1903). "Le Fou-nan". Bulletin de l'École française d'Extrême-Orient (in French). 3: 292. doi:10.3406/befeo.1903.1216. Retrieved 12 April 2021.
  7. ^ Coedès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella (ed.). The Indianized States of Southeast Asia (PDF). trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 46–47. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1.