Pitrbhakta dynasty
c. 5th century CE–c. 6th century CE
Find spots of the Pitrbhakta inscriptions
CapitalSimhapura
Religion
Hinduism
GovernmentMonarchy
Historical eraClassical India
• Established
c. 5th century CE
• Disestablished
c. 6th century CE
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Mathara dynasty
Vasishtha dynasty
Eastern Ganga dynasty

The Pitrbhakta (IAST: Pitṛbhakta) dynasty ruled in the Kalinga region of eastern India in the fifth century CE. Their territory included parts of the present-day northern Andhra Pradesh and the southern Odisha. They probably overthrew the Mathara dynasty.

History

The actual name of the family is not certain. The inscriptions of its kings describe them as pitṛabhaktaḥ (devotee of their fathers), which modern scholars have taken to be a dynastic appellation.[1]

Umavarman

Umavarman is the earliest known king of the dynasty. Epigraphic evidence suggests that he overthrew the Mathara king Anantashaktivarman.[2] Mātṛvara, a Simhapura-based royal officer held the office of deśākṣapatalādhikṛta under the Mathara king Anantashaktivarman. Later, he held the same office under the Pitrbhakta king Umavarman, as attested by two grants of Umavarman. These two grants were issued from Simhapura during Umavarman's regnal years 30 and 40. Both describe the king as the Kalingadhipati ("Lord of Kalinga"), unlike his earlier grants. Both mention Mātṛvara as Umavarman's deśākṣapatalādhikṛta.[3] Anantashaktivarman thus seems to have been a rival of Umavarman.[4]

Umavarman's last known inscription (the one issued in regnal year 40) mentions his son Vasushenaraja. This prince is not mentioned in any other source. The inscription records the creation of a new agrahara named after Kalinga; the agrahara was granted to a brahmana of the Vasishtha gotra.[3]

The find spots of Umavarman's inscriptions, and the localities mentioned in them, are all situated in present-day Ganjam (southern part), Srikakulam, and Visakhapatnam districts.[4]

Nandaprabhanjanavarman

The next known Pitrbhakta king is Nandaprabhanjanavarman. He issued grants from Sarapallika, Vardhamanapura and Simhapura. All three inscriptions describe him as Sakala-Kalingadhipati ("Lord of the whole of Kalinga").[4] The only other person in the region to use this title was the Mathara king Prabhanjanavarman. Because of this, some scholars believe them to be contemporary rulers. However, historical evidence suggests that Nandaprabhanjanavarman was a later ruler.[5]

The Ragolu inscription of Nandaprabhanjanavarman, issued from Simhapura, records a land grant in the Ragolaka village (modern Ragolu). An inscription of the Mathara king Shaktivarman records the creation of an agrahara in the same village. This further suggests that Pitrbhaktas succeeded the Matharas as the rulers of this region.[5]

Chandavarman

Chandavarman is the next known Pitrbhakta ruler. He bore the title Kalingadhipati ("Lord of Kalinga"), and was a devotee of Vishnu.[5] Mātṛvara's son Rudradatta served as his deśākṣapatalādhikṛta.[6]

Vishakhavarman

A king named Vishakhavarman, known only from one inscription, ruled the Paralakhemundi area (in present-day Gajapati district) in the late 5th century. His Koroshanda inscription has close palaeographical and phraseological similarities with the Pitrbhakta inscriptions. Specifically, the inscription describes him as a devotee at the feet of his father. This suggests that he was a contemporary of the Pitrbhaktas or ruled immediately after their fall from Simhapura. The inscription was issued from Shripura, which has been variously identified as Siripuram in the Vishakhapatnam district and the Batia Sripura village. The second identification is more plausible, as Batia Sripura is located near Koroshanda, the find spot of the inscription. Vishakhavarman did not bear the title "Lord of Kalinga". The Batia Sripura identification suggests that his rule was limited to the southern part of the present-day Ganjam district.[6]

The Koroshanda inscription records the grant of a village named Tampoyaka in the Korasodaka panchali (administrative division). Tampoyaka can be identified with the present-day Tampa village, while Korasodaka can be identified with the find-spot Koroshanda.[7]

One theory traces the name of Vishakhapatnam to this king, who may have built the Vishakhasvamin temple here. However, this is no concrete evidence to support this assumption.[7]

Vishakhavarman was probably overthrown by the Eastern Gangas, who had captured the region by the 6th century CE.[7]

List of rulers

The following members of the family are known:[8]

The exact relationship between these rulers is uncertain.[6]

Inscriptions

The following copper-plate inscriptions of the Pitrbhakta kings are known:[9]

Find spot Issued by Issued from Regnal year
Baranga Umavarman Sunagara 6
Tekkali Umavarman Vardhamanapura (modern Vadama near Palakonda) 9
Davalapeta Umavarman Sunagara
Unknown (mentions Brhatprostha locality) Umavarman Simhapura (modern Singupuram) 30
Temburu Umavarman Simhapura 40
Srikakulam Nandaprabhanjanavarman Sarapallika (modern Saripialli in Vizianagaram district)
Baranga Nandaprabhanjanavarman Vardhamanapura 15
Ragolu Nandaprabhanjanavarman Simhapura 24
Bobbili Chandavarman Simhapura 4
Komarthi Chandavarman Simhapura 6
Koroshanda (Kharasanda) Vishakhavarman (possibly a Pitrbhakta king) Shripura 7

All the records are in Sanskrit language, written in a southern variety of the Brahmi script.[10]

References

  1. ^ Snigdha Tripathy 1997, pp. 10–11.
  2. ^ Dilip Kumar Ganguly 1975, p. 225.
  3. ^ a b Snigdha Tripathy 1997, p. 11.
  4. ^ a b c Snigdha Tripathy 1997, p. 12.
  5. ^ a b c Snigdha Tripathy 1997, p. 13.
  6. ^ a b c Snigdha Tripathy 1997, p. 14.
  7. ^ a b c Snigdha Tripathy 1997, p. 15.
  8. ^ Snigdha Tripathy 1997, pp. 10–13.
  9. ^ Snigdha Tripathy 1997, p. xi, 11-14.
  10. ^ Snigdha Tripathy 1997, pp. 17–18.

Bibliography

  • Dilip Kumar Ganguly (1975). Historical Geography and Dynastic History of Orissa, Up to the Rise of the Imperial Gaṅgas. Punthi Pustak. OCLC 2376032.
  • Snigdha Tripathy (1997). Inscriptions of Orissa. I - Circa 5th-8th centuries A.D. Indian Council of Historical Research and Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 978-81-208-1077-8.